Skip to main content

Full text of "Miscellaneous Notes and Queries"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



L iff^- 

Sarbarti CoUegt I^ibrarg 

/; £5^,/if>?x- lJtiJu.,i^fS- 


3.x Z S C ^ X4 Xj ./^ STB OTT3 




" Rich is that universal self whom Thou worshipest as the Soul.'* — Vedas. 

Vol. XI. 


C. <Sc l_. M. GOULD, 


TxTfe^-i ^^■ 

l, Ifft^- 


Satiaiti ffollegc fLibrat!! 

I) s^,mz- I £)^,/ffS. 


Hs/f Z S C S 31^ Zld .^i. ]^:E3 OIU 




" Rich is that universal self whom Thou worshipest as the Soul.'* — Vedas, 

Vol. XI. 


C. <Sc l_. M. GOULD, 






} ^ , 

l3(^ wtf vJ^ 
TV '3t '4> 




JA J^ ^If 
^ 7r C(y 

IP 12/ E F -A- O 

The wheels of times have again completed a revolution, and to one 
and all the past year has been a remarkable one, both in a mental 
and physical point of view. All nations of the earth have met at an 
important center in the American nation and paid their respects to 
each other and become better acquainted. This is one of the great- 
est events in the history of the whole world, a step toward peace with 
all nations. Literature has been extended in all its departments^ and 
mankind are becoming mor^ and more enlightened and intelligent. 

Bryant says : " Knowledge is the material with which Genius builds 
her fabrics. The greater its abundance, the more power is required 
to dispose it into order and beauty, but the more vast and magnificent 
will be the structure." 

Knowledge is just like the sun in the heavens, inviting us to noble 
deeds, and lighting our path. 

Every department of trade, art, science, language, commerce, etc., 
has its organ and exponent. But we know of but one periodical on 
this continent that at present has the field to receive and answer such 
question that will always arise in all classes of literature^ and that is 
Notes and Queries. It has maintained the even tenor of its way for 
eleven years, and is ready to commence its twelfth volume for 1894. 
We doubt if there is in existence another such series of volumes, con- 
taining such a variety of subjects of so peculiar a nature. 

The index to this volume like its predesessors shows a very large 
range of subjects that have been mentioned^ discussed and enlarged 
upon. And yet our stock awaiting is even now large. Future vol- 
umes will contain much that has scarcely been mentioned heretofore. 
The first twelve-month volumes were less than two hundred pages 
each, while this last annual volume numbers three hundred pages. 

We hope at the close of the next volume to publish a complete in- 
pex to the then twelve volumes. 

Our kind thanks are hereby expressed to our many contributors and 
patrons^ many of whom have continued from the first volume. 

S. a Sc L. M. GOULD, Publishers. 
Manchester. N. H., December, 1893. 

Poems, Hymns, Etc., Vol. XL 


Address to Egyptian Mummy, 

Alabaster Sarcophagus, 99 

Answer of Egyptian Mummy, 97 

Ben and Dan, 49 

Christmas Carols^ 142 

Columbus, 137 

Deed of Mount Chocorua, 254 

Epitaph in Norfolk, 222 

Homer, Stanzas on, m 

John Knox, 68 

Man, 113 

Master Eckhart's Sermon, 212 
Mother Goose, Classical, 280 
Old Sayings, 279 

Perry's Victory, 266, 268 

Poet and Cook, Recipe, 37 

Quotation, "Course of Time," 230 
Riddle^ 222 

Sat, how pronounced, 90 

Thanatopsis, original version, 198 
" Thirty days hath September," 
Winter Weather Walking, 105 

Quotations for Mottoes in Volume XI, 1893. 

If you would have your Light shine, set it in a dark place. 283 

In order, next to the Paternal Mind, I, Psyche, dwell, animating 

all. 77 

In the friction of minds there must be scintillations of Light. 155 

Mathematics is the science which draws necessary conclusions. 249 

Neither height nor depth can measure the possibilities of the hu- 
man Soul loi 

Number, weight, and measure, are the foundations of all exact 

science. 225 

Rich is that universal self whom Thou worshipest as the soul. Cover. 

Time and Space are but inverse measures of the Force of the Soul, i 

Thou and I, the one thing ; before me, thou ; that after thee, 1. 1 79 

The action of the Iliad is centrifugal ; that of the Odyssey, cen- 
tripetal. 131 

The human soul is infinitely richer than it is itself aware of. 203 

The Gods desire the depth and not the tumult ot the Soul. 29 

The greatest disease of the Soul is ungodliness and ignorance of 

God. S3 

Questions and Answers. 

Total number of questions, Vols. I to X, . 

Number of questions. Vol. XI 

Total number of questions, Vols. I to XL . 
Number of questions unanswered. Vols. I to XI, 
Number of questions answered, Vols. I to XI, 







AaroD'a rod tiiat budded, 201. 

Abgarus and Jesas, correspondence, 112, 114. 

Ace, origin of word, 104. 

Address, Noble Grand and Most Noble, 58, 

Address to au Egyptian Mumoiy, 96, 121. 

Aeapse, or love teasts, 193. 

Ahinian Rezon, Masonic constitution, 251. 

Alabaster Sarcopbagui», 99, 124. 

Albigenses, the novel. 201. 

Alcyone, the Grand Central Sun, 233, 258. 

Algebra and arithmetic, Books in India, 88. 

Alphabet, words, meaning of, 221. 

Amen, Ammon, 132. 133. 

American Bibles, odd, 228. 

American early printing, 217. 

America!) novel, first, 108. 

Amphictyon, Amphitryon, 274. 

Amyclas, city perished in silence, 174. 

Ancient and Honourable, 182, 215. 

Ancient and Veteran Odd Fellow, 1 1. 

Ancient aitronomy, 93. 

Andro-meda, Andro-mache, names, 80. 

Andria (Alex), (Scam), 80. 

Answer of the Egyptian Mummy, 97, 122. 

Apocryphal boolu, lost, 390. 

Aram and the Stranser, parable, 84. 

Aij ana Society, MancheHter,N.H.,129, 152,177. 

Arjana, who was he ? 153. 

Arts, lost, 289. 

Ash. Chesil, Cbima, translations, 237, 

Astronomy, ancient, 93, 297. 

Atlantis, lost, 289. 

Attcuks, Grispus^ 108. 

Autobiography of a Note, 163. 

Azazel, scapegoat, 219. 

Bagster, Charles B., deceased, 151. 

Ba^er tribes and arrangements of fours, 260. 

Barbarians. 168. 

Barcan, or Borean desert, 216. 

Bavaria and Samaria, 109. 

" Ben and Dan,*' legend of Old Nutfield, 49. 

Bequest, curious, 2^. 

Berkeley, bishop, quotation on, 222, 

Bethlehem Star, 269. 

Bible and Shakespeare, 199. 

Bibles, odd American, 228. 

Biblical questions, five, 26. 

Bibliography, Faithists* literature, 64. 

BJiJa Ganita and Lilavati, mathematics, 88. 

Bishop as cook and poet, recipe, 37l 

Bissextile year, 59. 

Bonfire, origin of, 175. 

Books of the Bible, lost, 289. 

Bourn, meaning, Shakespeare, 222. 

Breeches Bible, 105. 

" Bringing a cure for all our ills," 69. 

Bnddha*s commandments, 169. 

Bttddha, names of, 115. 

Burroughs, Stephen, 271. 

Calyinism, five points, 94. 

Cantab, 108. 

Cards, Tarot, descriptions, 165, 179. 

Carvatides, 12. 

Caaket Homer, Alexander's edition. 164. 

Catalogue of Thomas Taylor's works, 21. 

Catechism, M or N in, 138. 

Categories, 272. 

Cause, lost, 290. 

Center of y ravity of the universe, 248. 

Chapter of Genesis, lost, 291. 

Chapitre MetropoliUiu of France, degrees, 139 

Cliaracters in Shake9i>eare, table, 103. 

Cherubim and banner tribes, 257, 260. 

Che»il, Chima, Ash, translations, 237. 

Chiide the hunter, 171. 

Children ofthe Sun, 108. 

Chima, Chesil, Ash, translations, 237. 

Chord, lost, 291. 

Christian, Jew, and Parsee, 87. 

Christmas Carols, list of eighty-nine, 142. 

Cincinnati, Society of, 13. 

Circles please the eye, 197. 

Circumcision, 175. 

City of New England, lost, 291. 

City perished in silence. Amyclas, 174. 

Coincidences, remarkable. HI, 172, 214, 229. 

Color, Form. Movement, 29. 

Columbian Series of Postage Stamps, 66. 

" Columbus," school-boy's poem, 137. 

Commandments of Buddha, 169. 

Common superstitions, 224 1-2. 

Consubstantiation, 215. 

GonversMtion parties, 114. 

Correspondence, Abgarus and Jesus, 112| 114. 

Creation legend, 109, 285. 

Criticisms on Silas Beach's article, 187. 

Criticisms, property of numbers, 27. 

Criticisms, Truth theLawof Consciencei 101. 

Curious bequest, 229. 

Days primitive length, 2i3. 

Decimal coinage, 170. 

Deed of Mount Chocorua, in verse, 254. 

Degrees, masonry, 138, 139. 258. 

Degree of latitude, 220. 

DeMedici, C Maries, correspondence, 153. 

Derivation of the word.n Ahtmau Rezon, 251. 

Derivation of word Mai^on, 1. 

Desire of all nations, 27. 

Dieskeuasts, 210. 

Dlgammu, 209. 

Dlopetes, image fallen from Jupiter, 140. 

Divinity of soul, quotation, 105. 

Dragon's head and tail, 256. 

Earth's lost history, 291. 

English language, 9. 

Egg Problem, 36. 

Egyptian Mummy, Addref^s to, 96, 1£1. 

Egyptian Mummy, Answer of, 97, 122. 

Eighth wonder of the world, 94. 

Election sermons. New Hampshire, 67. 

Elementals, 150. 

Elephaz l^vl, 133, i:i4. 

Enchanted cock, 114. 

Enigma, puzzle, riddle, 222, 223, 253. 

Epitaph in Norfolk, 222. 

Equanimity and magnanimily, 277. 

Equinoxes, precession, 272. 

Erchomenos 65, 

C VI) 

£8cnrlAl, eight wonder of the world, M. 
Euphrates and the Kile. 201. 
Xvil communicationp, etc., quotation, 175. 
Ezercifiie, words similar in sound, 91. 
Ezra and Zoroaster, 41. 

Fagot parties, 114. 

Faltblsts' literature, bibliography, 61. 

Figures of Speecb, 7. 

First American novel, 108. 

First Neo-Platoiiist, Plotiiuts, 216. 

Five points of Calvinism, 94. 

Flora Yirgillana, 182. 

Folk-lore, 279, 280. 

Fortune, table of. 13. 

Forty-five men, 136. 

Freemasoi>ry and the Secret Discipline, 23. 

Freshman's puzzle, 223. 

Genesis, Hebrew word for, 277. 

Gerenian knight, Nestor, 216. 

Generation of men as leaves, quotation, 160. 

Golden Rule degree, O. F., quotation, 57. 

Grammatical heptad, 260. 

Grand Central 8un in the Pleiades, 233, 268. 

Great lakes, size of. 197. 

Gulf Stream, theory of, 226. 

Hand writing on the wall, 76. 

Harpocration. 274. 

Heaven within the solar orb. 194. 

Hebrew for generis, 277. 

Hebrew names, 231. 

Hieroglyph, 89. 

Hieroglyphics on the obelisk, 42. 

Histones of America, lost, 291. 

Ho Arelos Pagos, Mars Hill, 66. 

Homer and tbe sibyl, 137. 

Homer sometimes nods, quotation, 136. 

Homer, stanzas on. 111. 

Homer of dramatic poets, Shakespeare, 160. 

Homer, the name, 183. 

Homers, modem, 181. 

Homeric Club, Manchester, N. H., 127, 164. 

Homeric Club library, 138, 164. 

Homeric literature, 128, 164. 

Hornbook, 12. 

How much can a person read? 207. 

Huldah, the sibyl, 69. 

Fyades, Pleiades, 234. 

Hypnotism, mesmerism, psychology, 110. 

Icolsan calculus, and game, 148. 
Iliad and Odyssey, observations, 208. 
Iliad in a nutshell, 162, 177. 
Iliads, modem, 161. 
Image ikllen from Jupiter, 140. 
Immortals, eighty-six, 94. 
Indian names, 300. 
Inscriptions, singular, 8. 
Isabella, Queen of Spain, 185. 
Island, lost, 292. 
Israelitish names, S6. 
Irony, 278. 

Jasher and Enoch, books of, 289. 

Jesuits, origin of name, 176. 

Jesus and Abganis, correspondence, 112, 114. 

Jerusalem, ancient name, 104. 

Jew, Parsee, and Christian, 87. 

Job, addenda, Irom Syrian book, 236* 

John Knox, poem without the letter e, 68. 

Kaowledge and wisdom, 3. 
Knowledge of the central sun, lost, 290. 

Land of Nod, Silas Beach*s home, 187. 

lAngnagefi, monosyllabic, 256. 

Latituue, degree of, 220. 

Law of least effort, 110. 

Legend of creation, 109, 285. 

Legend or Old NutfieM, poem- 49. 

Legend of St. Chrintopber, 66. 

Liberating the soul, quotation, 106. 

Light-yeiirs, t:ible of, 241. 

LiTavati and BUa-Ganita, India, books, 88, 

Line, trlsection of, 126. 

Lines on Alabaster Sarcophagus, 99, 124. 

Literature on the Lost, 2SQ, 

Long names, 232. 

Lost Hiffn of Zodiac, 107, 138, 269, 294. 

Lost (the), literature pertaining to, 289. 

Love feasts, or agap«3, 193. 

Luminous writing. 114. 

Macroprosopus and Microprosopus, 252. 

Magi, number of, 249. 

Magic triple diamonds, 266. 

Magnanimity and equanimity, 277. 

Mahar-sbalal-bash-baz, 68. 

Mahal-, Hechu-, Methu-, names, 231. 

Man, poem, 113. 

Manuscript, lost, 262. 

Marclon, 274. 

Mars HUI, Ho Areios Pagos, 66. 

Massabesic, original name, 276. 

Mason, derivation of word, 1. 

Masonry in middle ages, 232. 

Masonry, points in, 10. 

Masonry, symbolic, origin of, fiOO. 

Master Eckhart's Sermon, poem, 212. 

Mazzaroth, 237, 257. 

Memoranda of towns of N. H., 4. 45, 61. 

Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin, 76. 

Mephistophilua, 169. 

Meosouraneo and Mazzarotb, 267. 

Messiali, Pope's, quotation, G. B deg., 67. 

Metempsychosis, 276. 

Microprosopuf and Macroprosopus, 252. 

Middle ages. Masonry In, 232. 

Missing link, lost, 292. 

Modern Homers. 131. 

Modem Iliads, 161. 

Monosyllabic languages, 266. 

M on N in the catechism, 138. 

Moon and shield, 230. 

Most Noble and Noble Grand, address, 58. 

Mother €k>ose rhymes, English and Latin,280. 

Mount Ghocoma, deed of. In verse, 254. 

Mount of Footprints, 117. 

Myriogenesis, 107. 

Nabathean secrets, Silas Beach's art., 187. 

Names ending in ology, ryon, tyon, tlon, 221. 

Names, Hebrew, twins, 231. 

Names, Israelitish, 35. 

Names, long. 232. 

Names of Buddha, 115. 

Name of Hotner. 185. 

Nameless bard, 216. 

Napoleonic Masonry, degrees, 138. 

Nature's Unveiling, bv J. M. Wade, 164, 184. 

Neo-Platonist, first, Plotinus, 216. 

New Albion, 10. 

New Hampshire election sermons, 67. 

( VII ) 

New Haini>sblre towns, memoranda, 4, 45, 61, 

Kew Odyssey of the Spanish Homer, 162. 

New Pr'>phecy, name, 18*2. 

Hew Testament, religions in, 220. 

New word^, piano fact urer, -ographer, 253, 

Nile aDd the Euphrates, 201. 

Nimrod, who was he? 195. 

Noble Grand and Most Noble, address, 58. 

Nomine virginis, senigma, 253. 

Norembega, 291. 

Note, aatobiographv of, 163, 

Number of the Magi, 249. 

Oaths, sacred, 276. 

Obelisk, hieroglyphicfl on, 42. 

Observationf) on Iliad and Odyssey, 208. 

Oceanides, 234. 

Odd Fellow, Ancient, and Veteran, IT. 

Odd Fellowship, ritualistic, 57. 

Odyssens, Ulysses, 68. 

Ogdoad, eight, 216. 

Old Nutfleld, legend of, poem, 49. 

Old sayings, 279. 

Only escaped to tell thee, quotation, 168. 

Obi; hundred, how made, 13. 

Ontology, 193. 

Origin of bonfire, 175. 

Origin of name Jesuits, 176. 

Origin of nterHng, 11. 

Origin of Symbolic Masonry, 100. 

Origin of word ace, 104. 

Origin of word philopena, 251. 

Original version of Thanatopsis, 198. 

FftUndrome, Roma tibi, etc., 199. 

Parable of Aram and the Stranger, 84. 

Paradise Lost, 292. 

Panee, Jew, and Christian, 87. 

Psths of wisdom thirty-two, 286. 

Penelope, game of the suitors, 210. 

Pentad of theology, 250. 

Perry's Victory, songs, 266, 268. 

Philosophy from the '* Red Book," 164, 184. 

Philopena, origin of word, 261. 

Ptanofacturer, -ographer, new words, 263. 

Plato's number, 292. 

Platonist, Thomas Taylor*8 workn, 21. 

Pleiad, lost, 293. 

Pleiades, the Grand Central Sun, 233, 258. 

Personal pronoun, lost, 293. 

Plotinus, first Nee-Platonist, 216. 

Points in masonry, 10. 

Political or social, words of Plato, 136. 

Popes named Alexander, 109, 

Pottage Stamps, Columbian Series, 56. 

Prayer to Father Jove, 114. 

Precession of the equinoxes, 272. 

Presidential, historical coincidences. 111. 

Printing in America, 217. 

Pronunciation of word " sit," 90. 

Property of numbers, criticisms, 27. 

Psychozoia, meaning, 3. 

Pulitzer's lucky number, 229. 

Puzzle, magic triple diamonds, 265. 

^uarteroentenary and -centenial, 90. 

jueen Isabella of Spain, 136. 

juotttion from " Course of time," 230. 

Quotation, Golden Rule degree, O. P., 57. 
Quotation, mastodons and el 'phante, 90. 
Quotation on Bishnp Berkeley, 222. 

Rathburn, Ruth, 278. 

Reading, how much can a person read, 207. 

Recipe, biMhnp as cook and poet. 37. 

*' Red Book," philosophy from, 161, 184. 

Regeneration, 275. 

Reincarnation, 275. 

Religion ami Hum. 215. 

ReligiouH in New Testament, 220. 

Remarkable coincidences, 111, 172,214,229. 

Riddleof Riddles, 281. 

Riddle, unsolved, 222. 

Ritualistic Odd Fellowship, 57. 

Ruth Rathburn, 278. 

Sabbath-day's journey, 273. 

Sacred oaths, 276. 

Saint Christopher, legeud of, 55. 

Saint Patrick, 60. 

Sambatyon, 274. 

Sarcophagus, Alabaster, Lines on, 99, 124. 

Sat, set, sit, etc., 90. 

Scapegoat, Azazei, 218. 

Sea-girt land. 110. 

Secret Dicsipline and Freemasonry , 53. 

Sciences, loMt, 294. 

Senses, lost, 294. 

Seven-hilled city, 110. 

Seventy disciples, names of, 81. 

Shakespeare and the Bible, 199. 

Shakespe irlan table, principal character8,103. 

Shlloh. 26. 

Sibyl and Homer, 137. 

Sibyl, Huldah, 59. 

Sibylline oracles, lost, 294. 

Sibyls and Sirens, 109. 

Signs of Zodiac and tribal allotments, 261. 

Signs of Zodiac and Urim and Thummim,262. 

Signs of Zodiac in the languagesi, 263, 264. 

*< SilaA Beach," discoveries of, 187. 

Size of our great lakes. 197. 

Society of Cincinnati, 13. 

Social or political, wordu used by Plato, 136. 

Socrates, Scholastlcus, 194 - 

Solar system of the ancients, lost, 394. 

Soiispes, who they were, 218. 

Spanish Homer, New Odysssy of, 162. 

Speech, figures of, 7. 

Spirit, Soul, lk>dy, 29. 

Stark's stake, 300. 

Star, lost, 294. 

Star of Bethlehem, 269. 

Star out of Jacob, 26. 

Stellar System, sun and the earth, 203 . 

Stem of Jesse, 27. 

Stephen Burroughs, 271. 

Sterling, origin of, 11. 

Stone which the builders re^jected, 147. 

Stranger and Aram, parable, 84. 

Suflsm, 150. 

Superstitions, common, 224 1-2. 

Sun and the Earth, stellar Mrtttem, 203. 

Symbolic Masonry, origin of, 200. 

Tables of Signs of Zodiac, 261, 262, 263, 264. 
Table of fortune, 13. 
Table of light-years, 241. 
Tales of Miletus, lost, 296. 
Talisman from name Telamon, 105. 
Tarot, cards, description, 155, 179. 
Taxo, who was he? 227. 
Taylor, Thomas, works of, 21. 
Tenth muse, 278. 

( VIII ) 

Testament of 12 PatriarchB, Reuben, 17. 

" •♦ '• Simeon, 39. 

" " *• Levi, 69. 

f« " '» Jttdah,l45. 

Tetragrammaton, 296. 
Thamuditefl, 106. 

ThanatopsiR, rtriginal vemion, 196. 
Thcodotion, Harpocration, 274. 
Theological pentad, 250. 
Theosophic poem, " Ben and Dan,*' 49. 
Theory of ttie Gulf Stream, 225. 
Thereltee, the deformed Greek at Troy, 211, 
Three days of grace, 170. 
Thiity-two pathn of wisdom, 286. 
Towns of New Hampshire, 4, 45, 61. 
Translallons, Ash Cheftil, Cbima, 231. 
Transmigration, 276. 
Tribes of Israel, lost, 296. 
Trisection of a given line, 126. 
Truth the Law of Conscience, 77. 

Ulysses, Odysseus, 68. 

Universal inequality, law of creation, 256. 

Variety is the spioe of life, quotation, 258, 
Velocity of the sun through space, 245. 
Veteran and Ancient Odd Fellow. 11. 
Veteran Odd Fellows, anniversary poem, 49. 
Virgin's name, enigma on, 253. 

Wajite-baaket of words, 224 3-4. 

Why circles please the eye, 197. 

Winter weather walking, 105. 

Wisdom, thirty-two paths, 286. 

Wonderful, 26. 

Word, lost. 296. 

Words ending in clon, and onymous, 221. 

Zimbabye, description of, 117. 

Zodiac, lost sign of. 107, 138, 259, 294. 

Zodiac, Mazzaroth. 233. 257, 261 , 262, 263, 264. 

Zodiac, idgns of, tables, 261, 262, 263, 264. 

Zoroaster and Ezra, 41. 

Zoroaster mentioned in scriptures, 195. 

Correspondents. Ncumes and Koms de Plume, 


A. B., 116. Achsah,91. A. E. G., 96. A. 
£. S., 92. Agla, 91. Alexander, 91, 132, 178. 
Alice, 38. Andrew, 93, 202. Angelina, 92. 

Bagster. C. B., 80. Buckley, 55. 

Carlos, 91. Calchas, 266. C. B. S., 110, 178. 
C. B. B., 10. Glassicas, 38. Clovis. 178. 
Coleman, Wm. Emmette, 184. C. K. H., 105. 
Chaney, W. H., 300. 

DeMedici, Charles, 103, 153. DeWolfe, 202. 
Drury, David M., 11, 16, 104, 214, 215. Dry- 
den, 160. 

E. D. C, 178. Edouard, 116, 277. Elwyn, 
116, 273. Elephantine, 91. Enora, 116. Eth- 
nos, 116. Eugene H., 139. 

G„ 113. G. C. S., 95. Gholson, J. G., 16, 
133. 215. G. S. M , 90. Goaiwin, Hale, 10. 

H., 279. Henrv, 38. H. E. R.. 224. H.H., 
92,116.178. Herbert, 224. Hoosier, 224. 
H. W. H., 300. 

Initiate, 224. Inquirer, 92. 193. lona, 2.'M). 
Irvine, A. A., 278. Israel, 116, 138. 

James, 104. J. H. C, 136. J.J. J., 178. 
J. M. B., 253. Jonathan, 38. J. S., 28. Jus- 
tice, 150. Julius, 92. Justus. 92. 

King, Alex., 95. King, C. T., 16. Knox, 
John, 68. 

L., 202, 2-20. Le Barron, Marie, 29. Lewis, 
Waldo K,, 272. Llewellyn. 178, 224. L. L., 

91, Leon, 224. L. O. T.. 14. Logos. 16. 38» 
59, 91, 92, 116,. 168, 195, 202. Lovewell, 67. 
Louis, 116. Lowell, 95. 

M„ HI, 116. Mason. 178. Mathers, 8. L. 
Macgregnr, 165, 179. Mummlns, 97. 122, 

N. P. S., 99, 124. Nomen, 81. Notos, 163. 
Novice, 10, 11, 136. 

O., 92, 202. Obeerver. 224. O. H. L., 92. 
Olive, 138. Orlando. 251. 
' Philo. 16, 178. Philobiblion, 16, 38. PhiUp, 
95. Possessor, 16. 

Ransom, Mrs. Allen, 168, 169, 170, 171. 175, 
176, 177. Reader, 194, 216. R. K. D., 16, 202. 
Resident, 178. 224. 

Searcher, 38. Selwyn, 220. S. K.R., 91. 
Smith. Horace, 96, 121. Student, 16, 38, 96. 

T. H. 8., 202. Theon, 202. Typo, 96. 
Tyro, 12, 88. 

U. S.,»5. 

Van Dieman, Jacob, 91. Vaughan. R. A. ,36. 

W., 91. Wade, J. M., 164, IW. Want It. 
17a Webster, Justus. 266. Whipple, John 
P.. 225. Who. 91. Wilder, A.. 13, 65, 68, 106, 
106, 108, 109, 110. 256. William K., 92. 

W. K. 8., 91. Went, 300. 

X..38,91.95, 134, 178, 224. 

Yarker, John, 53, 200. 

Z., 116. Zoe, 195. 

J\rotes and Queries. lS^S-1893. 

Volumes I and II, July, 1882, to December, 1885, contain 
III and IV, 1886 and 1887, 
V and VI, 1888 and 1889, 
VII and VIII, 1890 and 1891, . 
XI and X, 1892, .... 

XI, for 1893, 

Total pages, 2,604. 








pp. 672 
'' 446 


" 300 


( 1 ) V Ji_^892 



• ♦•» » 

m. C. C^OUl^D £<lltor. 

'* Time and Space are hid inverse measures of the Force of the SouV* 

— Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

Vol. XI. ' JANUARY,. 1893. No. 1. 

Derivation of the Word Mason. 

The search for the etymology or derivation of the word Mason has 
given rise to numerous theories, some of them ingenious, but many of 
them very absurd. Thus a writer in the European Magazine, for Feb- 
ruary, 1792, who signs his name as George Drake, lieutenant of ma- 
rines, attempts to trace the Masons to the Druids, and derives Mason 
from May's on, May's being in reference to May-day^ the great festi- 
val of the Druids, and on meaning men, as in the French on dtt, for 
homme dii. According to this, May's on therefore means the Men of 
May, But this idea is not original with Drake, since the same deriva- 
tion was urged in 1766 by Cleland, in his essays on "The Way to 
Things in Words," and on " Tl e Real Secret of Freemasons." 

Hutchinson, in his search for a derivation, seems to have been per- 
plexed with a variety of roots that presented themselves, and being 
inclined to believe that the name of Mason '* has its derivation from 
a language in which it implies some strong indication or distinction of 
the nature of the society, and that it has no relation to architects," 
looks for the root in the Greek tongue. Thus he thinks that Mason 
may come from Mao Saon, Mao Soon, " I seek salvation," or from 
Mystes, " an initiate " ; and that Masonry is only a corruption of the 
Greek word Mesouraneo, " I am in the midst of heaven " ; or from 
Mazourouth, '* Mazzaroth," a constellation mentioned by Job (xxxviii, 
32), translated "the twelve signs" in the margin; or from Mysterion, 
** a mystery." 

Lessing says, in his "Ernst and Falk," that Masa, in the Anglo- 

( 2) 

Saxon, signifies " a table,** and that Masonry^ consequently, may be 
said to be " a society of the table." 

Nicolai thinks he finds the root in the Low Latin word of the 
Middle Ages, Masonya^ or Masonia, which signifies an exclusive soci- 
ety or club, such as that of the round-table. 

Charles W. Moore, in the Freemasons' Monthly Magazine^ May, 
1844, derives Mason from Lithoiomos, " a stone cutter." But although 
fully aware of the elasticity of etymological rules, it surpasses our in- 
genuity to get Mason etymologically out of Lithotomos, 

Giles F. Gates sought for the derivation of Mason in the Greek 
word MazoneSy a festival of Dionysius, and he thought that this was 
another proof of the lineal descent of the Dionysian Architects. 

Wm. S. Rockwell, who was accustomed to find all his Masonry in the 
Egyptian Mysteries and who was a devoted student of the Egyptian 
hieroglyphic system, derives the word Mason from a combination of 
two phonetic signs, the one being MAI, and signifying '* to love," and 
the other being SON, which means '^ a brother." Hence, he says, 
** this combination, Maison^ expresses exactly in sound our word 
Mason, and signifies literally " loving brother, that is, philadelphus, 
" brother of an association," and thus corresponds also in sense." 

But all of these fanciful etymologies which would have terrified 
Bopp, Grimm, or Miiller, or any other student of linguistic relations, 
forcibly reminds us of the French epigrammatist, who admitted that 
alphina came from eguus, but that, in so coming, it had very consider- 
ble changed its route. 

What is the true derivation of the word Mason ? Let us see what 
the orthoepists, who had no Masonic theories, have said upon the 

Webster, seeing that in Spanish masa means mortar, is inclined to 
derive Mason, as denoting one that works in mortar, from the root of 
masa, which of course gave birth to the Spanish word. 

In Low or Mediaeval Latin, Mason was machio or macio, and this 
Du Cange derives from the maceria, " a long wall." Others find a 
derivation in machincBy because the builders stood upon machines to 
raise their walls. But Richardson takes a common sense view of the 
subject. He says, '* It appears to be obviously the same word as 
maison, " a house,*' or maison applies to the person who builds, instead 
of the structure built. The French Maissoner is to build houses, and 
Massoner is to build of stone. The word Mason is applied by usage 
to a builder in stone, and Masonry to work in stone.*' 

Carpenter gives Massom, used in 1225, for a building of stone, and 
Mojsionus, used in 1304, for a Mason ; and the Benedictine editors of 
De Cange define Massoner ia as '^ a building,** the French Ma^OD- 

( 8 J 

nerie, and Mdconeritis " as Latomus or a Mason, both words in manu- 
cript of 1385. 

As a practical question, the writer is compelled to reject all these 
fanciful derivations which connect the Masons, etymologically and 
historically with the Greeks, the Egyptians, or the Druids, and to take 
the word Mason in its ordinary signification of a worker in stone, and 
thus indicate the origin of the Order from the society of practical and 
operative builders. We need no better root than the Mediaeval Latin 
" Ma^onner/* to build, or " Ma^onetus," a builder. 

PsYCHozoiA. What is the meaning of the word Phychozoia found 
in an English work on metaphysics. Locos. 

Psychozoia is from the psyche^ soul, and zoe^ life ; hence^ '* soul-life." 
This word is the name of a poem by Henry More (1614-1687), en- 
titled ** Psychozoia, or, the first part of the Song of the Soul, contain- 
ing a Christiano-Platonical display of life.'' A second poem entitled 
Psychathansia^ or the second part of the Song of the Soul, treating of 
its immortality, especially man's soul, was published in 1642. In 1647, 
four others were added and the collection called " Philosophical 
Poems." They are hardly known at present, and are not to be found 
in any collection. In some respects they are a singular attempt in 
literature to turn metaphyics into poetry. Apart from the notes and 
interpretations, which he himself has happily furnished, they are 
barely intelligible. Even with such assistance, they are an intricate 
and perplexing study. Yet here and there are genuine gleams both 
of poetic and spiritual insight. The mental picture which the poems 
present is so curious as to reward the* patience ot the congenial stu- 
dent. The titles to the four poems referred to in the " Collections " 
are as follows : 

1. '* Democritus Platonissseus : or, an Essay upon the Infinity of 
Worlds out of Platonic Principles." 

2. " Anti-psychopannychiador, the third book of tht Song of the 
Soul, containing a Confutation of the Sleep of the Soul after Death." 

3. " The Preexistence of the Soul^ an appendix to the third part 
of the Song of the Soul." 

4. '* Anti-monopsychia, or^ the fourth part of the Song of the Soul, 
contain a Confutation of the Unity of Souls." 

** Knowledge which is applicable to no useful purpose, can- 
not DESERVE THE NAME OF WiSDOM." — EfintUS, CiL Epist. I, vit\ 6, 


Memoranda of Mew Hampshire Towns. 


Amherst (incorporated Jan. i8, 1760), called Narraganset No. 3, or 
Souhegan West, included part of territory of Milford, and Mont Ver- 
non ; named for Lord Jeffrey Amherst, commander of British forces 
in America. 

Antrim (Mar. 22, 1777), part of Society land, so called. 

Bedford (May 19, 1750), called Narraganset No. 5, or Souhegan East^ 
included pari of Manchester and Merrimack, named for duke of 

Bennington (Dec. 15, 1842), known as Society Land. 

Brookline (Mar. 30, 1769), called Raby, name changed to "Brooklyne '' 
in 1798. 

Deering (Jan. 17, 1774), another portion of Society Land. 

Francestown (June, 8, 1772), called New Bostou Addition ; n:imed by 
Gov. John Wentworth for his wife's maiden name, Frances Deering. 

Goffstown (June 16, 1761), included parts of Manchester and Hooksett, 
named for Col. John Goffe. 

Greenfield (June 15, 1791), formed from Society Land, Peterborough, 
and Lyndeborough. 

Greenville (July,i 873), part of Mason. 

Hancock (Nov. 5, 1779), named for John Hancock, proprietor, and a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

Hillsborough (Nov. 14, i772),named for Col. John Hill, of Boston. 

Hollis (April 3, 1746), formed f<*om Dunstable and Monson, Mass.. 
named for Holies, Duke of New Castle. 

Hudson (July 5, 1746), formed from Dunstable, Mass., and called 
Nottingham West ; adopted present name, July i, I830. 

Litchfield (June 5, 1749), called Brunton's Farm, Indian name Naticook. 

Lindyeborough ( Ayril 23, 1744), called Salem-Canada, named for Ben- 
jamin Lynde, Salem, Mass., a large proprietor. 

Manchester, formed from Chester, Londonderry, Bedford, and a tract 
of Land called Harrytown, Derryfield (Sept. 3, 175 \ adopted the 
present name, for Manchester in England, in 1810^ and city char- 
ter, June I, 1846. 

Mason (Aug. 26, 1768), called No., included Greenville. 

Merrimack (April 2, 1745), Indian name'; part of Dunstable and Sou- 
hegan East. 


( 5) 

Milford (Jan. ii, 1794), originally part of Amherst and Hollis, the 
Mile Slip, and Dui^bury School Farm, granted in 1728. 

Mont Vernon (Dec. 15, 1803), part of Amherst. 

Nashua^ Indian name ; part of Dunstable, Mass., (April i, 1746), 
adopted present name, Dec. 8, 1836 ; in 1842, and the north por- 
tion incorporated as Nashville ; Sept. 17, 1853, Nashua and Nash- 
ville were consolidated and adopted city charter. 

New Boston (Feb. i8, 1763), granted in 1736 by Massachusetts and 
named for city of Boston. 

New Ipswich (Sept. 9. 1762), called Ipswich-Canada, named for Ips- 
wich, Mass. 

Pelham Quly 6, 1746), formed from Dracut, Mass. 

Peterborough (Jan. 17, 1760). 

Sharon (June 24, 179 1), called Peterborough Slip. 

Temple (Aug. 26, 1768), part of Peterborough Slip. 

Weare (Sept. 21, 1764), called Haile's-town ; from Meshech Weiire. 

Wilton (June 25, 1762). 

Windsor (Dec. 27, 1798), called CampbelPs Gore. 


Atkinson (Sept. 3, 1767), part of Haverhill, Mass., later of Plaistow, 
named for Theodore Atkinson, councillor^ judge^ and large land* 
bolder, and state secretary 1741 to 1775. 

Auburn (June 23, 1845), P*'** ^^ Chester, called Long Meadow. 

Brentwood (June 26, 1742), part of Exeter. 

Candia (Dec. 17, 1763), part of Chester called Charming-fare, named 
for Island of (Z^andia whose ancient name was Crete ; so called by 
Gov. Wentworth who was once held as a prisoner there. 

Chester (May 8, 1722), once called Cheshire, included Auburn, Can- 
dia, Raymond, and large parts of Hooksett and Manchester. 

Danville (Feb. 22, 1760, as Hawke)^ part of Kingston; named for 

English Admiral Hawke ; adopted present name June 18, 1836. 
Deerfield (Jan. 8, 1766), part of Nottingham. 

Derry (July 2, 1827), part of Londonderry. 

East Kingston (Nov. 17, 1738), part of Kingston. 

Epping (Feb. 23, 1741), part of Exeter. 

Exeter (settled April 3, 1638), named from town in England, com- 
prising the territory known as Exeter, Epping, Newmarket, South 
Newmarket, Brentwood, Fremont, and Stratham. 

Fremont (June 22, 1764, as Poplin), taken from Brentwood, but 

6 ) 

originally part of Exeter ; named for John C. Fremont, and name 
adopted July 8, 1854. 

Gosport (Dec. 24, 17 15), annexed to Rye, July, 1876. 

Greenland, part of Portsmouth. 

Hampstead (Jan 19, 1749), part of Haverhill, Mass., and Kingston, 
called Timber-lane. 

Hampton i^June 6, 1639), included the present towns of Hampton 
• Falls, Kensington, North Hampton, South Hampton and Seabrook. 

Hampton Falls (Nov. 23, 1726), part of Hampton. 

Kensington (April i, 1737), part of Hampton Falls, and earlier of 

Kingston (Nov. 17, 1738), called King*s-town, included territory now 
known as East Kingston, Danville, Sandown, and also a part of 

Londonderry (Feb. 25, 1740), comprising territory known as Windham, 
Derry, and part of Manchester ; first called Nutfield, then named 
for city of Londonderry, Ireland, from whence its settlers came. 

Newcastle (1693), that part of Portsmouth called Great Island. 
Newington (July, 1764), comprising that part of Dover called Bloody 
Point, and part of Portsmouth. 

Newmarket (Dec. 15, 1727), part of Exeter; divided in 1849, and 
South Newmarket formed. 

Newton (Dec. 6, 1749), called New-town. 

North Hampton (Nov. 26, 1742), part of Hampton. 

Northwood (Feb. 6. 1773), set off from Nottingham as North-woods. 

Nottingham (May 10, 1722), included territory known as Deerfield 
and Northwood. 

Plaistow (Feb. 28, 1749), part of Haverhill, Mass., including Atkinson. 

Portsmouth (May 28, 1753), called Strawberry Bank, included terri- 
tory of Newington, Greenland, Newcastle, and Rye ; adopted city 
charier in 1849. Settled in 1620. 

Raymond (May 9, 1765), that part of Chester called Free-town. 

Rye (April 20, 1726), that part of Portsmouth called Sandy Beach, to 
which Gosport was annexed July, 1876. 

Salem (May 11, 1750), part of Methuen, Mass. 

Sandown (^ April 6, 1756;, part of Kingston. 

Seabrook (June 3, 1768), part of Hampton Falls, and earlier of 

South Hampton May 25, 1742), part of Hampton and Kingston. 

( 7) 

South Newmarket (June 27, 1849), that part of Newmarket called 
Newfield, originally part of Exeter. March, 1880, the town voted to 
resume the name of Newfield to obtain the " Broadhead *' legacy, 
conditionally offered for a town library. 

Stratham (March 14, 1716), part of Swamscott patent called Winni- 

cott, afterward part of Exeter, settled in 1693. 

Windham (Feb. 12, 1742), part of Londonderry. 

Hysteron Proteron. What kind of a figure of speech is meant 
by this Greek found in a foot-note in a " Reader" ? L. E. H. 

Hysteron proteron is when that is put in the former part of the sen- 
tence, which according to the sense, should be in the latter. — Adams^ 
Grammar^ p. 237 ; Gould's Grammar^ p. 230. 

Ellipsis is when one or more words are wanting to complete the 
s^nse,— Adams, p.235 ; Gould, p. 229. : Fisk, p. 184. 

Pleonasm is when a word more is added than is absolutely necessary 
to express the sense. — Adams, p. 235 ; Gould, p. 229 ; Fisk, p. 184, 

Barbarism is when a foreign or strange word is made use of. — Ad- 
ams, p. 242 ; Goulds p. 234. 

Solecism is when the rules of syntax are transgressed. --^//aws, 242. 

Idiotism is when the manner of expression is peculiar to one lan- 
guage. — Adams, p. 242 ; Gould, p. 234. 

Tautology is when we either uselessly repeat the same words, or re- 
peat the same sense in different words. — Adams, p. 243 ; Gould, 235. 

Bombast is when high sounding words are used without meaning, 
or upon a trifling occasion.— ^//awj, p. 243 ; Gould, 234. 

Amphibology is when, by the ambiguity of the construction, the 
meaning may be taken in two different senses. — Adams, p 243 ; 
Gould, p. 234. 

Irony is when a person means the contrary of what is ^dXA.-AdamSy 
p. 247 ; Gould, p. 237. 

Periphrasis (circumlocution) is when several words are employed to 
express what might be said in fewer. — Adams, p. 247 ; Gould, p. 237. 

Hyperbole is when a thing is magnified above the truth. — Adams, 
p. 249 ; Gould, p. 240. 

Personification is when we ascribe life, sentiments, or actions, to 
inanimate heings, or to abstract (\\xdX\i\es,- Adams, p. 249 ; Gould, 240. 

Apostrophe is when the speaker breaks off from the series of his 
discourse, and addresses himself to some person present or absent, 
living or dead, or to inanimate nature, as if endowed with sense and 
reason. — Adams, p. 249 ; Gould, p. 240. 

( 8 ) 

Singula?' Inscriptions. 

In the little banqueting-house, in the orchard at Gorambury House, 
St. Albans, England, supposed to have been built about 1565, a sin- 
gular series of inscriptions are seen. Firsts the walls have the liberal 
arts beautifully depicted upon them, and over them the portraits of 
such learned men as had excelled in each, and under them verses ex- 
pressive of the benefits derived from the study of them. These were 
furnished to Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie, IX^ (" Cryptonymus *'), by 
Captain N. G. Phillips, 33^ : 

DoNATUS, Lilly, Servius, Priscian. 

Grammar. — ** Lex sum sermonis^ linguarum regula certa. 

Qui me non didicit ccetera nulla petat" 

Stifelius, Budceus, Pythagoras. 

Arithmetic. — " Ingenium exacuo numerorum arcano recludo. 

Qui numeros didicit quid didicisse nequiC* 

Aristotle, Rodolph, Porphry, Seton. 

Logic. — '* Divido muUiplids, res, explanoque latentio 
Vera exquiro falsa arguo cuncta probo,'* 

Arian, Terpander, Orpheus. 

Music. — ** Miiigo mcerores et ecerhas lenio euros 

Oestiat ut placid is mens hilarata sonis.** 

Cicero, Isocrates, Demosthenes, Quintillian. 

Rhetoric — " Ille duce splendescit gratis prudentia verbis, 

Jamque ornata nitet quifuit ante rudis,'* 

Archimedes, Euclid, Strabo, Apollonius. 

Geometry. — ** Corpora describo rerum et quo singula pacio, 

Apte sunt Jormis appropriata suis,** 

Regimontanus, Haly, Copernicus, Ptolemy. 

Astrology. — " Astrorum lustrans cursus veresque potentes 

Elicio miris Jata futura modis" 

De Amicitia. — " In amico ad monendo melius est successum quam 
fidem deesse. Omnia cum amico de libera : sed de ipso, prius" 

De Amore. — " Amor insane amicitia / illius affectas istuis ratio causa ; 
et ea sola amicitia durat cui virtus basis est." 


The English Language. 

Barker's *' Facts and Figures " gives the calculation that was made 
some years ago from the best dictionaries of several languages, and 
the outcome is of considerable interest inasmuch as it reveals a sub- 
stantial reason for the limitation of foreign colonizing as compared 
with that of our outspreading English-speaking, here, there and every- 
where. Barker sets the wealth of the English language, for purposes 

of comparison, at loo 

Against which the German marked .... 80 

Italian ** 45 

French " 30 

Spanish ** 20 

But if these figures are called so many thousand respectively, they 
designate the whole number, or dictionary wealth that belongs to each. 

Max Miiller, the German - English Sanskrit scholar, said of these 
100.000 English words that they only represented the best grains that 
have remained in the selves, while clouds of verbal chaff have been 
winnowed off, and while many a valuable grain too has been lost by 
mere carelessness. 

Max Miiller also says, *' if we counted the wealth of English dialects, 
and if we added the treasures of the ancient language from Alfred to 
Wyckliffe, we could easily double the herbarium of the linguistic flora 
of England." 

The most remarkable feature of our composite speech is, that it 
gets richer and richer the more it suffers loss. The figures quoted 
show a present treasury of 100,000 words, and in the linguistic dust 
bins of a few centuries lie, obsoleted, as many more. It is like the 
Phcenix of Greek mythology whose ashes were bird, after the bird was 
ashes. It is eminently resurrective, and coins its riveting words for 
art, science, and manufactures without solicitation. Like the banyan- 
tree (ficus Indica) that indefinitely enlarges its borders by piercing the 
earth with deflecting roots fron. its spreading branches, and at last be- 
comes a merchant's exchange (Banian, pronounced banyan^ means 
merchant) for large assemblies, the English tongue dives into every 
language on the earth, and draws its nourishment from all soils of 

( 10 ) 

thought, whether rich or poor, until it would be impossible to predict, 
how much of the whole earth it is destined to over-run. It may even 
become the fulcrum of a universal brotherhood, and this can be said 
of no other language, for all others have restricted areas, while Eng- 
lish roams at will wherever it willeth. Ah ! It may be some day, (as 
it numerically might be even now,) that the English-speaking people 
of the wofld might get into cousinly relations and inscribe on their 
banners the pronouncement of the prophets, " Nation shall not lift up 
sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more " (Isaiah 
II, 4 ; Micah iy, 3) ; for if a coalescence of the nations and colonies 
that speak English (drawn together in the name of peace and good- 
will) were to take place, the fearful devastating problem of strife 
among nations would be solved in a few years, and all the military 
camps of Europe would find their " occupation gone," and the stand- 
ing armies of the world would take a sitting position under their own 
vines and fig trees, none daring to engender fear, because a great 
family of arbitrators had arisen whose word would be law in the inter- 
ests of universal peace and prosperity. C. B. B., Vineland, N. J. 

New Albion. Where in America was located. It seems to have 
a newly named place hundreds of }ears ago when Old England was 
known 2iS*Aibion. Hale Goodwin. 

New Albion was the name that Sir Francis Drake gave to the for- 
mer territory of California, Oregon, and Washington. Subsequently 
in 1578 it was particularly confined to latitude 43° to 48°. The West- 
ern coast seems to have received the name of New Albion from the 
ancient name of Great Britiain ; while later, on a portion of the East- 
ern coast received the name of Ntw England from the modern name 
of England. 


Points in Freemasonry. What are considered *^ Points in Free- 
masonry " ? Novice. 

Points in Freemasonry referred to in the ritualistic phrase, " arts, 
parts, and points," are the rules and regulation of the institution. In 
Phillips' " New World of Words," (edition of 1706), the point is de- 
find as " a head or chief matter." It is in this sense that it is used in 

( 11 ) 

Questions and Answers. 

An *' Ancient'* and a "Veteran" Odd Fellow-The Difference. 
What is the difference between an Ancient and a Veteran Odd Fellow? 
Both are society terms in that fraternity. Novice. 

We will reply to " Novice " first quoting the " Digest of the Laws, 
Decisions, and Enactments of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Or- 
der of Odd Fellows," p. 7, (White's New Digest, 1882) : 

"An * Ancient Odd Fellow ' is one who has been regularly initiated 
into the Order and retired therefrom in good standing, either by taking 
his * permanent * or * withdrawal card,' or by resignation. If done by 
resignation, he at once becomes an * Ancient Odd Fellow,' and if by 
taking a permanent card, he becomes so at the expiration of one year 
from the date of his card." — 1858, Journal, 2859, 2925, 2963. 

A " Veteran Odd Fellow " is one who has been in good standing in 
the Order for twenty-five consecutive years or more. The condition 
for obtaining '* The Veteran Jewel '' is based on this twenty-five con- 
secutive years* memberhip in good standing (1888, Journal, 11,410 ; 
1889, Journal, 11,497 ; 1890, Journal, 11,9000). 

Thus one can see that the name, an Ancient Odd Fellow, is an 
anomaly of the meaning of words. An initiate can resign at the next 
weekly meeting, after initiation, and on the eighth day after initiation 
he may be an " Ancient Odd Fellow," and that too, and be only of 
the age of 21 years and 8 days. While to be Veteran Odd Fellow one 
must have been a member in good standing for at least twenty-five 
years, to wear "The Veteran Jewel," and his minimum age forty six 

Origin of Sterling. What is the origin of Sterling as applied to 
English money? David M. Drury, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The following remarks, touching the origin of the word Sterling, are 

found in the ** Problem of the Homeric Problems," by William D. 

Geddes, p. 65 : 

** The most feasible explanation yet given of the name Cadmus is 
that connecting it with the Hebrew Kedem, * the East ; in which case 
Cadmus would be a Grecized form meaning simply the * Easterling,* or 
* Man from the East.' " 

In a foot-note, Geddes says : " Preller, in his ' Greek Mythology," 

( 12 ) 

II, 1 8, while preferring for Cadmus the sense of * the Ancient,* accepts 
the oriental origin of the name. Compare our word Sterlings said to 
be developed out of * Easterling ' from the influence of merchants 
East from England." 

The Caryatides. What is the Caryatides alluded to in the follow- 
ing extract from the works of John James Garth Wilkinson : 

** The human form* is therefore the living Caryatides of the world ; 
or more properly, in revelation it is the I am, Who not was but is in 
all time and nature." 

The Caryatides are figures of women in Greek costume, used in 
architecture to support entablatures. Carya, in Arcadia, sided with 
the Persions after tbe battle of Thermopylae, in consequence of which 
the victorious Greeks destroyed the city, slew the men, and made wo- 
men slaves. Praxiteles, to perpetuate the disgrace^ employed figures 
of Caryan women with Persian men, instead of columns. 

Atlantes were figures of men used in architecture instead of pillars. 
They were so called from Atlas, who in Greek mythology supp: rted 
the world on his shoulders. 

The Hornbook. What was the " The Hornbook," mentioned by 
Dr. Rush, ** On the Philosophy of the Human Voice," p. 52 : 

"Among the thousand mismanagements of literary instruction, there 
is at the outset in the hornbook, the pretence to represent elementary 
sounds by syllables composed of two or more elements ; as Be^ Kay^ 
Zed, Double-u^ and Aitch'' Tyro. 

" The Hornbook " was a first-book for children, or that from which 
in former times they learned their letters and rudiments. It was so 
called because a sheet of horn covered the small, thin board of oak 
or the slip of paper, on which the alphabet, digits, and often the Lord's 
Prayer, were written or printed. Shakespeare says, *' He teaches 
boys the hornbook." 

* That Indian myth, that the world rests upon a tortoise, and the tortoise upon an elephant, 
though deficient in ground for the elephant, involves a deeper thought than the metaphysical 
conception of substance, and r^tands many degrees nearer to a true answer than the barren 
pantheism of Splnosa. For elephant and tortoise have good broad backs of their own, unlike 
metaphysical abstractions; and moreover they are analogues in the series of humanity, and in 
this (fegree approach the true answer. Tlie conception of substance belong to the skin-princi- 
ples of thought, and is the epidermis of the conception of support, whose hiner part« are first, 
Being, and second, Life. 

( 13 ) 

" Prepare a Table for Fortune." (Vol. X, p. 256.; Probably 
the latter chapters of Isaiah were written in Babylon. Hence, the 
passage, " Prepare a table for Gad^ and fill up mingled wine for Meni^** 
relates to the observance of the festival of the divinities bearing those 
names. Both appear to be feminine ; and with that impression Gad is 
doubtless the ckockah, or planet Venus, the divinity of good fortune 
among the Northern Semites3 and Mmi among the Eastern and 
Southern. A. Wilder, M. D. 

The Cincinnati. (Vol. X, p. 298.) The account of the patrician 

military order or society by the name of " The Cincinnati," in the last 

volume of Notes^and Queries, was taken from the late work entitled 

*• Familiar Allusions, a Hand-Book of Miscellaneous Information," 

(p. 106,) by William A. and Charles G.Wheeler. i2mo, Boston, 1887. 

In the article it states that The Cincinnati " was at one time large and 

popular, but is now fast declining." We have received a private letter 

from one of our readers from which we make the following extract : 

" This society does not keep itself before the public eye ; but it 
has occurred to me that it might be welcome to you to know 
that it is in fact exceedingly flourishing and useful. Naturally its 
members are restricted by the number of officers of the Revolutionary 
war who have lineal descendants now surviving, and therefore but a 
small portion of the community which now consists largely of Irish and 
foreign immigrants. The Massachusetts society now numbers more 
than a hundred members. Its standing committee, which meets three 
times a year, distributes several thousand dollars to relieve the needs 
of descendants of Revolutionary officers. On November the com- 
mittee distributed about $1500 among the needy representatives of 
original members, men, women, and children, to insure that they should 
not suffer the coming winter. The general society composed of offi- 
cers and delegates from the various State societies meets triennially, 
and its next meeting will be in Boston during May, 1893. ^^^ ^^st 
meeting was held in Baltimore, in 1890. Hon. Hamilton Fish, is the 
President-General and has the insignia transmitted from General 
Washington. A branch of the society also exists in prance." 

One Hundred. To use all and only the nine numerals so as to re- 
sult in one hundred, has its answer as follows : 

9X8 + 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + l=r 100. 

( 14 ) 

Veteran Odd Fellows Associations in the United States. 
The follows is a list of these associations and the time of organization 
up to January, i, 1893, as has come to our knowledge : 


Veteran Odd Fellows Association, Massachusetts, Nov. 15, 1875 

Connecticut, March 8, 1876 

Marblehead^ Mass., April 1876 
Essex County, Mass., April 10, 1876 
Portland, Maine^ Sept. 28, 1876 
California, April 17, 1877 

Louisville, Ky., Dec. 27, 1879 

Kentucky and Indiana, Jan. 10, 1880 
Manchester, N. H., April 16,1880 
Nebraska, • Oct. 1880 

Washington, D. C, April'2i, 1887 
Missouri, Nov. 30, 1887 

Providence, R. I., Sept. 28, 1888 
State of New York, Nov. 9, 1888 





















































" Deaf as an Adder.." Whence comes the phrase, *' Deaf as an 
adder/' so often heard ? L. O. T. 

Without doubt this oft-heard expression is based upon Psalm lviii, 
4-5, which verses read as follows : 

" Their poison is like the poison of a serpent ; M<y are like the 
deaf adder /ka/ stoppeth her ear ; which will not hearken to the 
voice of charmers, charming never so wisely." 

Capt. Bruce : " If a viper enters the house, the charmer is sent for, 
who entices the serpent, and puts it into a bag. I have seen poisonous 
vipers twist round the bodies of these psylli in all directions, without 
having their fangs extracted." 

According to tradition, the asp stops its ears when the charmer ut- 
ters his incantation, by applying one ear to the ground and twisting 
its tail into the other. 

" Down with the Dust." Dean Swift, having been solicited to 
preach a charity sermon, mounted the pulpit, and after announcing 
his text, " He that giveth to the poor lendeth to the Lord," simply 
said, " Now, my brethren, if you are satisfied with the security, down 
with the dust," He then took his seat, and there was an unusually 
large collection." 

( IS ) 


The Mormon Creed. In a former No. of Notes and Queries 
(November, 1885, p. 285), you have printed "The Jews* Creed," and 
having been a constant reader of your periodical from its beginning, I 
should be pleased to see " The Mormon Creed " printed. 

We comply with the request. This statement of the doctrine of the 
Mormon Church was published with the approval of the Prophet 
Joseph Smith : 

1. We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in His Son Jesus 
Christ, and in the Holy Ghost. 

2. We believe that men will be punished for their own sins, and 
not for Adam's transgression. 

3. We believe that through the atonement ol Christ all mankind 
may be saved, by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the Gospel. 

4. We believe that these ordinances are : First, Faith in the Lord 
Jesus Christ ; Second, Repentance ; Third, Baptism by immersion for 
the remission of sins ; Fourth, Laying on of hands for the Gift of 
the Holy Ghost. 

5. We believ^ that a man must be called of God, by " prophecy, 
and by the laying on of hands/* by those who are in authority, to preach 
the Gospel and administer in the ordinances thereof. 

6. We believe in the same organization that existed in the primi- 
tive Church, namely, apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists. 

7. We believe iu the gift of tongues, prophecy, revelation, visions, 
healing, interpretation of tongues, and so forth. 

8. We believe the Bible to be the word of God, as far as it is 
translated correctly ; we also believe the book of Mormon to be the 
word of God. 

9. We believe all that God has revealed, all that He does now re- 
veal, and we believe that He will yet reveal many great and important 
things pertaining to the kingdom of God. 

10. We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and in the restora- 
tion of the Ten Tribes. That Zion will be built upon this continent. 
That Christ will reign personally upon the earth, and that the earth 
will be renewed and receive it Paradisiac glory. 

11. We claim the privilege of worshiping Almighty God according 
to the dictates of our conscience, and allow all men the same privi- 
lege ; let them worship how, where, and what they may. 

12. We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers, and 
magistrates ; in obeying, honoring and sustaining the law. 

13. We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent, virtuous, 
and in doing good to a// men ; indeed, we may say that we follow the 
admonition of Paul, " We believe all things, we hope all things, we 
have endured many things, and hope to be able to endure all things. 
If there is anything virtuous, lovely or of good report, or praiseworthy, 
we seek after these things.'* 

( 16 ) 


1. Why do bicycles, spinning-tops, gyroscopes, and gyrostats place 
their centers of gravity at the farthest distance from the earth when in 
rapid motion? Does J. G. Barnard, in his work on '* The Gyroscope/' 
answer this question? J. G. Gholson, Broughton, III. 

2. (a) What legend did Shakespeare burlesque in his " Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream ? *' (b) Under what circumstances was the " Vicar 
of Wakefield " published?' (c) What was Nero's " Golden House " ? 
(d) What is the origin of the saying," a baker's dozen ? " (d) Is there 
any reason for two buttons on the back of a coat ? (e) Why are the 
Freshmen in a college so called ? David M. Drurv, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

3. What IS the ** Great Panegyrical Year " 01 the ancients ? This 
great year is referred to, arid quoted from, R. S. Poole, a writer on 
Egyptian chronology. R. K. D. 

4. How is the name Ulysses derived from Odysseus^ from which 
comes the name of Homer's epic — Odyssey. • Logos. 

5. What in Greek was ho Areios Pagos, ** the Martial Hill,'* occurs 
twice in the New Testament : once in the accusative case, ton Areion 
Pagon (Acts of the Apostles xvii, 19), which is rendered Areopagus ; 
and once in the genitive case, tou Areiou Pagou (xvii, 22), which, in 
different copies of the New Testament is made to read Mars' Hill 
(authorized version), Mars' hill, Mars' hill, Marshill, and Mars Hill. 
Which of these is the correct form ?* Logos. 

6. A book is said to be foxed^ slightly foxed^ etc., when ita por- 
traits, cuts, etc., stain the pages, offset, and the like. Why is that 
word so appled? Philobiblion. 

7. Has an English translation of the hieroglyphics on the Obelisk 
now set up in Central Park, New York, ever been made, and if so, 
where can it be found ? Charles T. King. 

8. Who was Polylogy, who published two volumes of " A Dual-Line 
Version or some of his Paraphrases of Wisdom and Learning," Lon- 
don, 1842 } Volume II has 2775 exactly-two-line sayings on all kinds 
of philosophy. Possessor. 

9. Who was Erchomenos, said to be mentioned in the New Testa- 
ment? Webster does not give the name in his " Vocabulary of Scrip- 
ture Proper Names." Student. 

10. What is the legend of Saint Christopher^ and how is it account- 
ed for in legendary lore ? Philo. 

< 17 ) 

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs * 

[The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs is an apocryphal work 
composed in Greek, probably by some converted Jew, and is said to 
date at least from the first or second century. Origen had seen this 
work, and found some good advice m it. Tertullian quotes from it. 
The Jews did not admit it into their canon. It was unknown to the 
learned of Europe, and even to the Greeks. Robert Groffetefte (Great- 
head) bishop of Lincoln, having received intelligence of its existence 
from Johan de Bofingstoke, a deacon of Legies, who had studied at 
Athens, sent for a Greek copy of it^ and translated it into Latin with 
the assistance of Master Nicholas, a Greek by birth, and a clergyman 
belong to St. Albans, about A. D. 1252. Aftewards it was published 
in Greek by Dr. Grabe, in his Spiciiegium S, Pairum^ and by M. Fabri- 
cius in his Apocryphal Books of the Old Testament. The author gives 
particulars of the life and death of the twelve patriarchs, whom he 
makes to speak, to relate, and to foretell, what he thinks proper. He 
speaks of the destruction of Jerusalem, the prospective appearance of 
a coming one, and other events. He quotes and refers to other books 
bot now extant, and also to si me that are now classed as apocryphal, 
among them the Book of Enoch, also quoted by Jude the apostle. 

The first English translation was made by Arthur Golding, and 
printed by John Daye in 1581, and since it has been reproduced sev- 
eral times. The British Museum has no less than eleven editions. 

The translation here printed for our readers is by Rev. Robert Sin- 
ker, M. A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, Eng. Four Greek manu- 
scripts are known to exist : i. The MS. (Ff. i, 24) in the University 
Library at Cambridge. 2. The MS. (Barocci 133) in the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford. 3. A MS. in the Vatican Library at Rome. 4. A 
MS. discovered by Tischendorf in the island of Patmos.] 

• » * 

L REUBEN — Concerning Thoughts. 

I. The copy of the Testament of Reuben, what things he charged 
his sons before he died in the 125th of his life. When he was sick two 
years after the death of Joseph, his sons and his sons' sons were gath- 
ered together to visit him. And he said to them, my children, I am 
dying, and go the way of my fathers. And when he saw there Judah, 
and Gad, and Asher, his brethren, he said to them. Raise me up, my 
brethren, that I may tell to my brethren, and to my children what 


things I have hidden in my heart, for from henceforth my strength 
faileth me. And he arose and kissed them, and said, weeping ; Hear, 
my brethren, give ear to Reubeo^fliiriather, what things I command 
you, And, beheld. I call to witness against you this day the God of 
heaven^ that ye walk not in the ignorauce of youth and fornication 
wherein I ran greedily, and I defiled the bed of Jacob my father. For 
I tell you that He smote me with a sore plague in my loins for seven 
months ; and had not Jacob our father prayed for me to the Lord, 
surely the Lord would have destroyed me. For \ was thirty years old 
when I did this evil in the sight of the Lord, and for seven months I 
was sick even unto death ; and I repented for seven years in the set 
purpose of my soul before the Lord. Wine and strong drink I drank 
not, and flesh entered not into my mouth, and I tasted not pleasant 
food, mourning over my sin, for it was great. And it shall not so be 
done in Israel, 

2. And now hear me, my children, what things I saw in my re- 
pentance concerning the seven spirits of error. Seven spirits are 
given against men from Beliar, and they are chief of the works of 
youth ; and seven spirits are given to him at his creation, that in them 
should be done every work of man. The first spirit is of life, with 
which man's whole being is created. The second spirit is of sight, 
with which ariseth desire. The third spirit is of hearing, with which 
Cometh teaching. The fourth spirit is of smelling, with which taste is 
given to draw air and breath. The fifth spirit is of speech, with which 
cometh knowledge. The sixth spirit is of taste, with which cometh 
the eating of meats, and drinks ; and by them strength is produced, 
for in food is the foundation of strength. The seventh spirit is of 
begetting and sexual intercourse, with which through love of pleas- 
ure sin also entereth in ; where it is the last in order of creation, aud 
the first of youth, because it is filled with ingorance, which leadeth the 
young as a blind man to a pit, and as cattle to a precipice. 

8. Besides all these, there is another spirit of sleep, with which is 
created entrancement of man's nature, and the image of death. With 
these spirits are mingled the spirits of error. The first, the spirit of 
fornication, dwelleth in the nature and in the senses ; the second spirit 
of insatiateness in the belly ; the third spirit of fighting in the liver 
and the gall. The fourth is the spirit of fawning and trickery that 
through over-ofiiciousness a man may be fair in seeming. The fifth is 
the spirit of arrogance, that a man may bestirred up and become high- 
minded. The sixth is the spirit of lying, in perdition and in jealousy 
to feign words, and to conceal words from kindred and friends. The 
seventh is the spirit of injustice, with which are theft and pilferings, 
that a man may work the desire of his heart ; for injustice worketh to- 
gether with the other ^spirits by means of craft. Besides all these, the 

( 19) 

spirit of sleep, the eighth spirit, is conjoined with error and fantasy. 
And so perisheth every young man, darkening his mind from the 
truth, and not understanding the law of God, nor obeying the admoni- 
tions of his father, as befell me also in my youth. And now, children, 
love the truth, and it shall preserve you. I counsel you, hear ye Reb- 
ben, your father. Pay no heed to the sight of a woman, nor yet as- 
sociate privately with a female under authority of a husband, nor med- 
dle with affairs of womankind. For had I not seen Bilhah bathing in 
a covered place, I had not fallen into this great iniquity. For my 
mind dwelling on the woman's nakedness, suffered me not to sleep 
until I had done the abominable deed. For while Jacob our father 
was absent with Isaac his father, when we were in Gader, near to 
Ephratha in Bethlehem, Bilhah was drunk, and lay asleep in her 
chamber ; and when I went in and heheld her, I wtought that impiety, 
and leaving her sleeping I departed. And forthwith an angle of God 
revealed to my father Jacob concerning my impiety, and he came and 
mourned over me, and touched her no more. 

4- Pay no heed, therefore, to the beauty of women, and muse not 
upon their doings ; but walk in singleness of heart in the fear of the 
Lord, and be aboring in works, and roaming in study, and among your 
flocks, until the Lord give you a wife whom He will, that ye sufiier not 
as I did. Until my father's death I had not boldness to look stead- 
fastly into the face of Jacob, or to speak to any of my brethren, be- 
cause of my reproach ; and even until now my conscience afHicteth 
me by reason of my sin. And my father comforted me ; for he prayed 
for me unto the Lord, that the anger of the Lord might pass away 
from me, even as the Lord showed me. From henceforth, then, f 
was protected, and sinned not. Therefore, my children, observe all 
things whatsoever I command you, and ye shall not sin. For forni- 
cation is the destruction of the soul, separating it from God, and 
bringing it near to idols, because it deceiveth the mind and under- 
standing, and bringeth down young men into hell before their time. 
For many hath fornication destroyed ; because, though a man be old 
or noble,it maketh him a reproach and a laughing-stock with Beliar 
and the sons of men. For in that Joseph kept himself from every 
woman, and purged his thoughts from all fornication, he found favor 
before the Lord and men. For the Egyptian woman did many things 
unto him, and called for magicans, and offered him love potions, and 
the purpose of his soul admitted no evil desire. Therefore the God 
of my fathers delivered him from every visible and hidden death. For 
if fornication overcome not the mind, neither shall Beliar overcome you. 

5. Hurtfnl are women, my children ; because, since they have no 
power or strength over the man, they act subtilly through outward 
guise how they may draw hin to themselves , and whom they can no 


overcome by strength, him they overcome by craft. For, moreover^ 
the angel of God told me concerning them, and taught me that women 
are overcome by the spirit of fornication more than men, and they de- 
vise in their heart against men ; and by means of their adornment 
they deceive first their minds, and instil the poison , by the glance of 
their eye, and then they take them captive by their doings, for a wo- 
man cannot overcome a man by force. Flee therefore fornication, my 
children, and command your wives and your daughters that they 
adorn not their heads and their faces ; because every woman who 
acteth deceitfully in these things hath been reserved to everlasting pun- 
ishment. For thus they allured the Watchers before the flood ; and 
as these continually beheld them, they fell into desire each with the 
other, and they conceived the act in their mind, and changed them- 
selves into the shape of men, and appeared to them in their congress 
with their husbands ; and the women, having in their minds desire 
towards their apparitions, gave birth to giants, for the Watchers ap- 
peared to them as reaching even unto heaven. 

6, Beware, therefore, of fornication ; and if you wish to be pure 
in your minds, guard your senses against every woman. And com- 
mand them likewise not to company with the men, that they also be 
pure in their minds. For constant meetings, even though the ungodly 
deed be not wrought, are to them an irremediable disease, and to us 
an everlasting reproach of Beliar ; for fornication hath neither under- 
standing nor godliness in itself, and all jealousy dwelleth in the desire 
thereof. Therefore ye will be jealous against the sons of Levi, and 
will seek to be exalted over them ; but ye shall not be able, for God 
will work their avenging, and ye shall die by an evil death. For to 
Levi the Lord gave the sovereignty, and to Judah, and to me also with 
them, and to Dan and Joseph, that we should be for rulers. There- 
fore I command you to barken to Levi, because he shall know the 
law of the Lord, and shall give ordinances for judgment and sacrifice 
for all Israel until the completion of the time of the Anointed, the 
high priest whom the Lord had declared. I adjure you by the God of 
heaven to work truth each one with his neighbor ; and draw ye near 
to Levi in humbleness of heart, that ye may receive a blessing from 
his mouth. For he shall bless Israel and Judah, because him hath 
the Lord chosen to rule over all the peoples. And worship ye his seed, 
because he shall die for us, in wars visible and invisible, and shall be 
among you an everlasting king. 

7. And Renben died after that he had given command to his sons ; 
and they placed him in a coffin until they bore him up from Egppt^ 
and buried him in Hebron in the double cave where his fathers were 
lain before him. 

(21 ) 

Thomas Taylor the Platonist 

Several persons during the past few years have inquired for the pub- 
lished works and translations of Thomas Taylor the Platonist. We 
have decided therefore to print a catalogue of such as we possess and 
such as we have seen announced elsewhere. We will during the year' 
print an additional list of any others not included in this partial cata 
pgue, if any reader or correspondent will announce such to us. We 
are told that he published 63 volumes or translations and minor es- 
says, some of the latter being magazine articles. A complete bibli- 
ography is desirable for all who are interested in the greatest Platonic 
student of modern times. Some call him the Neo-Platonist which 
only modernizes the Platonists. Tayldr has been severely criticised 
by some of our more modern writers, and we think unjustly by some« 
and yet his works are read and sought, while many are out of print. 
He was a man of indomitable courage and had the courage of his 
convictions. Thomas Taylor was born in 1758 and died in 1825. 


Apuleius The Metamorphosis, or Golden Ass, and Philosophical 
works of Apuleius, translated from the Latin^ with the Appendix. 
8vo. calf. 1822. 

Aristotle. The Treatises of Aristotle on the Soul, on Sense and 
Sensibles, on Memory, Sleep, Dreams, etc. ; of the Generation of Ani- 
mals, on Life, Death, Respiration, etc., translated from the Greek with 
copious elucidations from Simplicius on the first of these Treatises. 
4to. boards. 1808. 

The Treatises of Aristotle on the parts and Progressive 

Motion of Animals ; his Problems, and his Treatise on Individual 
Lives, translated from the Greek, to which are added the Elements of 
the True Arithmetic of Infinities, etc. 4to. boards. 18 10. 


The Great, and Eudemjan, Ethics, and Politics, and Eco- 
nomics, of Aristotle, translated from the Greek. 4to. boards. i8ii. 

. The History of .-Animals of Aristotle, and his Treatise on 

Physiognomy, translated from the Greek. 410. boards. 1809. 

The Metaphysics of Aristotle, translated from the Greek, 

{ 22 ) 

with copious notes, to which is added a Dissertation on Nullities and 
Diverging Series. 4I0. boards. 1801. 

Aristotle. The Organon ; or Logical Treatises of Aristotle, translat- 
ed from the Greek, with copious elucidations from the Commentaries 
of Ammonius and Simplicius. 4to. boards. 1807. 

A Dissertation on the Philosophy of Aristotle in four books ; 

in which his Principal Physical and Metaphysical Dogmas are un- 
folded^ etc. 4to. boards. 181 2. 

The Rhetoric, Poetic, and Nicomachean Ethics, translated 

from the Greek. Two volumes. 8vo. boards. 1818. 

Arguments of Celsus, Porphyry, and the *£mperor Julian, against 
the Christians ; also extracts from Diodorus Siculus, Josephus, and 
Tacitus, relating to the Jews, with Appendix. i2mo. cloth. 1830. 

Arguments, The, of the Emperor Julian against the Christians, 
translated from the Greek Fragments preserved by Cyril, Bishop of 
Alexandria ; to which are added extracts from other works of Julian, 
relative to the Christians. (Privately printed and suppressed) 8vo. 
cloth. 1809. 

Dissertation, A, on the Eleusinian and Bacchic M3'steries. 8vo. 
boards. Amsterdam, n, d. 

Imblichus's Life of Pythagoras, or Pythagoric Life ; accompanied 
by Fragments of the Ethical writings of ^certain Pythagoreans ; and a 
Collection of Pythagoric Sentences from Strobaeus and others, trans- 
lated from the Greek. 8vo. boards. 18 18. 

Imblichus on the Mysteries of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and As- 
syrians, translated from the Greek. 8vo. boards. Chiswick^ 182 1. 

Maximus Tyrius, the Dissertations of, tanslated from the Greek. 
Two volumes. 8vo. boards. 1804. 

Miscellanies in Prose and Verse, containing the Triumph of the 
Wise Men over fortune ; the Creed of the Platonic Philosopher, etc ; 
second edition with additions. i2mo. boards. 1820. 

Mystical Hymns, The, of Orpheus, translated from the Greek, and 
demonstrated to be the Invocations which were used in the Eleusinian 
Mysteries. Second edition enlarged. 8vo. boards. 1824. 

Ocellus Lucanus on the Nature of the Universe ; Taurus, the 
Platonic Philosopher, on the Eternity of the World ; Julius Firmicus 

( 23 ) 

Maturnus on the Thema Mundi, and the Select Theorems on the Per- 
petuity of Time by Proclus, translated from the originals. 8vo. 183 1. 

Orpheus. The Mystical Initiations, or Hymns of Orpheus, trans- 
lated from the original Greek, with a Preliminary Dissertation on the 
Life and Theology of Orpheus. 8vo. calf. 1 787. 

Pausanias's Description of Greece, translated from the Greek with 
notes in which much oj fhe Mythology of the Greeks is unfolded, etc. 
Illustrated with maps and views. Second edition with considerable 
augmentations. Three volumes. 8vo. calf. 1824. 

Plato, The Works of : his Fifty five Dialogues, and Twelve Epis- 
ties, translated from the Greek, with occasional annotations on the 
Nine Dialogues translated by Sydenham, and copious notes. Five 
volumes. 4to. calf. 1804. 

The Cratylus, Phaedo, Parmenides, and Timaeus, translated 

from the Greek with notes on the Cratylus, and an explanatory intro- 
duction to each Dialogue. 8vo. calf. 1793. 

Plotinus. Five Books of Plotinus : on Felicity ; on the Nature 
and Origin of Evil ; on Providence ; on Nature, Contemplation, and 
the One ; and on the Descent of the Soul ; translated from the Greek 
with an introduction containing additional information on these im- 
portant subjects. 8vo. calf. 1794. 

Select Words of Plotinus, the Great Restorer of the Philos- 
ophy of Plato, and extracts from the Treatise of Synesius on Provi- 
dence, translated from the Greek with an introduction containing the 
substance of Porphyry's Life of Plotinus. 8vo. boards. 181 7. 

Translations from the Greek of the Treatises of Plotinus on 

Suicide, on truly existing Being, and concerning Good, with additional 
notes from Porphyrv an f* Proclus. 8 vo. cloth. 1834. 

Political Fragments of Archytas, Charondas, Zaleucus, and other 
ancient Pythagoreans, preserved by Strobaeus ; add also Ethical Frag- 
ments of Hierocles. 8vo. boards. Chiswick, 1822. 

Porphyry. Select Works of Porphyry containing his four books on 
Abstinence from Animal Food ; his Treatise on tbe Homeric Cave of 
the Nymphs and his Auxiliaries to the Perception of Intelligible Na- 
tures, translated from the Greek, with an Appendix explaining the 
Allegory of the Wanderings of Ulysses by the translator. 8vo. 1823. 

• ^^ 

Proclus. The Commentaries of Proclus on the Timaeus of Plato 

in five books ; containing a Treasury of Pythagoric and Platonic phi- 


losophy, translated from the Greek. Two volumes. 4to. bds. 1820. 

Proclus. The Fragments that remain of the Lost Writings of Proclus 
surnamed the Platonic Successor, translated from the Greek. 8vo. 
boards. 1825. 

The Philosophical and Mathematical Commentaries of Pro- 

clus, on the first book of Euclid's Elements ; to which are added a 
history of the Restoration of Platonic Theology, by the later Platon- 
ists, and a translation from the Greek of Proclus's Theological Ele- 
ments. Two volumes.. 4to. calf. 1792. 

The Six Books of Prcclus the Platonic Successor, on the 

Theology of Plato, translated from the Greek ; to which a seventh 
book is added ; also a translation from the Greek of Proclus's Ele- 
ments of Theology and his Treatises on Providence and Fate, etc. 
Two volumes. 4(0. boards. 181 6. 

Two Treatises of Proclus the Platonic Successor ; the for- 
mer consisting of Ten Doubts concerning Providence, and a Solution 
of those Doubts ; and the latter containing a Development of the Na- 
ture of Evil, translated from Victor Cousin's edition. 8vo. cloth. 1833. 

Sallust on the Gods and the World ; and the Pythagoric Sentences 
of Demophilus, translated from the Greek ; and Five Hymns by Pro- 
clus in the original Greek, with a poetical version, to which are added 
Five Hymns by the translator. 8vo. calf. 1793. 

Theoretic Arithmetic, in three books, containing the substance of 
all that has been written on this subject by Theo of Smyrna, Nicoma- 
chus, Imblichus, and Boetius ; with a specimen of the manner in 
which the Pythagoreans philosophized about Numbers, and a Devel- 
opment of their Mystical and Theological Arithmetic. 8vo. calf. 1816. 

Two Orations of the Emperor Julian ; one to the Sovereign Sun, 
and the other to the Mother af the Gods, translated from the Greeks 
with notes, and a copious introduction, in which some of the greatest 
Arcana of the Grecian Mythology are unfolded. 8vo. boards. 1 793. 

THOMAS Taylor's epitaph written by himself. 

Health, strength, and ease, and manhood's active age. 
Freely I gave to Plato's sacred page, 
With Truth's pure joy, with Fame my days were crowned, 
2 ho' Fortune adverse on my labours frowned. 

( 25 ) 

Thomas Taylor the Flatonist. 


Elements of a new method of Reasoning in Geometry. 40. 1780. 

Hymns of Orpheus, translated from the Greek, with a preliminary 
dissertation on the Life and Theology of Orpheus. 12 mo. 1787. 

The Rights of Brutes. 12 mo. 1792. 

The Phraedus of Plato, translated from the Greek. 4to. 1792. 

Cupid and Psyche, from the Apuleius. 8vo. 1795. 

New edition of Hedericus's Greek Lexicon, with Additions. 1803. 

Dissertation on Diverging Series. 4th. 1804. 

History of the Restoration of the Platonic Theology. 4to. 1804. 

Answer to Dr. Gillies's Supplement to his New Analysis of the 
Works of Aristotle. 8vo. 1804. 

Pythagoric Sentences of Demophilus, printed with Mr. Bridgeman's 
Translations. 8vo. 1804. 

Colectanea. 8vo. 1806. 

Elements of the True Arithmetic of Infinities. 4to. 1809. 

Elements of a New Arithmetical Notation, and of a New Arithme- 
tic of Infinities. 8vo. 1823. 

Thomas Taylor also contributed varions papers to the Classical 
Journal, Nos. 32, 33. 34, 42, 43, 45, 47, 48, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, and 58. 
Of these fugitive pieces a complete collection of the Chaldsean Oracles 
was published by Isaac P. Cory. 

'* The Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries " appeared in The Pam- 
phleteer^ Vol. VIII, No. 15 pp. 33-66, and No. 16, pp. 455-486. 18 16, 

Thomas Taylor published an Abridgment of Edwards's History of 
the West Indies. Three volumes. 8vo. 1 794. 

Many of the books and translations of Thomas Taylor are entirely 
out-of-print, and others are scarce and command good prices. 

We are told that a brief notice of Thomas Taylor, the Platonist, 
with a complete list of his published works, was privately printed in 
London, 1831, 8vo., pp. 16, by James Jacob Welsh. 

See also London Gentlemen* s Magazine, i, 91. " Public Characters,'' 
for, 1798. Blakely's " History of the Philosophy of the Mind," iv, 1866. 
Knight's English Cyclopaedia," Biography, v, 933, (1857). Allibone's 

Dictionary of Authors," in, p, 2361. 


( 26 ) 

Answers to Correspondents. 


In June, 1892, an elderly person called at this office, saying he was 
ready and willing to answer some of our questions as submitted to our 
readers. He being a member of an orthodox church of this city, we 
submitted to him five Biblical questions, some of which had appeared 
in N. AND Q., and others on file, as follows : 

1. Who was meant by Shiloh^ in Genesis xlix, 10 ? 

2. Who was meant by the '* Star out of Jacob," in Exodus xxiv, 1 7 ? 

3. Who was meant by the Wonderful^ in Isaiah ix, 6 ? 

4. Who was meant by " The desire of all nations,*' in Haggai 11, 7 ? 

5. Who was meant by ** The Stem of Jesse," in Isaiah xi, i ? 

AfteV about there days the person returned and submitted the fol- 
lowing replies, disposing of these ^^^ important questions in 27 lines, 
without signature, nor pseudonym, saying a neighbor or friend had 
answered the questions. We requested him to secure the signature, 
which he went to do, but subsequently returned, saying the writer re- 
fused to allow his name to be appended. Contrary to our editorial 
rules to print manuscripts without the signature or a nom de plume ^ we 
make an exception in this single instance, during the past ten years. 
The chirography was good and plain, the orthography correct, and with 
the correction of the syntax, and making the (juotations conform to 
the authorized version we print the brief replies to the five questions. 

Shiloh. (Vol. IX, p. 55. " According to Delitzsch, Shiloh signi- 
fies recreation, rest, and is used both as the name of a place and a 
man. This passage, as with most of the prophecies, is generally re- 
garded of a two-fold character, political, historical, and messianic. 
Historically, it had its fulfilment when the victorious Israelites, with 
the royal tribe of Judah at their head, pitched their tents in Shiloh, 
and took possession of the promised land. Messianically, when the 
Christ came, who in Revelation v, 5, is called ' the Lion of the tribe of 
Juda,' referring back to this same passage in the blessing of Jacob 
(Genesis xlix, 10)." 

"Star out of Jacob" (Exodus xxiv, 17). (Vol. VIII, p. 414.; 
** The Christ, ' We have seen his star ' (Matthew 11, 2). * I, Jesus, 
have sent mine angel to testify, I am the root and off- 
spring of David, a«//the bright and morning star.* (Rev. xxii, 16)." 

The " WoNDERFUi " (Isaiah ix, 6). " The Hebrew word is said to 

( 27 ) 

signify spirit, separate, so the Christ was * separate ' from sinners, and 
though ' to us a child is born, a son is given.* He (wonder of won- 
ders) is separate, incomprehensible, with the spirit of a child, and yet 
possessing all the attributes of God/' 

"The Desire of all Nations shall come " (Haggai ii, 7). This 
may be translated " the desirable things of all the nations," and so is 
remotely messianic, as the Christ would appear about the time of the 
completion of the Temple and give peace/' 

" The Stem of Jesse " (Isaiah ix, i). " Stump or stock of Jesse. 
This verse, running on through chapters xi and xii, introduces one of 
the most striking and distinctly messianic prophecies of the glorious 
reign of the Redeemer's kingdom to be found in the Bible." 

The ten lines devoted to Skiloh appear to be extracted from 
the article on ** Shiloh," in McClintock & Strong's " Cyclopaedia " 
(Vol. IX, pp. 677-683), who devote thirteen columns to this word, and 
more than one column is in opposition to Prof. Delitzch's interpreta- 
tions of the word Shilok, The meagre replies to the other four ques- 
tion do not require a remark from us. 

A two- or three-page article on any of these questions is solicited 
for publication, with the writer's name ; or a nom de plume, if the 
writer so desires for subscription. 


(vol. X, P. 225.) 

*' Through the kindness of a friend, I have had the pleasure of 
reading the last four or five issues of your excellent periodical. Its 
perusal has been highly interesting to me in every respect, and I shall 
be happy to subscribe at once. **♦«*♦ 

In the September issue (1892), I noticed and carfully read an arti- 
cle entitled ^ A Chapter on the Property of Numbers,'' which is very 
interesting. Since it contains some errors, and a few points which re- 
quire some explanation, I have taken the liberty of pointing them out. 

(Paragraph 60.) Denoting the second of the numbers by y, and 

the first by—, all the different relations mentioned are simple and 

easy transformations of the equation >'+log^'=-0, or >'X 10^ =^1 . They 
do not present striking peculiarities of the numbers, but are the natural 
results derived from certain easily understood operations performed 
on the latter equation. To any one not conversant with such opera- 
tic ns they probably will produce the impression of great singularity, 

( 28 ) 

whereas to the mathematician they will appear as quite ordinary. 

(Parapraph 6i.) The well-known relations of the base of thenat- 
ural system of logarithms and the modulus render the equations very 
simple and natural. 

(Paragraph 62.) It should be stated that negative values are to be 
excluded, for, if they were not, the number of solutions would be in«- 
finite. Whether the result given is correct I have not had the time 
to ascertain. 

(Paragraph 64.) There are some grave errors in some of the state- 
ments. If a polygon of 51 (=17X3) sides were constructive the 
trisection of an arc would not any longer be impossible. ' Nor is a 
polypon of 85 sides constructible, nor of 225 and 65535 sides, nor of 
any number save the first of those given in the last five numbers. 
Only those polygons are constructible^ the number of whose sides sat- 
isfies the equation, 2^ X-A^, where n may be any interger, and J\^= 

3, 6, 15, 17, 257, 65537, - . 2"*+l ; 2»»+ 1 being a prime 


(Paragraph 73,) The more accurate expression is i( V^""^) ^= *• 
Therefore, j'^iiCV 5+1 ),^=i(V 5+3), from which all the relations 
mentioned follow with far less trouble and labor than from the deci- 
mal fractions given. 

(Paragraph 79.) The series given is not the only instance, since 
x + x^ + x^ + x*+ =^.y + ^94-yj+y+ =x 

show the same peculiarity. 

(Paragraph 90.) The statement is not strictly true, since -^-q, an 

incommensurable quantity, exceeds its cube more than any other 
quantity. There is no decimal fraction which would express it accu- 
rately. The three decimals given express but a part of the required 
result." J. S., A. M. 

These chapters were designed to answer hundreds of questions that 
accumulated in our sanctum drawer, and many anticipated similar ones. 

Thousands of arithmetical scholars do not know what a logarithm is, 
but to a mathematician they are as simple as an abacus. However, it 
is a little more novel to the eye to observe the arithmetical results, 
than simply to state formulae as in Paragraphs 60 and 73. " Num- 
bers are divine,*' thought Plato ; and " Uneven numbers please the 
Gods," says Virgil ; the mathematician realizes these thoughts in the 
higher mathematics, and all who are engaged in original research 

The errata appeared in December No., p. 334. The statements of 
Paragraph 64 are from Barlow's " Theory of Numbers," p. 505. (See 
also December No., p. 333 Par. 99), and Barlow's "Numbers, p. 299.) 


\>' -^x/ 




H. C €WWJTJ», Kdltor. 

" The Oods desire the depth and not the tumult of the Soul" — Maxim. 
Vol. XL FEBRUARY, 1893. No. 2. 

SpiHt (COLOR). Soul (FORM), Body (MOVEMENT). 

These Three Are One. 


Color. Color is the apex of the A , The Flame, or chemical re- 
sult of Movement. It is the Light toward which we aspire ; the po- 
tency of the Trinity j the Life. 

Movement, the base of the A . . Form, the risen substance. Color, 
the light proceeding to the Father, who is Light. 

The triangular symbol is the figure of Man perfected, rising from 
the basic principle, tarth%made perfect in Form, and reaching unto 
the Heavens. 

Color, then^ the apex of Movement (chemically speaking), is the 
Spirit of mortal material. It is this we conjoin with Spirit moving 
over the vast space of the Universe. 

A practical chemist watches well the eliminated product of his orig- 
inal matter. In this freed gaseous substance he finds the potency 
which means life, or death. An alchemist (far grown beyond experi- 
ment) sees the flame of the earthy substance dance before his eyes, 
in color-change. In this flaming of Spirit he reads nearness to high- 
est chemical product. The story of the precious metals, the gems, 
and at the last, the Philosopher's Stone. 

The universal power of Color in earth results in Gravity. By this 


elimination from the central sulphur principle of the planet, man and 
beast are held to the outside of our sphere. This is the yellow factor 
of life ; that which gems our fields with buttercups and dandelions ; 
decorates the strata of minerals with precious gems, and holds man's 
soul, as well as feet, pioneer to the material. 

For the yellow process resulted in the shining Gold, and man may 
not break the earth-power of Color till his own chain be shaken o&. 
No man liveth who holds not the yellow atoms of eliminated gold in 
his body — chemically speaking. Through this yellow ally, in the 
chemical composition of man, shall the " Thought " (recovery) of gold 
be active. Master of this process of yellow, Man is Master of Gold ; 
Master of Gravity ; Master of Mammon. 

The alchemists of old were the repositories of the secret of Color. 
Its laws they knew not ; the results of combination and elimination 
were familiar to them. Theiefore, unto the world they gave instruc- 
tion, beneath a cloak of mystical signs, which has remained a dead 
letter, truly, to the world at large. 

To man, today, is given the Key of the ally of Light, and Color. 
With this shall be open the very caves of Aladdin ; for the secret of 
the earth is his, and he has but " to rub his lamp" (The Illuminator) 
to make the flame (which is Color), to see what and where he will. 
No fairy story, no Eastern tale of grandeur and splendor may outrival 
the tales we shall tell each other concerning this long-silent old earth 
of ours. Gems untold shall flame out from dark places ; rivers, long 
still, of gold and silver, shall yield up their gleaming beauty, and man 
live once again on an earth of enchanting fairness. 

The Key to the hidden mystery is Co/or, Let us consider it. Geo- 
logically speaking, our world is in disorder. As ii was it is not now. 
The law of complexity is in result, simplicity. An aggregate of chem- 
ical properties is the crystal. The highest product in the mineral* 
world is the conjoining of the two Simples. That is, the eliminated 
products of all the other minerals acting on each other through the 
innumerable Ages. 

Plainly speaking, Mother Nature, in proceeding to put her house in 
order, finds that her mineral children are far a-field. Chaos is every- 
where. The matter of the cellar is in the attic ; the grand halls of 
the once illuminated house are filled with the debris of wild storms 

(31 ) 

and sulphurous orgies ; the portals have long been closed and choked 
with weeds in place of rare blossoms ; and Elementaries, '' imps of 
darkness," stalk through the Temple of the one mighty Lord-Man. 

Mother-Nature is at last awake. Rubbing her almond-shaped eyes, 
she cometh out of the East to decry the state of her abode. She shall 
open wide the portals and casements of darkness. The cobwebs of 
Ages shall fall before her touch ; her magic broom shall reach up 
even to the chaotic cloud — nets of the disordered sky. 

Behold ! She cometh. Behind her the dainty Messenger, bearing 
upon his wingdd shoulder the Key of 7. 

Open wide ye doors 1 Let in the white light of the Coming One. 
Beauty^ Harmony, Glory. These shall reign again in the Temple of 
the Lord ! 

What finds the Mother sitting uopn her haunches in the soul of her 
disordered Mansion ? A very fire-fiend upon the hearth-stone ! Sur- 
rounded by imps of lurid-eyed men, this hag of Sulphur sits in fiend- 
ish glee above her cauldron of Color — feeding, feeding it with the 
poisonous substance, the fumes of which subtlely wend their sinuous 
way up through the despoiled mansion, issuing now in coarser texture 
from windows and doors (the craters of the volcanic heights), now in 
more insidious form permeating every nook and cranny of the earth- 
places above. 

Yellow is the hue of the hag, a sulphurous, red hue ; the tone of 
jaundice and yellow fever, the ally of death in man's blood. 

Demonish peals of laughter ring about the desolated rafters of this 
heart-home of the old earth as these impish fire-fiends recount the mis- 
ery untold projected upon man and beast. They point to long proces- 
sions of suffering ones, to stretching graveyards ; to despair^ crime^ ruin. 

The work of the yellow hag ! Perfected action of the Androgynous 
One. The yellow feminine married in air eternal One-ness to the 
Red Masculine. Orange, the Angel of Gold (The OR, Elementary). 

How shall the wise Mother eject this mighty hag of hell from her 
inmost domain ? Mighty are the fire-fiends, we opine ! Great cauld- 
rons of melted lava ; iron serpents writhing as in dispair for more vic- 
tims ; bolts of mighty metals, red hot for instruments of torture ever- 
lasting. How shall Mother Nature deal with this^ her most terrible, 
and vindictive emeny ? 


Let us see ! She shall absorb her in a mighty power. Disintegrate^ 
disolve, transmute, transform^ and make of the fiend, at length, a 
creature of Light. The yellow gossamer, fairy of wood and field ; the 
Queen of buttercups and Daisies, of goldenrcd and maple leaf ; the 
faithful servitor of the declining yellow Sun-Queen — the puck of the 
round earth. The Mother holdeth in her hand the Magic Staff of Adam. 
Inscribed thereon the mystic seven characters that reveal the history 
of the despoiled house of earth. She readeth this^ and knoweth all. 
Harmony now cometh out of disorder. As it was so shall it be. 
^ Touch not pitch lest ye be defiled." /Phis is the warning against the 
powers of darkness. Eliminate from the chemical construction of 
your own body (the Temple, and Earth in miniature) that which may 
conjoin your gaseous (Soul-substance) with that of the subtle fiends. 

Make to yourselves friends of the house of Mammon that ye may 
become Masters. The elimination of an evil matter is its head and 
tyrant ; its absorbent and transmuter ; its destroyer and saviour. 
Even so with the highest gaseous property of the yellow-red hag, the 
married evils of interior earth. Mother Nature seizes swiftly upon 
this subtle ally (which is to the yellow color of the hag's matter what 
the borrowed sunbeams might be to the hue of saffron). Armed with 
this color aura she proceeds into the very heart of the dew of sulphur. 
Behold ! Eliminated evil overcometh evil. Subtle, intense, all-absorb- 
ing, disintegrating, no demons of the under- world can stand before it. 
Thus does Mother Nature fumigate her hearth-stone. Thus she 
stands mistress once again of her Temple, through which her magic 
voice shall once more sound again. 

How, then, hath the wise woman bound the subtle ally — the apex 
of the triangular power of the basic principle of earth. How, but 
in calling to her aid Spirit (the Flame proceeding from a former elimi- 
nation of Light) that once fair inmate of her now disrupted dwelling. 
She hath called loudly upon this creature of Universal Space, released 
unto all time, and, from the rebound of vibration, caught an ally 
which is also Color ; (that before which no earth principle can stand 
fixed). She has called, out of the realms of Spirit, the law of Blue, 
the very Ariel of Spirits, gauzy-winged, azure-crowned and gowned, 
the tiny Sprite that bears the messages of the King of the Color 

33 ) 

Behold ! For the Spirit of the buttercups and goldenrod hath looked 
upon the fair Sprite Ariel, the Blue Angel of earth's heaven, and hath 
looked and loved. The two love, caress, wed, and of the union is 
bom the child of earth — the Green. The adopted babe of Mother 
Nature's renewed and resurrected home. The babe plays now upon 
the hearthstone, lying in the warm ashes where the fire fiends lately 
sported in impish glee. It sends its color-breath up through the do- 
mains of earth, and the inhabitants rest in verdurous places. The law 
of green usurps the yellow force of the sometime interior sulphur. 
The hag is asleep, bound by the silken thread of the golden butterfly. 

This is one secret of the earth-center: that the ruby hath become an 
•emerald. The ruby is the eye of evil. The masculine demon that 
wedded the yellow hag. It sleepeth. 

It is then the ally of blue-green, with which we shall open all hidden 
places, bursting up from cranny, and creeping into nook and cavern, 
as doth the vegetation of earth. How capture we this friend to fair 
and potent change. 

Find quickly who holdeth him in fond embrace. 

He hath been born out of the yellow butterfly of gold and of blue, 
gossamer Ariel, but his Life was ere they two of earth were created. 
He is the white moth of the air out of which is born Form. To cap- 
ture him, Love came from the blue realm of Space ; and Love (Blue) 
brought him in her bosom to the butterfly, which is Cupid. White and 
pure was he, a snow-white dove, such as Venus loved to harness to 
her car, when she held the pure white thing a prisoner. 

Perfected Form (the Sphere) is he ; shining, and yet formless. 
Strange bit of apparently useless creation. A little idle Prince of the 
Silver Kingdom. A Virgin of Fire. None can hold him. His touch 
is Life itself ; the green babe which is a type of Immortality. 

In what heavenly web shall we capture this soft, white thing of the 
immortals ? By the Law of Love. The Law of the Mother-Love, 
which is the Generation of Life. Where, then, is the Mother of Aio, 
the Virgin, not yet repeated and still breathing out Color, Form, 
Movement, upon the Great Space of Matter ? She is sleeping till the 
King of Color teaches her where she lies in ambush. Send him 
awake and call her offspring, Green, to bestow upon us the fruit of 
the Hesperides. For we hunger and thirst. We have shouted aloud 

( 34 ) 

over sea and cloud and she cometh not. But, even as we call, she 
stands fairer than the morning, warmer than the golden noon, calmer 
than the evening, beside us. " What wilt thou, Oh children of sombre 
earth ? " " Give us. Oh, Mother of Light, once again, the reign of 
Color ! For this, we beseech thy grace and help ! *' 

" Call me not then alone," saith she of the virgin robe of trailing, 
star-lit silver. Without him whom my soul loveth, I may not bestow. 
We are one ! *' 

" Call him quickly, then, O, beautiful Queen of Love ! " We cry, 
give us our ** lost inheritance, once again I " 

More swift than the wind of morn across the waving corn-silk, a 
step drew near. Radiance, strength, beauty, past the Sons of Light ; 
thus appeareth the King of the White Queen's Soul. 

He hath come, and as the hands clasp, a flutter of unheard wings is 
felt and the tiny white babe of Form is upon their united breasts. 

The child of love. The creation sought for by the Philosopher and 
Alchemist. The mystic babe of Color. 

" Ours eternally I Ye may not touch him ! " cry the mighty King 
and Queen of spotless radiance. " He shall do your bidding in the 
Spirit. He shall open to ye the wonders of earth. Ye will find him 
even in our One Heart. We come with him. Without us he is a 
babe. Between our Love ye may make, with his potency, a world.'' 

•^ What, then, are ye," we cried, " that we may hold thee fast for 
the inflicting of the colorless world ?" 

" We are the Highest and the Lowest, the All in All ; the Crystal, 
and the Diamond ; the concentration and diffusion. The two in one. 
The ashes of earth sublimated, raised to the Pinnacle of Greatness. 
The apex of matter diffusing light, that all earth may follow in our 

" We are the King and Queen of matter. The child of our bosom 
is the result of the wedding of two creatures of Light, white as snow, 
once matter, now gaseous rising into light which issues from flame — 
the apex of the A ." 

Behold the A spurning earth (its basic principle rejected), rising to 
the God-height of Knowledge ! 

This is the Elimination of Man. 

( 35) 

ISRAELiTiSH Names. Surnames of persons and families living in 
England, and her colonies, and in the United States, not belonging to 
the Jewish communities, but whose names are of Israelitish extract, 
and found in the Bible connected with the Lost Tribes of Israel. 

" It is a fact," says Henry Edgcombe NicoUs, the * Bayard Taylor 
of England,' " that family names mark the origin of a people." Of 
the six names of English people, in the British Isles, the colonies, and 
the United States, he has traced thousands of them back to their 
Hebrew origin. In connection with this fact it must be borne in mind 
that we do not retain these names because we are Christians, for in 
foreign countries where there are many missionaries, the greatest dif- 
ficulty is said to be experienced to prevail upon the natives to change 
their native-born names for some biblical name. Among the English 
people the tendency is to distinctively cling to their biblical christian 
names, while their surnames, many of them, as the following list from 
Mr. NicoU's work will show, were brought down from a distant Israel- 
tish origin. Dean Stanley says, " The Israelites were not only our 
spiritual ancestors, but their names have descended to us." 

Aaron^ Aronson, Abdi, Abdy, Abel, Abell, Abraham, Abram, Abso 
lum, Absolun, Acher, Acker, Adam, Adnam, Adrian, Akam, Alex- 
ander, Allon, Ami, Amos, Arden, Ardin, Asa, Asaph, Aser, Ascher, 
Ashbee, Ashall, Asher, Asser. 

Baalam, Balara, Bale, Bashan, Bavey, Bavy, Becker, Benjamin, Benn, 

Boaz, Braham. 
Caanan, Cain, Canan, Carma, Claudi. 

Dan, Daniel, Dann, Darkin, Darkon, David, Demetrius, Dviel, Du- 

mach, Dumax. 
Eberr, Ebirt, Eden, Elam, Elias, Elisha, Elkam, Ely, Enock, Esau, 

Gad, Gade, Gaze, Geishom, Gideon. 

Hadlai, Hadley, Hagar, Hager, Hagg, Hagger, Ham, Hamel, Hanam, 
Hanum, Hannon, Haraph, Harhaph, Haroch, Harock, Havel, Ha- 
zel, Hearon, Heber, Helez, Heley, Heles, Helis, Heman, Hemans, 
Hemen, Henock, Hensey, Hepher, Herapp, Hinde, Homan, Ho- 
mann, Horom, Hcsack, Hozah, Hosea, Hosens, Hosi, Hul, Hull, 
Huri, Hurry. 

Isa^c. Jacob, Jackman, Jared, Jasher, Javan, Javane, Jehl, Jehul, Je- 
hu, Jerciiiiah, Jesse, Jessuran, Jessy, Jewell, Jorchim, Job, Joel, 

( 36 ) 

Jonathan, Jona, Jonas, Jory, Josephs, Josephus, John, Joshua, Jo- 
siah, Jotham, Jothan, Jude, Jury. 

Kenah, Kenan, Kenaz, Keria, Kinmon, Kish. 

Lazarus, Lear, Lebahn, Leban^ Levy, Lot, Latam, Loton, Lucas, Lu- 
cius, Luke. 

Maas, Marcus, Magdalin, Malichi, Mallock, Mark, Marian, Mash, 
Mathams, Mathen, Matthew, Mathieu, Meier, Meriam, Michal, 
Michel, Mariam, Mirza, Mordecai, Moses, Mosses. 

Nahon^ Nahum, Nason, Nathan, Nehemiah, Noah, Nott, Nunn. 

Obed, Ogg, Ohern, Omer, Oran, Oshea. 

Padon, Paul, Pelett, Perez, Pheby, Philip, Philipe. 

Rachael^ Kam, Reu, Reuben, Rew, Ruele, Rule. 

Sage, Sacker, Sala, Salman, Salmon, Samson, Samuel, Saul^ Seear, 
Selim, Seth, Shai^r, Shepton, Shetha, Shether, Shillam, Shillem, 
Shimei, Shipton, Simeon, Sismay, Soady, Solomon, Stephen, Ste- 
phesues, St. John. 

Tetter, Timothy, Tobiah, Tobias, Tow. 

Urie^ Uzziele. Zachariah, Zalamanson. 

Egg Problem. Colonel Clarke, F. R. S., submitted this problem 

to the philosophers of England : Required an- investigation of the 

following : 

You can ascertain whether a boiled egg is soft- or hard-boiled by 
this process ; Lay the egg on a smooth horizontal surface ; spin it 
(initially round a vertical axis perpendicular to its axis of figure) ; 
then, it soft it continues to rotate in that way ; but if hard it soon 
gets up on end. 

Mr. H. L. Orchard, L. C. P., presents the following explanation : 

If, when the egg is spun as in the question, the contents are liquid^ 
there is no vertical force produced on its center of gravity, — the inte- 
rior of the shell being supposed smooth. But, if the contents are solid^ 
we shall have to consider a resultant force made up of the (horizon- 
tal) spinning force and of the moment of inertia due to rotation about 
the center of gravity ; this resultant will (by the parallelgoram of forces) 
tend to tilt up the center of gravity (situated towards the broad end) 
and therefore to raise the egg up on that end. — Educational Times Be- 
print, Vol. XXX, p. 30. 

" The intuitive faculty is a ray of Deity, and beholds Essence^ 
The soul which follows its divine ^parent is therefore a wonder,** 

— Robert A. Vaughan. 

( 37 ) 

A Bishop as Poet and Cook. Bishop Williams' of Connecticut, 
senior Prelate of the Episcopal Church in the United States, is an en- 
thusiast upon the subject of New England corn-cake, and has incor- 
porated in verse his views as to how the delicacy should be made. 
The recipe, as it recently appeared in the Hartford Times^ has this 
prologue : 

A forgetful old Bishop, 
All broken to pleoei 
Neglected to disc up 

All broken to pleoesi 
Teglected to disc up 
For oue of his nieces 

A receipt for <' Com Pone/* 

The best ever known. 
So he hastes to repair his sin of omission, 
And hopes that in view of his shattered condition 
His salt for forgiveness he humbly may urse, 
So here's the receipt, and it comes from Lake George. 


Take a cup of com meal 

(And the meal should be yellow), 
Add a cup of wheat flour 
For to make the corn mellow; 
Of sugar a cup, white or brown at your pleasure 
(The color is nothing, the fVuit is the measure) ; 

And now comes a troublesome thing to Indite, 

For the rhame and the reason they trouble me quite; 

For after the sugar, the flour and the meal. 

Comes a cup of sour cream, but unless yon should steal 

From jour neighbors, I fear you will never be able 

This item to put upon your cook's table; 

For <' sure and indeed,*' in all towns I remember, 

Sour cream is as scarce as June bugs in December. 

So here an alternative nicely contrived 

Is suggested, your min i to relieve. 
And showing how yon, without stealing at all. 

The ff round that is lost may retrieve. 
Insteaa of sour cream, take one cup of milk, 

" Sweet milk ! ** what a sweet phrase to utter I 
And to make it cream-like put into the cup * 

Just three tableq^nfuls of butter. 

Cream of tartar, one tesspoonftils, roles dletetio, 
(How nearly I wrote down tartar emetic) ; 
But no; cream of tartar, it is without doubt. 
And so the alfemative makes Itself out. 
Of soda the half of a teaspoonfhl add, 
Or else your poor corn cake will go to the bad; 
Two eggs must be broken without being beat. 
Then of salt a teaspoon ful your work will complete. 
Twenty minutes or baking are needfYiI to bring 
To the point of perfection thi^ " awful good thing.** 
To eat at the best this remarkable cake, 
Ton should fish all day long on the royal-named lake, 
With the bright waters glancins in glorious light 
And beauties unnumbered bewild'ring your sight. 
On mountain and lake, in water and sky; 
And then, when the shadows fa\\ down ftom on high. 
Seek ** Sabbiith Day Point,** as the light fhdes away, 
And end with this feast the angler*s long day. 
Then, there yon will find, without any question, 
That an appetite honest awaits on digestion. 

(38 ) 


1. Some of our modern classical scholars and philologists now spell 
the name of the author of the JEncid with an e, thus, *" Vergil,'' in 
place of Virgil. What is the authority for the former ? Logos. 

2. Who was meant by " Good-Intent " in the narrative entitled 
" The Progress of the Pilgrim Good-Intent, in Jacobinical Times," 
which was printed in many editions during the early years of the pres- 
ent century ? Jonathan. 

3. Whence comes the quotation, *^ Bringing a cure for all our ills," 
sometimes credited to the Bible ? I fail to find it in the Scriptures. 


4. Biblical interpreters have given " Pradam acceleravit spoliam 
festinando" as the meaning of Maher'shalalhashbaz (Isaiah, viii, 1,3); 
but what is the English of the Latin ? Student. 

5. A brother Odd Fellows informs me that in some certain meet- 
ings of the lodge the presiding officer must be addressed as Most 
Noble Grand instead of " Noble Grand." As he did not explain when 
such an address was proper, I am led to ask for information. X. 

6. Why was the Sibyl of Judaea called a Huldah f ( See Higgins's 
" Anacalypsis,*' Vol. I, p. 252.) Philobiblion. 

7. Who is the author of the following lines ? Henry. 

Within that awful volame lies 
The mystery of mysteries ! 
Happiest they of hnman race, 
To whom Go<i has given grace 

To read, to fear, to hope, to pray, * 

To lift the latch, to force the way ; 
Bat better had they ne'er been born, 
• Who read to doubt, or read to scorn. 

8. Robert Wood, in his work, '* Essay on the Original Genius and 
Writings of Homer," London, 1824, p. 161, has the following remarks : 

" When Proteus takes an account of the numbers of the sea-calvesy 
the manner in which he performs that operation is expressed by a 
Greek verb (^pempasselai, Odyssey iv, 412), to which there is nothing 
in our language literally equivalent. When I therefore say he fiv^ 
them, I take the liberty of coining a word, which, corresponding with the 
old Greek term, will convey to the English reader an allusion to the 
origin of arithmetic." 

Is any other numeral ever used as a verb to represent the method 
of counting? '* He/z/^// them." Classicus. 

9. Are all the letters in the word Queue vowels except the initial ? 


( 39 ) 

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs 

II. SIMEON — Concerning Envy. 

1. The copy of the words of Simeon, what things he spake to his 
sons before he died, in the hundred and twentieth year of his life, in 
the year in which Joseph died. For they came to visit him when he 
was sick, and he strengthened himself and sat up and kissed them, 
and said to them : 

2. Hear, O my children, hear Simeon your father, what things I 
have in my heart. I was born of Jacob my father, his second son ; 
and my mother Leah called me Simeon, because the Lord heard her 
prayer. I became strong exceedingly ; I shrank from no deed, nor 
was I afraid of anything. For my heart was hard, and my mind was 
unmovable, and my bowels unfeeling ; because valour also has been 
given from the Most High to men in soul and in body. And at that 
time I was jealous of Joseph because our father loved him ; and I set 
my mind against him to destroy him, because the prince of deceit 
sent forth the spirit of jealousy and blinded my mind, that I regarded 
him not as a brother, and spared not Jacob my father. But his God 
and the God of his fathers sent forth His angel, and delivered him 
out of my hands. For when I went into Shechem to bring ointment 
for the flocks, and Reuben to Dotham, where were our necessaries and 
all our stores, Judah our brother sold him to the Ishmaelites. And 
when Reuben came he was grieved, for he wished to have restored 
him safe to his father. But I was wroth against Judah in that he let 
him go away alive, and for five months I continued wrothful against 
him; but God restrained me, and withheld from me all working of my 
hands, for my right hand was half withered for seven days. And I 
knew, my children, that because of Joseph this happened to me, and I 
repented and wept ; and I besought the Lord that He would restore 
my hand unto me, and that I might be kept from all pollution and 
envy, and from all folly. For I knew that I had devised an evil deed 
before the Lord and Jacob my father, on account of Joseph my 
brother, in that I envied him. 

3. And now, children, take heed of the spirit of deceit and of 
envy. For envy ruleth over the whole mind of a man, and suffereth 
him neither to eat, nor to drink, nor to do any good thing ; it ever sug- 
gesteth to him to destroy him that he envieth ; and he that is envied 
ever flourisheth, but he that envieth fades away. Two years of days 
I afflicted my soul with fasting in the fear of the Lord; and I learnt 
that deliverance from envy cometh by the fear of God. If a man flee 
to the Lord, the evil spirit runneth away from him, and his mind be. 

r 40 ) 

cometh easy. And henceforward he sympathizeth with him whom he 
envied, and condemneth not those who love him, and so ceaseth from 
his envy. 

4. And my father asked concerning me, because he saw that^I was 
sad ; and I said^ I am pained in the liver. For I mourned more than 
they all, because I was guilty of the selling of Joseph. And when we 
went down into Egypt^ and he bound me as a spy, I knew that I was 
suffering justly, and grieved not. Now Joseph was a good man, and 
had the spirit of God within him; compassionate and pitiful, he bore 
not malice against me ; nay, he loved me even as the rest of his 
brothers. Take heed, therefore, my children, of all jealousy and envy, 
and walk in singleness of soul and with good heart, keeping in mind 
the brother of your father, that God may give to you also grace and 
glory, and blessing upon your heads, even as ye saw in him. All his 
days he reproached us not concerning this thing, but loved us as his 
own soul, and beyond his own sons ; and he glorified us, an gave 
riches, and cattle, and fruits freely to us all. Do ye then also, my be- 
loved children, love each one his brother with a good heart, and re- 
move from you the spirit of envy, for this maketh savage the soul and 
destroyeth the body ; it turneth his purposes into anger and war, and 
stirreth up into blood, and leadeth the mind into frenzy, and suffereth 
not prudence to act in men; moreover, it taketh away sleep, and caus- 
eth tumult to the soul and trembling to the body. For even in sleep 
some malicious jealousy, deluding him, gnaweth at his soul, and with 
wicked spirits disturbeth it, and causeth the body to be troubled, and 
the mind to awake from sleep in confusion; and as though having a 
wicked and poisonous spirit, so appeareth it to men. 

5. Therefore was Joseph fair in appearance, and goodly to look 
upon, because there dwelt not in him any wickedness; for in trouble 
of the spirit the face declareth it. And now, my children, make your 
hearts good before the Lord, and your ways straight before men, and 
ye shall find grace before God and men. . And take heed not to com- 
mit fornication, for fornication is mother of all evils, separating from 
God, and bringing near to Beliar. For I have seen it inscribed in the 
writing of Enoch that your sons shall with you be corrupted in forni- 
cation, and shall do wrong against Levi with the sword. But they 
shall not prevail against Levi, for he shall wage the war of the Lord, 
and shall conquer all your hosts; and there shall be a few divided in 
Levi and Judah, and there shall be none of you for sovereignty, even 
as also my father Jacob prophesied in his blessings. 

6. Behold, I have foretold you all things, that I may be clear from 
the sin of your souls. Now, if you remove from you your envy, and 
al your stiff-neckedness, as a rose shall my bones flourish in Israel, 
and as a lily my flesh in Jacob, and my odour shall be as the odour of 

( 41 ) 

Libanus; and as cedars shall holy ones be multiplied from me forever, 
and their branches shall stretch afar off. Then shall perish the seed 
of Canaan, and a remnant shall not be to Amalek, and all the Cap- 
padocians shall perish, and all the Hittites shall be utterly destroyed. 
Then shall fail the land of Ham, and every people shall perish. Then 
shall all the earth rest from trouble, and all the world under heaven 
from war. Then shall Shem be glorified, because the Lord God, the 
Mighty One of Israel, shall appear upon earth as a man, and save by 
Him Adam. Then shall all the spirits of deceit be given to be tram- 
cled under foot, and men shall rule over the wicked spirits. Then 
shall I arise in joy^ and will bless the Most High because of His mar- 
vellous works, because God hath tiken and eaten with men and saved 

7. And now, my children, obey Levi^ and in Judah shall ye be re- 
deemed ; and be not lifted up against these two tribes, for from them 
shall arise to you the salvation of God. For the Lord shall rise up 
from Levi as it were a Priest, and from Judah as it were a King, God 
and man. So shall He save all the Gentiles and the race of Israel. 
Therefore I command your children, that they may observe them 
throughout their generations. 

8. And Simeon made an end of commanding his sons, and slept 
with his fathers, being an hundred and twenty years old. And they 
laid him in a coffin of incorruptible wood, to take up his bones to 
Hebron, And they carried him up in a war of the Egyptians secretly; 
for the bones of Joseph the Egyptians guarded in the treasure-house of 
the palace; for the sorcerers told them that at the departure of the 
bones of Joseph there should be throughout the whole of Egypt dark- 
ness and gloom, and an exceeding great plague to the Egyptians^ so 
that even with a lamp a man should not recognize his brother. 

9. And the sons of Simeon bewailed their father according to the 
law of mournings and they were in Egypt until the day of their de- 
parture from Egypt by the hand of Moses. 

Ezra and Zoroaster. A very ingenious writer in the old Monthly 

Magazine (No. 385, August, 1823) supposes that, 

" Ezra was the only Zoroaster, snd that the XXI Books of Zertusht 
were the XXI Books of our Hebrew Bible ; with the exception, indeed, 
the canon of Ezra could not have included Nehemiah, who flourished 
after the death of Ezra ; nor the extant book of Daniel, which dates 
from Judas Maccabeus ; nor the Ecclesiastes^ which is posterior to 
Philo ; and that it did include the book of Enochs now retained only 
in the Abyssinian canon." 

i 42 ) 

Hiero^lifphics on Obelisk Translated. 

(VOL. XI, p. 16.) 

The New York Herald published the following translation of the 
hieroglyphics on the obelisk, as furnished by Dr. Brugsch Bey : 


King Thothmes III. is represented as a Sphinx, with the head and 
arms of a man. He is offering two vases of wino to the Sun God On. 
His body rests upon a sort of pylon, decorated with the titles : 

The Strong Bull, Who manifests himself King In theThebaid, The 
Son of the Sun. Thothmes. 

Over the body may be read : The Gracious God, Lord of the Two 
Worlds, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Ra-men-kheper. - - 

[Name of the Boyal Standard^ 

Horus : Magnified and Enlightened by the Crown of Upper Egypt. 

{The Official Standard,] 

The King of Upper and Lower Egypt : Ra-men-kheper. 

[The Title of the Victorious.] 

The Golden Horus. The Strong of Arm. Who beat the Kings of 
Foreign Nations. Who were numbered by hundreds of thousands, 
For his Father, the Sun God Ra, ordered for him Victories over all 
Lands. Mighty Power Was concentrated at the points of his hands 
To widen the boundaries of Egypt. 

[The Samily Name,] 

The Son of the Sun Thutmes ------ 

Who gives Life of all Stability and Purity. Today as ever after. Ho- 
rus the Strong Bull. The Son of Tum. The King of Upper and 
Lower Egypt. Ra-user-ma. The Chosen One of the Sun. Lord of 
the Diadems of the Vulture and of the Serpent. Protector of Egypt. 
Chastiser of Foreign Nations. The Son of the Sun, Ramessu Meri- 
amun the Conqueror, Who With his Own Arms Performed Great 
Deeds In the face of The Entire World Assembled. The Lord of the 
Two Worlds ; Ra-user-ma, The Chosen One of the Sun, The Son of 
the Sun ; Ramessu Meri-amum, Who gives Life of all Stability and 
Purity Today as ever after. Horus : the Strong Bull. Friend of Jus- 
tice. King of Upper and Lower Egypt. Lord of the Periods of Thirty 
Years. Like his Father, Ptah-Tanen. [The god of Memphis, "] The 
Son of the Sun ; Ramessu Meri-amun. [That is to say the Friend of 
the god Amon of Thebes.] 

The Sun created him. To cause great Rejoicing in the City of On, 
and to fill the city with Riches the Sanctuaries of his Creator, the 
Lord of the two Worlds : Ra-user-ma, the Chosen one of the Sun . 

( 48 ) 

The Son of the Sun : Ramessu Meri-amun^ Who gives Life to all 
Stability and Purity Today as ever after. 


The representation and the text inscribed upon the pylon are the 
some as those on Face I. The inscriptions engraved over the Sphinx 
and the figure of the god are not sufficiently distinct to read them. 

[^JVame of the Royal Standard^ 

Horus, the Strong Bull,Who manifested himself as King inthe Thebaid* 

\pfficial Titk:\ 

The King of Upper and Lower Egypt : Ra-men-kheper, Who caused 
Great Rejoicing in the House of the Sun God Ra— [7>4tf//> Heliopolis^ 
Who created the beauty of the Sun Disk ; the day ^hen for the first 
time was made -_____- 

Horus : The Strong Bull, the Son of the Sun God Ra, the King of 
Upper and Lower Egypt. Ra-user-ma the Chosen One of the Sun. 
The Golden Horus : Rich in Years ; Grand in Victories. The Son of 
the Sun; Ramessu Meri-amun. ------ 

- - The Lord of the Two Worlds. Ra-user-ma the Chosen 
One of the Sun, the Son of the Sun [-ftamwsu-iferia^nwn] - - - - 

Like the Sun Horus : the Strong Bull, Friend of Justice. The King 
of Upper and Lower Egypt; the Son of the Sun; the Creature of the 
Gods; Who [has taken possession of] the Two Worlds, the Son of the 
Sun; Ra-user-ma Meri-amun: The Friend of the City of the Sun ; 
Never before was done what he did for the City of On. His Memory 
is forever fixed in the City of Tum \F^um\, The Lord of the Two 
Worlds : Ra user-ma. The Chosen One of the Sun. The Son of the 
Sun [^Ramessu- Meri-amum] Who gives life. 


{Partly illegible^ 
\Natne of Royal Standard^ 
Horus : the Strong Bull, Friend of the Sun God Ra. 

\The Official Title,'] 
The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Ra-men-kheper 

Horus : the Strong Ball. The Companion and Friend of Justice. 
The King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Ra-user-ma; Lord of the 
Periods of Thirty Years. Like his Father the God Ptah; Lord of the 
White Wall {name of the Citadel of Memphis.] The Son of the Sun ; 
Ramessu Meri-amun. The God. The Divine Being. The Terres- 
trial Star the City of the Sun God Ra. Which is sustained by the 
deed of the Lord of Two Worlds : Ra-user-ma. The Son of the Sun ; 
Ramessu Meri-amun, Who gives Life. 

( 44 ) 


The representation and the text inscribed upon the pylon are the 
same as those on Face I. The Sun God is this time called ^^Hor- 
makhu** — that is, the Harmais or Harmachis of the Greeks. 

The King's titles are : 

The Gracious God, the Lord of the Two Worlds : Ra-men-kheper: 
The offering of the god is indicated by the inscription : 
Gift of Wine. 

\^Name of the Royal Siandanf] 

Horus : the Strong Bull. Who manifested himself as King in Thebaid. 

IThe Crown Tit/^.] 

The Lord of the Diadems of the Vulture and of the Serpent, His 
Kingdom is as lasting as is the Sun in the Heavens. 
[TA^ Family name, enclosed in an elliptical circle and containing a cuiious 
allusion to the meaning of the name Thutmes.'] 

The Creature of the God Tum, Lord of the City of On, the Son 
who came out from his Belly, and whom the God Thut formed. 
[Mes.] They created him in the Grand Hall [of the Temple of On'] 
After the model of their own body, being conscious of the Great 
Deeds he was to accomplish; he whose Kingdom should be of long 
duration . [ The Official Title,] 

The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Ra men kheper, Friend of 
the Great God Tum, and of the Circle of his Divinities. He who 
gives Life of all Stability and Purity Today as ever after. Horus; the 
Strong Bull, Friend of the Sun God Ra, the King of Upper and 
Lower Egypt, Ra-userma. The Chosen One of the Sun. He has 
taken possession of the Two Worlds, the Son of the Sun ; Ramessu 
Meri-amun. A Handsome and Kind-Herated Youth. He is as re- 
splendent as is the Solar Orb in the Horizon. The Lord of the Two 
Worlds ; Ra-userma, the Chosen One of the Sun. The Son of the 
Sun ; Ramessu Meri-amnu. The Reflected Splendor of the God Tum 
who gives Life, Horus ; the Strong Bull. Th eSon of the Sun God 
Kheper \that is of him who exists'], the King of Upper and Lower 
Egypt, Ra-user-ma, the Chosen One of the Sun. The Golden Horus ; 
Rich in Years j Grand in Victories. The Son of the Sun ; Ramessu 

He came out of the Belly. To receive the Crowns from the Sun God 
Ra, Who Created him to be the Sole Monarch, The Lord of the Two 
Worlds. 1^ Ra-user-ma. The Chosen One of the Sun. The Son of the 
Sun. Ramessu-Meri-amun. The Reflected Splendor of the God Tum. 
Like the Sun. 

At the foot of the four faces of the obelisk is a horizontal line of text, 
which reads : " May he live ! The Gracious God : Ra-user-ma. The 
Chosen One of the Sun ; The Gracious God ; Ramessu-Meri-amun." 

( 45 ) . 

Memoranda of J^ew Hampshire Towns. 

(Continued from January y 1893, p, 7.) 


Alton (imcorporated June i6, 1796), New Durham, name of English 

Barnstead^ granted May 20, 1727. 

Belmont (as Upper Gilmanton, June 29, 1859), set off from Gilman- 
ton ; took present name June 24, 1869, for August Belmont. 

Center Harbor (Dec. 7, 1797)? part of Moultonbc rough. 

Gilford (June 16, 1812), set off from Gilmanton. 

Gilmanton (May 29^ 1727), included Gilford and Belmont; so called 
for settlers named Gilman. 

Laconia (July 25, 1855), Meredith divided; adopted name first given 
the territory of N. H., originally the home of the Spartans ; in 1847 
took part of Gilford's territory. 

Meredith (Dec. 30, 1768), called New Salem; included Laconia. 

New Hampton (Nov. 27, 1777), part of Moultonborough Gore. 

Sanbomton (March i, 1770), included Tilton and part of Franklin; 
settled by several persons named Sanborn; spelled Sanborntown for 
first child born on sand beach of the bay. 

Tilton Quly 1869), Sanbomton divided; for Samuel Tilton. 


Albany (incorporated as Burton, Nov. 6, 1776), present name adopted 
July 2, 1833, for Albany, N. Y., named for Duke of Albany. 

Bartlett (June 16, 1790), named for Gov. Josiah Bartlett; from Coos 

Brookfield (Dec. 30, 1894), part of Middleton. 

Chatham, granted Feb. 7, 1767 ; from Coos county. 

Conway, granted Oct. i, 1765, called Pigwackett. 

Eaton, granted Nov. 7, 1776, included Madison. 

Effingham (Aug. 18, 1778), part of Freedom called Leavitt's-town. 

Freedom Qune 16, 1851), formed from Effingham and Ossipee Gore. 

Hale's Location, adjoining Bartlett; from Coos county. 

Hart's Location; from Coos county. 

Jackson (as Adams, Dec. 4, 1800), adopted present name July 4, 
1829, from political preference; from Coos county. 

C 46 ) 

Hill (as New Chester, Nov. 20, 1778), included Bridgewater and Bris- 
tol; adopted present name in 1836 for Gov. Isaac Hill; from Graf- 
ton county, July i, 1868. 

Hooksett (July 2, 1822), formed from Chester, Goffstown and Dun- 

Hopkinton (Jan. 10, 1765), called New Hopkinton, settled by people 
from Hopkinton, Mass. ; from Hillsborough county. 

Loudon (Jan. 23, 1773), formed from Canterbury; named for Earl of 
Loudon; from Rockingham county. 

Newbury (as Fisherfield Nov. 27, 1778), first called Dantzick; adopted 
present name in 1836; from Hillsborough county. 

New London (June 25, 1779), ^ part of Alexandria Addition, and first 
called Heidelberg; from Hillsborough county. 

Northfield (June 19, 1780), taken from Canterbury; from Rockingham 

Prembroke (Nov. i, 1759), granted May, 1727, as Suncook ; from 
Rockingham county. 

Pittsfield (March 27, 1782), formed from Chester; from Rockingham 
county. ' 

Salisbury (March i, 1768), called Baker'stown and Gerrish-town, 
afterward Stevens-town; from Hillsborough county. 

Sutton (April 13, 1784), called Perry 's-town for Obadiah Perry, for 
Sutton^ Mass.; from Hillsborough county. 

Warner CSept. 3, 1774), callled New Amesbury and Jennis-town, to 
which was added so much of Kearsarge Gore as lay south of Kear- 
sarge Summit; from Hillsborongh county. 

Webster (July 3, i860), west part of Boscawen divided. 

Wilmont (June 18, 1807), formed from the north-easterly portion of 
New London, part of New Chester; Hill and that part of Kear- 
sarge Gore north of Kearsarge Summit. 


Alstead (Aug. 6, 1763), first granted as Newton. 

Chesterfield, called No. i. granted Feb. 11, 1752. 

Dublin (March 29, 1771), called Monadnock No. 2; inchided part of 

Fitzwilliam (May 19,1773), called Monadnock No. 4; included part of 

Gilsum (July 13, 1763), called Boyle, and included Surry. 

Harrisville (July 2, 1870), formed from Dublin and Nelson. 

( 47) 

Madison (Dec. 17, 1852), Eaton divided; named for President James 

Moultonborough, granted Nov. 17, 1763; named for Col. Jonathan 

Ossipee (Feb. 22, 1785), called New Garden; Indian name. 
Sandwich (Oct. 25, 1763). 
Tamworth (Oct. 14, 1766.) 

Tuftonborough (Dec. 17, 1795^ named for John Tufton Mason. 
Wakefield (Aug. 30, 1774), called East Town. 
Woifeborough (July 9, 1770), named for Gen. Wolfe. 


Allenstown (incorporated July 2, 1831), granted May 11, 1722; from 
Rockingham county. 

Andover (June 25,1779), called Emeriss-'own, and New Breton, fo*" 
some of the grantees who were of the captors of that place in 1745J 
from Hillsborough county. 

Boscawen (April 22, 1760), called Contoocook ; named for Admiral 
Edward Boscawen; from Hillsborough county. 

Bow, included part of Territory of Concord, named for bend in river ; 
granted May 20 1727; from Rockingham county. 

Bradford (Sept. 27, 1787), called New Bradford, for Bradford, Mass.; 
from Hillsborough county. 

Canterbury, included the territory of Loudon and Northfield; granted 
May 20, 1727; from Rockingham county. 

Chichester, included Pittsfield; granted May 20, 1727; from Rock- 
ingham county. 

Concord, (as Rumford, June 7, 1733; as Concord, state of agreement 
or peace, Feb. 27, 1765), granted as Penacook, Jan. 17, 1725; in 
reference to settlement of territorial differences with Bow, by the 
King; became state capital in 1816 ; adopted city charter, March 
10, 1853 ; from Rockingham county. 

Danbury (June 181795), taken from Alexandria; from Grafton county. 

Dunbarton (Aug. 10, 1765), called Stark's-town, included part of 
Hooksett; from Rockingham county. 

Epsom (May 18, 1727);. from Rockingham county. 

Franklin (Dec. 24, 1828), taken from Andover, Salisbury, Northfield, 
and Sanbornton ; named for Benjamin Franklin. 

Henniker (Nov. 9, 1768), called No. 6; named for John Henniker, 
M. P., merchant in London; from Hillsborough county. 

( 48 ) 

Hinsdale (under J. Wentwortb, Sept. 3, 1753), called Fort Dummer ; 
named for Col, Ebcnezer Hindsdale. 

JafiErey (Aug. 17, 1773), called Monadnock No. 2; named for Hon. 
Geo. Jaffrey, Portsmouth, councilor. 

Keene ( April 11, 1753), called Upper Ashuelot; adopted city charter 
1873; named for Sir Benj. Keene, British minister to Spain. 

Marlborough (Dec. 13, 1776), Monadnock No. 5, including parts of 
Roxbury and Troy; named for Duke of Marlborough. 

Marlow (Oct. 7, 1761.) 

Nelson (Feb. 22, 1774), Monadnock No. 6; afterwards called Packers- 
field, for Thomas Packer, a Masonian proprietor; included part of 
Roxbury; present name adopted June, 1814; named for Lord Nel- 

Richmond (F^b. 28, 1752). 

Rindge (Aug. 11, 1768), Monadnock No. i, named for Geo. Rindge 
a proprietor and councilor. 

Roxbury (Dec. 9, 1812), formed from parts of Nelson, Keene and 

Stoddard (Nov. 5, 1774), called Limerick, named for Col. Sampson 
Stoddard, a granted from Chelmsford. 

Sullivan (Sept. 27, 1787), named for Gen. John Sullivan. 
Surry (March 9, f769), formed from parts of Gilsum and Westmore- 
Swansey (July 2, 1853), called Lower Ashuelot. 

Troy (June 23, 1815), formed parts of Marlborough and Fitzwilliam ; 
named for ancient Troy. 

Walpole (Feb. 16, 1752), called Great Falls or Bellow's-town. 

Westmoreland (Feb. ii, 1753), called Great Meadow. 

Winchester (July 2, 1753), called Arlington. 


Acworth (incorporated under John Wentworth, Sept. 19, 1766). 

Charlestown, called No. 4, including part of Langdon, named for Sir 
Charles Knowles, who presented a sword to Capt. Phineas Stevens 
for his brave defence of the fort against 400 French and Indians. 

Claremont (Oct. 26. 1764)), named for country seat of English Gen- 
eral Lord Robert Clive. 

Cornish (June 21, 1763), first known as Mast Camp, erected for com- 
pany procuring masts for the king's navy. 

Croydon (May 81, 1763). 

( 49 ) 


A Legend of Old Kutfield (Beyond Kassabedc) 

By Secretary of Veteran O. F. Association. 

thirteenth annual festival of the veteran odd fellows, 
manchester, n. h., november 18, 1892. 



All Hail ! Now, ye brothers, of this Veteran band, 
A mystic legend, I am moved to unfold, 

And recite to you as our traditions stand ; 
But the moral taught, print in letters of gold. 

This legend in mind, one morn on my couch, 
An opportune theme, I wrote this j but then, 

For the truth of the details I cannot avouch, 
Read " Chester '* — the author was named after Ben. 

This region is famous for traditions old, 

*' Rock Rimmon '* is fruitful for a poem grand ; 

Judges twenty-one, verse thirteen, we are told, 

The people were '* peaceful " all around in this land. 

Even Ben traced his lineage to that ancient time, 
Claimed that he had the cup, without any doubt, 

Brought up out of Egypt ; he made it all chime. 
He proved it by names, he had traced it all out. 


To our good Ben, there was a great moral taught, 
" Great-heart " of Nutfield he was known thert to be 

In unmeasured lines, as suggested by Scott, 
^* I will tell the tale as revealed unto me." 

Just beyond Massabesic, or a mile or two more, 
An old veteran lived in his comfortable cot, 

But like many such things in those days of yore. 
The road and the spot, and surname, are forgot. 

Now it chanced on a day, says the legend arcane^ 
That a stranger was traveling that way from afar. 

Aweary, afoot, no moon on the wane, 
Not even the light of the evening star. 

Perchance he had listened to a sermon thence. 
By the good Joseph Secombe, on God, or his laws. 

Or, to ** I Go a fishing," thrice fifty years since, 
In the good old days, before Manchester was. 

His mind was absorbed in the days of his youth, 
How he wrote on birch bark, a quill for a pen ; 

How the hornbook was thumbed, and such like, forsooth, 
In the good old school days he once had with Ben. 

The night was approaching, his journey miles more, 
Noon had delayed him with an indisposed man ; 

Then darkness came on, and the Falls' distant roar, 
Bethought him for shelter, " Til look out for Dan." 

Now, ^' Ourselves first, then the rest of mankind," 
Has guided too many, as it had Ben and Dan ; 

Though Ben may not have had this in his mind. 
Yet such is the maxim with many a man. 

He spied through the trees away down the lane. 

In a cot all alone, the gleam of a light. 
That shone through the shutters, or uncurtained pane, 

Inviting him thither for shelter that night. 

(51 ) 

No curfew had rung from some distant tower, 
To remind him that evening was not far spent, 

His slow plodding steps had passed nearly an hour, 
After a veteran's prayers to heaven are sent. 

The weary old man turned down the long walk. 

With the help of his staff — the branch of a pine — 
On the well-barred door, just a three-mystic-knock 

Dan had heard the prayer, Ben was late to his shrine. 

" Who comes there ? " asked the man just ready for bed ; 

" It is I," cried the stranger, " I want to come In ; 
I have visited the sick, I've obeyed what He said ; 

I am cold, I am weary, I too, trust in Him," 

The stranger then waited, and leaned on his staff, 
Expecting a welcome, but he heard with chagrin : 

** Give me some Word, spoken, in letters, or a half. 
For, I know of no man named /, Ife, or Iftm,^* 

The stranger then thought, don't the godman in there, 
Rememder those wori/s, I am, and Thou art ? 

I will wait, let him ponder on his recent prayer. 
Let me see if his words went up from his heart. 

The stranger again made an alarm at the door. 
This time he knocked twice, to shorten the test ; 

" Who comes there ? " the question, the same as before ; 
^ It is I," cried the stranger, " pray, heed my request." 

*• /, who is /," said a voice, as if in some fear ; 

The stranger then thought, don't the godman know II 
Let him ponder awhile, and perhaps he will hear 

The " still small voice " who is always nigh. 

After waiting awhile, the weather grew bleak, 
And glancing around, he knew by the glow 

Of the light through the shutter, the embers were weak, 
And the stranger thought, " He will make him knawJ^ 

(52 ) 

With his staff he then gave just one distinct knock, 
Both hands of the dial were pointing to heaven ; 

Low twelve produced silence, then finished the clock, 
The prayer " In His Name," was finished past eleven. 

A moment of silence, then again, ** Who comes there ? ** 
Much louder, emphatic, in a stentorian tone ; 

How it rung out into that dark midnight air. 

How that stranger was startled, there waiting alone. 

He contemplated the scene, how once, twice, and thrice, 
The question was asked, Dan knew those words, too, 

'' ^e wili make him know" then he responded precise, 
" It is not only /, but It is Thou," — and he knew. 

That THOU touched the heart of the veteran inside, 
He felt for the stranger, as man feels for man ; 

The door was unbarred and swung open wide, 

" For God's sake, cried Ben, " Is this, old friend Dan ? " 

That shake of the hands, and that warm-hearted grip, 

'^ That fellow feeling that makes one wondrous kind," 
Told more of Friendship, than the human lip 
Could speak in i^^LSS-words scarce ever in mind. 

This good old friend Dan was made welcome and warm, 
By his former old friend, as the legends state, 

And ne'er after that in fair weather or in storm, 

At that veteran's door was stranger known to wait. 

They reviewed their past lives, of fifty years sped. 
The ups and the downs, and anent pleasant things ; 

But a-thousand-and-one such, related and said, 
Like other events have taken themselves wings. 

So in this brotherhood, composed of good men. 
Should we not take heed and remember our vow. 

The lesson thus given, we may practice, and then 
We will have less of great /, and a little more ITiou, 

""'( ftB 23 1803 

M I S C E L I. A N Es^XBRAlSi 


H. C €^U1<]», Editor. 

" 2^6 greatest dtseaae of the Sotd is ungodliness and ignorance of OodJ* 

— John David Chambers. 

Vol. XI. MARCH, 1893. No. 3. 

The Secret Discipline and Freemasonry. 


Hutchinson's " Spirit of Masonry ** is a very valuable work on 
Freemasonry in the north of England^ but I am afraid we cannot 
place much reliance on the arguments used for the words in question 
(Notes and Queries, Vols. VIII, 427 ; IX, p. 41 ; X, p. 319). 

According to Cardinal Newman, '* The Arcane Discipline " spread 
from Alexandria in the second century, and was the introduction of 
Neo-Platonic forms into Christianity. Now Platonism was the doc- 
trine of the mysteries carried into minor schools, without the show 
and dramatic accessories of the great mysteries. It had its trance- 
death^ by which the spiritual nature of man* was awakened ; a state 
which passed also into the Christian church, as we may gather from 
the fathers, and we even find it amongst the Culdees in Ireland until 
a comparatively modern era. Christianity was the state religion of 
Britain as early as the second century, and I think there is sufficient 
evidence to prove that the doctrine of these Britons, or Culdees^ was 
that of The Arcane Discipline. Their priests existed at York in the 
time of King Athelstan (938), and even into Norman times. Archi- 
tecture at this period was in the control of the clergy, hence we are 
bound to find that all church symbolism is impossible in the Disci- 
pline, and that there was a Freemasonry which had reference to it in 

( 54) 

Saxon times. The crypt of York Minster is early Roman work, and 
we know for a fact that in those early times there was one or more 
temples at York erected to the Osirian worship of Egypt under the 
Greco-Roman name of Serapis. The fathers charged the mysteries 
generally with using a symbolic death. The symbol of the cross, and 
the mystery of bread and wine, with other resemblances to Christian 
worship and doctrine — hence the later emperors suppressing the mys- 
teries to get rid of the evidence. In Freemasonry we have quite suf- 
ficient evidence. I consider, to show that early Saxon Freemasonry 
was Serapian, transformed into Christian. The earliest of these doc- 
trines is a Christian system, and there is not one word in this version 
that would tend to show that the initiates supposed that their fore- 
fathers had wrought at the Temple of Solomon. The documents in- 
form us that their constitution had been sanctioned by Athelstan upon 
an Egyptian model. The legends dealing with a Solomonic source 
are of the fourteenth century, though dating no doubt into the thir- 
teenth century, and coming to us through a Palistinian and Norman 
channel by way of France. Freemasonry of today is a union of this 
Saxon and Norman Freemasonry, or Christian or Saracenic rites, made 
in this country about 1356, and I believe that we may find the early 
Saxon Mastership in the grades of Heredom, Rosy Cross, Knight of 
the Eagle, Knight of St. Andrew, etc., that grade having passed under 
various names. This would lead us to believe, though Hutchinson's 
view is worth consideration, that Hebrew words are of thirteenth cen- 
tury introduction, the old form of recognition being one of " Salutation." 

In France, the Christian and the Judaic system have been kept dis- 
tinct from early limes to the present day under the general designa- 
tion of the Compagnionage. The doctors of the Sorbonne in 1648 
used very strong language against the Christian system, in terms al- 
most identical with those which the fathers made against the Serapian 
and Mithraic mysteries. 

I have just written a small book, containing a short summary of all 
the evidence known to the present time, upon the great antiquity of 
our Speculative Freemasonry. I find traces of it in the ancient 
Turanian civilization, when building was in the hands of the priestly 
mysteries, such as the Cabiric, which have extraordinary resemblances 
to the modern system. Out of this system sprang the Aryan and 

( 55 ) 

Semitic civilization, which in India adopted caste and confined it in 
close folds ; thus producing mysteries of three castes, the priestly, the 
military, and the artistic. Persia has the same tradition as India^ in 
respect to the equal antiquity of the priestly and artistic initiation. 
In the face of such strong evidence as can be brought together to 
establish this view, it surprises me to find that there are intelligent 
Masons in our own days who believe that Freemasonry was fabricated 
at the beginning of the last century, it is a species of ultra- scepticism, 
which produces good results by leading us to overhaul our evidence. 

Erchomenos. (Vol. XI, p. 1 6.) I suppose Erchomenos is a desig- 
nation, rather than a name. It simply means ^* the Coming One," or 
''the one who hath come." Thus, in Matthew xxi, 9, ** Blessed is the 
One Coming in the name of the Lord." Again, Mark xi, 9-10, 
*^ Blessed, the One Coming in the name of the Lord ; blessed, the 
Coming kingdom of our father David." In Luke xix, 38, the sense 
varies : ** Blessed (or all hail) the king who cometh in the name of 
the Lord." A. Wilder, M. D. 

Ho Areios Pagos. " The Martial Hill." (Vol. XI, p. 16.) The 
terms fot Areopagos are used interchangeably in the Greek classics, as 
the harmony of the sentence may require. Xenophon follows this 
practice. We are outgrowing the practice of nicknaming the Hellenic 
divinities with Latin designations ; and so the person desiring to be' 
strictly accurate can write any of these ways : Areopagos, the Areian 
Hill, the Hill of Ares. A. Wilder. 

Legend of Saint Christopher. (Vol. XI, p. 16.) The legend of 
Saint Christopher, carrying Christ over the stream, is a later adapta- 
tion of " pagan " myth to Christian narrative. It is said that a man 
of gigantic proportions conveyed a helpless person over a river, who 
proved to be Christ himself. So he was styled Christo-pboros, or 
Christ- bearer. His bones and relics were preserved in different 
churches. Folk-lore alludes to him with similar legends. Aristopha- 
nes informs us that the lark existed before the older gods, Zeus^ 
Kronos, and the Titans. In plainer words the lark was the sun 
bearing a crest, crista^ or halo of light ; and in the course of time it 
became Christopher or the light-bringer, the Lucifer or morning star. 
Omnia similia. Saint-lore and folk-lore go together. A. Wilder. 

( 66 ) 

The Columbian Series of Stamps. The Washington InieUigmce 

recently gave a quite full description of the designs on the Columbian 

stamps, as follows : 

One-cent, " Columbus in Sight of Land," after the painting by 
William H. Powell. On the left is an Indian woman with her child, 
and on the right an Indian man with head dress and feathers. The 
figures are in sitting posture. Color, Antwerp blue. 

Two cent, " Landing of Columbus," after the painting by Vander- 
lyn in the rotunda of the Capitol, at Washington. Color, purple 

Three cent, '* Flagship of Columbus," the Santa Maria in mid- 
ocean, from a Spanish engraving. Color, medium shade of green. 

Four-cent, *' Fleet of Columbus," the three caravals — Santa Maria, 
Pinta^ and Nina — in mid-ocean, from a Spanish engraving. Color, 
ultramarine blue. 

Five-cent, ** Columbus Soliciting aid from Isabella,' ' after the paint- 
ing by Brozik in the Metropolitan Mui>eum of Art. Color, chocolate 

Six-cent, '^ Columbus Welcomed at Barcelona," from one of the 
panels of the bronze doors in the Capitol at Washington, by 
Randolph Rodg' rs. On each side is a niche, in one of wtiich is a 
statue of Ferdinand and in the other a statue of Bobadilla. Color^ 
royal purple. 

Ten-cent, " Columbus Presenting Natives," after the painting by 
Luigi Gregori at the University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana. 

Color ; Vandyke brown. 

Fifteen-cent, " Columbus Announcing His Discovery," after the 
painting by R. Balaea, now in Madrid. Color, dark green. 

Thirty cent, " Columbus at La Rabida,'' after the painting by R. 
Maso. Color, sienna brown.. 

Fifty-cent *' Recall of Columbus," after the painting by A. G. 
Heaton, now in the Capitol at Washington. Color, carbon blue. 

One-dollar, ** Isabella Pledging Her Jewels," after the painting by 
Munez Dagrin, now in Madrid. Color, rose salmon. 

Two-dollar, " Columbus in Chains," after the painting by Lentze, 
now in Providence, R. I. Color, toned mineral red. 

Three-dollar, " Columbus describing his third voyage." Color, 
light yellow green 

Four-dollar, Three-quarters face Isabella and Columbus. Color^ 

Five-dollar, Portrait of Columbus, in profile. Color, black. 

(57 ) 

Ritualistic Odd - Fellowship. 


Please tell me, a member of an Encampment, who is the author 
-of, and where found; the prophetic quotation, recited in the " Golden 
Rule " Degree, as follows : Lovewell. 

** No more sliatl nation against nation rise, 
Nor ardent warrior meet with hateAil eyes. 
Nor fields with gleamins steel be covered o'er, 
The brazen trumpete kindle rage no more; 
Bat useless lances into scythes shall bend, 
And the broad falchion in a ploughshare end ; 
No sigh, no murmur, the wide world shall hear, 
From every face be wiped off every tear; 
All crimes shall cease, and ancient fraud shall faili 
Returning Justice lift aloft her scale; 
Peace o'er the world her olive wand extend. 
And white- robed innocence from heaven descend." 

This quotation is from Alexander Pope's Messiah, a Sacred Eclogue 
-in Imitation of Virgil's PoUio, Virgil's Follio is more or less a para- 
4)hrastii: translation of the Cumaean Sibyl who was called Amalthea, 
.and also Herophile. She prophesied of the good time coming called 
the golden age, as stated by VirgiL Eclogue iv : 

^ Now the virgin returns, now the kingdom of Saturn returns, now 
a new progeny is sent down from high heaven. By means of thee, 
whatever reliques of our crimes remain shall be wiped away^ and free 
the world from perpetual fires. He shall govern the world in peace, 
with the virtues of his fathers. 

" For thee, O child, shall the earth, without being tilled, produce her 
early offspring ; winding ivy, mixed with baccar, and colocassia, with 
jsmiling acanthus. Thy cradle shall pour out pleasing flowers about thee. 

** The Destinies, harmonious in the established order of the fates, 
sang to their spindles, * Ye so happy ages, run, haste forward to the 
birth.' Bright offspring of the gods, illustrious progeny of Jove, set 
forward on thy way to signal honors \ the time is now at hand. 

" The fields shall grow yellow with ripened ears, and the red grape 
shall hang on the wild brambles, and the hard oak shall distil honey 
like dew. 

" After this, when confirmed age shall have ripened thee into man, 
the sailor shall of himself renounce the sea ; nor shall the naval pine 
barter commodities ; all lands shall all things produce. The ground 
shall not endure the harrow, nor the vineyard the pruning-hook ; the 
rsturdy ploughman, too, shall release his bulls from the yoke." 

Pope's Messiah (io8 lines), Virgil's PoUio (Eclogue iv), and the ut- 
terances of Almathea the Cumaean Sibyl are all in consonance with 

( 58 ) 

Isaiah vii, 14 ; xi, 6 ; xxxv, 4, 7 ; xl, 3-4 ; and lv, 13. Some think 
that this Cumaean Sibyl was th^ prophetess mentioned in Isaiah viii, 5, 
and was the wife of Isaiah and mother of Maher-shcUal'hash'baz, 

In this connection we will submit a question that has recently been 

asked us, and before answering it, let it draw out some reply from our 


Where is to be found the lesson read by the High Priest to the 
advancing candidate in the Golden Rule Degree, quoted in the ritual, 
as follows : 

'* Aram was sitting at the door of his tent, under the shade of his 
fig-tree, when it came to pass that a man, stricken with years, bearing 
a staff in his hand, journeyed that way. And it was noon-day. And 
Aram said to the stranger, * Pass not by, I pray thee, but come in, and 
wash thy feet, and tarry here until the evening.' '■ And so on. 

Addresses of " Noble Grand," and '' Most Noble." (Vol. XI, 
p. 38.) There was a title used in the Order of Odd Fellows, in ad- 
dressing the chair, in vogue in New Hampshire at least, in quite a 
number of subordinate lodges, as late as 1882. For example, we will 
copy from the Rules of Order, in the By-Laws of Piscataqua No. 6, 
Portsmouth, code of 188 r : 

" Rule 24. The Noble Grand, or any member, may call a brother 
to order while speaking ; when the debate shall be suspended, and 
the brother shall not speak until the point of order be determined, un- 
less to appeal from the decision of the chair, when he may use the fol- 
lowing words and none other : * Most Noble^ I respectfully appeal 
from the decision of the Chair to the Lodge.' Whereupon the Lodge, 
without debate or remark, shall proceed to vote upon the question — 
* Will the Lodge sustain the decision of the Chair t ' " 

The above form of address was in practice in New Hampshire, in 
Granite Lodge No. i, Wecohamet 3, Washington 4, White Mountain 5, 
Piscataqua 6, Suncook 10, Mount Pleasant 16, New Hampshire 17^ 
Motolinia 18, Cardigan 38, Custos Morum 42, Rumford 46, 1. 0. O. F. 

Maher-shalal-hash-baz. (Vol. XI, 38.) The Latin given by 
*^ Student," Prcedam acceleravit spoilam^ is translated " He hasteneth 
to the spoils." The Vulgate gives the Latin slightly different, Veloeiter 
spolia detrahe, ciio prcedare, Gesenius discusses the grammatical con- 
struction^of this passage. Another form given is Accelera spolia de. 
trahere^festina prcedari. Much speculation has been had on this and 


Other utterances of Isaiah (viii, 3), and the prospective ideals as fore- 
shadowed by the expressions of Isaiah, Amalthea the prophetess, and 
some of the classic poets. 

A HuLDAH. (Vol. XI, p. 38.) This questioner is partially an- 
swered in the previous reply. Huldah was the Sibyl of Judaea really 
(11 Kings xxn^ 14 ; 11 Chron. xxxiv, 22), and in fact all the prophet- 
esses were Sibyls : Miriam^ Ex. xv, 20 ; Deborah, Judges iv, 3 ; Hul- 
dah, (as above) ; Noadiah, Neh. vi, 14 ; (Amalthea ? ), Isaiah viii, 3. 

While there is some difference of opinion as to the derivation of 
the word Sibyl {Sibylla), McClintock & Strong, in their " Cyclopaedia *' 
(Vol. IX, p. 723), say it is commonly derived from Dths Boyle^ Doric 
Sibs Bblla, (" Will of Jpve "). Thus Homer, {Iliad i, 5) : 

Dibs d* 'etehieto Boy Ik ; 
*^ The will of Jove was being accomplished." — Buckley. 

Bissextile Year. What is the meaning of the word Bissextile as 
applied to leap-year ? Logos. 

The ordinary use of the word as used with year, bissextile year, is 
leap-year when *' We add to February one day more." But the real 
meaning of the word is quite another matter. The word is bis twice, 
sextus sixth ; that is, the sixth of the calends of March, or 24th day of 
February, to be reckoned twice every fourth year, by the intercalation 
of a day. Then February in the calendar should run really February 
22, 23, 24, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. 

" Thirty days hath September. 
April, June, ami November; 
All the rest have thirty-one, 
Save February, which alone, 
Hath twenty-eight, one year in four 
The twenty- fourth is twiced tor more, 
And thus Bissextile does in floe 
Make February tweuty>Dine. 

" Bringing a cure for all our ills." (Vol. XI, p. 38.) This is 
a condensed line from one of the Orphic hymns said in reference to 
Hercules. A more general translation is found the " Hymns of Or- 
pheus," translated by Thomas Taylor, London, 1792. Hymn xi. To 
Hercules : The Fumigation and Frankincense : 

" The mitigations of disease convey, 
And drive disastrous maladies away. 
Come, shake the branch with thy almighty arm, 
Dismiss thy darts and noxious fkte disarm." 


Who was Saint Patrick ? Rev. Algernon Herbert, the author o£ 
" Nimrod " (Vol. II, pp. 636-638), says : 

" I am strongly of opinion that Ulysses is the original Patricius of 
Ireland, celebrated in the style of a saint, as Hercules^ Perseus, and 
Triptolemus were at Antioch, and afterwards throughout Christendom,, 
under the name of Georgius the seventh champion. 

Firstly, and most obviously, the express tradition that St. Patric's 
fosse and purgatory was the fosse and necyia of Ulysses. Ogygia was 
the isle of Calypso, in which Ulysses sojourned ; and Plutarch informs 
us that it was situated five days' sail to the west of Brittania^ and that 
there were three other islands near it. From the south-east of Britian, 
where the Romans used to land, it would have been a five days' jour- 
ney to Ireland for ancient navigators. The first name of Ulysses be- 
fore he came to be styled Ho-dys-eus was Nanus ^ and the first name 
of St. Patric was Nannus, In Temora, the bardic capital of Ireland, 
Nani tumulum lapis obtfgit, and it is one of Ireland's thirteen mirabilia. 
Ulysses during his detention in Aiaia was king of a host of swine ; 
and P^atric, during a six years' captivity in the hands of king Milcho, 
or Malcho, was employed to keep swine. Ulysses flourished in Babel, 
and St. Patric was born at Nem-Turris, or the Celestial Tower ; the 
type of Babel in Irish mythology is Tory island, or the isle of iAe^ 
Tower. At the time of its expugnation Sru emigrated from the £ast. 
Jiege Tutane gestum est prcelium campi Turriset expugnata est Troja Tra- 
janorum ; but Tutanes is the Teutames, king of Assyria^ whose armes- 
Memnon commanded. Ulysses the klnps delphinosemos was the Koira- 
uus (or king) whom a dolphin saved and whom all the dolphins ac- 
companied from Miletus ; his son Telemachus, whom a dolphin saved, 
was the bard Arion, but Arion was king of Miletus in the days o£ 
Priam king of Troy ; and as Miletus was a considerable haven of 
Asia Minor in Homer's time, it is the most probable place of Ulysses's 
departure. But a great consent of tradition brings the colonists of 
Ireland from Miletus : Milesius, father of Ire, came to Ireland in obe- 
dience to a prophecy given to one of his ancestors, that there his- 
posterity should enjoy an established sovereignty. The ship which 
brought Ulysses to Ithaca, one man saved out of many, was turned 
into a stone, and the said stone ship was a mount or high place above 
the city of the Phsacians ; but Ireland is peculiar for her ship temple^ 
of which General Vallancey has given figures in the 'Archaelogia/ 
The ship temple is not merely a nave resembling the ark, as all tem- 
ples, churches, and quadrangular buildings do, but a bona fide ship^. 
representing the hull of a vessel, with no little accuracy, and which 
doubtless used to have a mast for its steeple and the mystic /^ar^J or 
peplon for its sail. Down where St. Patric's monument is shown it is* 
called Monumentum Navicularum,^^ 

( «1 ) 

Memoranda of Kew Havipshire Towns, 

{Conciudid from February, 1893, p. ^.) 


Goshen (Dec. 27, 1791), formed from territory set off from Newport, 
Sunapee^ Newbury, Lempster and Unity. 

Grantham, granted July 11, 1761; called New Grantham in 1788; name 
restored June 13, 1818. 

Langdon (Jan. 11, 1787), formed from parts of Charlestown and 
Walpole; named for Gov. John Langdon. 

Lempster called Dupplin ; granted Jan. 5, 1 767. 

Newport (Oct. 6, 1761), named for Newport, R, I. 

Plainfield (Aug. 14, 1761), named for town in Connecticut. 

Springfield (Jan. 24, 1794), granted as Protectworth. 

Sunapee (as Wendell April 4, 1781), granted as Saville ; present 
name adopted June, 1850; Indian name of lake and mountain. 

Unity (July 13, 1764), named in settlement of territorial diflBculties. 
Washington (Dec. 13, 1776), called Camden. 


Alexandria (Nov. 23, 1782), ircludcd the territory of Danbury; a por- 
tion of Orange has since been added. 

Ashland (July i, 1868), was created from the southwest portion of 
Holderness ; and named for Henry Clay's home. 

Bath (Sept 10, 1761). 

Benton (as Coventry, Jan. 31, 1764), adopted present name in 1841; 
named for Thomas H. Benton, 

Bethlehem (Dec. 27, 1799), in 1873 * large tract of wild land, extend 
ing to Carroll county^ was added. 

Bridgewater (Feb. 12, 1788), New Chester, now Hill and Bristol. 

Bristol (June 24, 18 19), formed from portions of Bridgewater and 
New Chester, now Hill, 

Carapton (Oct., 1761), a portion of Thornton was annexed in July, 
1867; named for a camp built by surveyors. 

Canaan (July 9, 1761), including what was Dame's Gore. 

Dorchester (May i, 1772). 

Easton (east part of Landaff, July 20, 1876), Landaff 'divided. 

( 62 ) 

Ellsworth (June i6, 1802), granted as Trecothick. 
Enfield (July 4, 1761), called Relhan. 
Franconia (Feb. 14, 1764), called Morris-town. 
Grafton (Nov. 11, 1778). 
Groton (Dec. 7, 1796;, granted as Cockermouth. 

Hanover, granted July 4, 1761; named for the German town. 

Haverhill, called Lower Cohos, granted May 18, 1763 ; named for 
Haverhill, Mass. 

Hebron (June 15, 1792), part of Cockermouth Grant. 

Holderness (Oct. 1751), called New Holderness, and included Ash- 
land; named for Robert, Earl of Holderness. 

Landaff (Nov. 11, 1774), included Easton. 

Lebanon, granted July 4, 1761 ; named by settlers from Lebanon, 

Lincoln, granted Jan. 31, 1764. 

Lisbon, called Concord, afterwards Gunthwaite, and again Concord, 

granted Oct. 20, 1768; present name adopted June 14, 1824. 

Littleton (Nov. 4, 1784), called Cheswick, and afterwards Apthorp. 
Apthorp was divided, and Dalton and Littleton formed; named for 
Col. Moses Little, its principal proprietor. 

Livermore, formed from territory known as Elkins', Sargent & Elkins*, 
Hatch & Cleaves*, the Two Raymonds*, and Bean & Oilman's 
Grants; named for Livermore family. 

Lyman (Nov. 10, 1761), granted to and named for Daniel Lyman^ a 
leading proprietor; in 1854 was divided, and Monroe formed. 

Lyme, granted July 8, 1761; named for Lyme, Conn. 

Monroe (July 13, 1854), west part of Lyman. 

Orange (July 18, 1781), granted as Cardigan. 

Orford (Sept. 25, 1761). 

Piermont (Nov. 6, 1764). 

Plymouth Quly 15, 1763), called New Plymouth. By charter it ex- 
tended from Campton to Grafton; Alexandria and Hebron were 
from lis territory. 

Rumncy (March, 1767). 

Thornton (Nov. 8, 1781), July, 1867, divided, and a portion annexed 
to Campton ; named for Matthew Thornton. 

Warren (July 14, 1763); named for Admiral Sir Peter Warren. 

Waterville (July i, 1829). 

( 63 ) 

Wentworth (Nov. i, 1776) ; named for Gov. Benning Wentworth. 
Woodstock (Sept. 23, 1763, as Peeling), was afterward called Fairfield, 
and again Peeling; adopted its present name in 1840. 

coos COUNTY. 

Berlin (July i, 1829), granted as Maynesborough, to Sir Wm. Mayne, 
July I, 1771. 

Cambridge (May 19, 1773). 

Carroll (June 22, 1832), called Brenton Woods. 

Clarksville (June 30, 1853). 

Colebrook (June 11, 1790), granted to and named for Sir George 

Columbia (Dec. 16, 1797), called Cockburnefor Sir James Cockburne. 

Crawford's Grant. 

Dal ton (Nov. 4, 1784), part of Apthorp; named for Hon. Tristram 
Dal ton, a large land-owner. 

Dix's Grant. 

Dixville, owned by and named for Timothy Dix, father of Gen. J. A. 

Dummer (Dec. 19, 1848), granted March 8, 1773. 

Errol (Dec. 28, 1836). 

Gorham (June 18, 1836), called Shelburne Addition. 

Green's Grant. 

Jefferson (Dec. 8, 1796), granted as Dartmouth, named for President 
Thomas Jefferson. 

Kilkenny^ named for Irish town, granted to Jonathan Warner and 
others, 1774. 

Lancaster^ called Upper Cohos, for Lancaster, Mass.; granted July 5, 

Martin's Location. 

Milan (Dec. 16, 1824), called Paulsburg. 

Millsfield, for Thomas Mills, a grantee. 

Northumberland (Nov, 16, 1779). 

Nash & Sawyer's Location. 

Pinkham's Grant. 

Pittsburg (Dec. 10, 1840), called Indian Stream. 

Randolph (June 16, 1824), called Durand ; named for John Randolph., 

Sargent's Purchase. 

Second College Grant. 

C 64 ) 

Stark (as Piercy, Jan. 9, 1795), present name adopted in 1832; named 

for Gen. John Stark. 
Shelburne (Dec. 13, 1820). 
Stewartstown (Dec. 24, 1799), called Stewart; included Columbia and 

Colebrook; named for proprietor. 

Stratford. (Nov. 16, i779)' 
Success, 1773. 
Wentworth's Location. 

Whitefield (Dec. i, 1804), granted July 4, 1744; named for Rev. Geo. 

Bean's Purchase. 

Chandler's Purchase. 

Crawford's Purchase. 

Cutt's Grant. 

Erving's Grant. 

Gilmanton Academy and Atkinson Academy Grants. 

Gore between Gilmanton Academy and Atkinson Academy Grants. 

Low & Burbank's Grant. 

Odell Township. 

Bibliography of the Faithists' Literature. 

A correspondent inquires for the literature of " The Faithists," and 
ipore information of " Oahspe." We therefore give a list of such lit- 
erature as has come under our observation. 

Oahspe. Prospectus of the New Bible in the Words of Jehovih. 
Synopsis of Oahspe, with some selections from its texts. List of the 
plates. Octavo; pp. 18. New York. 1882. Kosmon Era, 34. 

Oahspe. A New Bible in the Words of Jehovih and His Angel Em- 
bassadors. A Sacred History of the Dominions of the Higher and 
Lower Heavens on the Earth for the past Twenty four Thousand 
Years, together with a synopsis of the cosmogony of the universe ; 
the creation of plants ; the creation of man ; the unseen worlds ; the 
labor and glory of Gods and Goddesses in the etherial heavens ; with 
the new commandments of Jehovih to man of the present day ; with 
revelations from the second resurrection, formed in words in the thirty- 
third year of the Kosmon Era. Oahspe Publishing Association : New 
York and London. (1882.) Anno Kosmon 34. Quarto; sheep, 
pp. XVI + 890 =r 906. Price, $7.50. Now out of print. 

(65 ) 

Oahspe. This first edition was also published in parts. Part First 
contains " The Lord's Five Books." Quarto ; pp. 105. 

Oahspe. Prospectus of a New Bible, giving an account of " The 
Scriptures of that Day," 24,000 years before Kosmon (the present 
time). Quarto; pp. 8. Boston. 1891. 

Oahspe. Second edition. Oahspe Publishing Association : Boston 
and London. 1891. Anno Kosmon 43. Quarto; cloth, pp. xvi -j- 
Sgo = 906. 

This edition contains the " Book of Discipline " (fourteen chapters), 
and a full index, not included in the first edition. The selling Agent 
is G. P. Wicksell, 74 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. Price, $2.00 ; 
postage, 50 cents. 

Oahspe. Notices and comments of the press of the first edition of 
the New Bible. Broadside. 

Oahspe. (See Appleton's *' Universal Encyclopaedia," Art, Oahsp^, 

Selections from Oahspe. No. i. A New Bible. Contents, 41, 
selections for class study and exposition. Quarto j oblong, pp. 40. 

Selections lrom Oahspe. No. 2. A New Bible. Contents, 24 
selections for class study and exposition. Quarta ; oblong, pp. 46. 

Book of Gratiyus of the Founding of Levitica. Written Kos- 
mon 38, and three years after founding Shalam. Being ante-script. 
New Orleans, La.^ and Shalam, Las Cruces^ New Mexico. Chapters 
1 to viii. Description of Shalam, the Colony^ Levitica. Octavo, pp. 8. 

Book of Gratiyus. Contains the " Book of Jehovih's Kingdom on 
Earth," taken from Oahspe. Chapters i to xxvi. Octavo ; pp. 43. 

Shalam, Las Cruces, New Mexico. Letters written to and from 
Shalam, relative to the enterprise, work, philosophy, climate, healthy 
«tc. Octavo ; pp. 8. 

The Faithists* Calendar. Kosmon 37. The New Calendar 
based on the movements of our solar phalanx. Also^ an account of 
Shalam, the first community of the kind in all the world. Faithists in 
Jehovih, the Creator. Their solid front against war, even if forced in 
front of battle. A people of peace. Octavo ; pp. 20. 

The Fathists' Calendar. Kosmon 38. Octavo ; pp. 24. 

Fraternity of the Land of the Faithists. Description of Fra- 
ternity, a large tract of land for the Faithists^ in New Mexico. First 
•exodus from New York to Shalam, Kosmon Era 36, d. 298, or October 
15, 1^84. Broadside. 

( 66 ) 

A Sketch of the Faithists ; with Spiritual platform, from the 
" Book of Saphah," government, prayer, worship, hymns, and the 
eleven zemers. i8mo ; pp. 48. 

The Tae of the Faithists. The government and laws of the fra- 
ternities of the Faithists near Pearl River, Rockland County, N. Y. 
Octavo ; pp. 8. Dr. H. S. Tanner, Secretary of the Inner Council. 
Kosmon Era 36, d. 223, or August t, 1884. 

The New Departure. Proceedings of the first convention of the 
Faithists and their friends, at the hall of Oahspe Lodge of Faithists, 
in New York, November 24-26, 1883. Miss E. A. Penniman, Secre- 
tary O. L. F. Octavo ; pp. 4. Also, circular of meeting ; broadside. 

The Rattle Band. Song of the babes at Shalam. Nine verses, 
(communicated). Broadside. 

Glory and Shame of America. Foreshadowing of the dawn of a 
new era, new religion, and new government. An article reprinted 
from the New York Mercury ^ October 20, 1889. Also, articles from 
several other paper endorsing the objects of the Faithists and explain- 
ing their principles. Octavo pp. 16. 

Pasho. a paper devoted to Jehovih's Kingdom on Earth. Pub- 
lished by the Oahspe Publishing Association, New York. Five chapters 
from Oahspe, "Ouranothen." Written automatically. Index to the 
New Bible, Panic, Yi'haic, Vedic, Hebraic and Sanscrit primaries. 
Interpretations, illustrations, etc. Quarto, pp. 24. 

The Castaway. A monthly publication, in the interests of found- 
lipgs^ orphans and other homeless and uncared for children, and 
homes for women. ^ All people are brothers and sisters from one 
Father, even Jkhovih." Vol. I commenced March, 1889. Only 
eleven numbers published. New Orleans, La. Octavo ; pp. 226. 

Oahspe Messenger. Kosmon Era 44. Published by the Boston 
Lodge of Faithists. Extracts and lessons from Oahspe. Octavo ; 
pp. 16. Address of the Secretary, 310 Hotel Pelham, Boston, Mass. 

The Faithist. Vol. I, No. i, June, 1892 ; No. 2, July, 1892 ; No. 
3, August apd September, 1892. *^ Come, let us reason together." 
Contents are designed to help each other in spiritual labor. Pub- 
lished by the Faithist Association, 245 South Eighth Street, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Quarto ; pp. 16 each. 

( 67 ) 

J^ew Hampshire Election Sermons, 178^^-1861. 




























Samuel McClintock^ D. D. 
Jeremy Belknap^ D. D. 
Samuel Haven, D. D. 

Joseph Buckminster; D. D. 
Samuel Langdon, D. D. 
Oliver Noble, 
John C. Ogden, A. M. 

Israel Evans, A. M. 

William Morrison, D. D. 
(No sermon preached). 
Amos Wood, A. B. 

John Smith,* A. M. 

William F. Rowland, A. M. 
Stephen Peabody, A. M. 
Robert Gray, A. M. 

Seth Pay son, D. D. 

Noah Worcester, D. D. 
Jacob Burnap. D. D. 

Joseph Woodman, A. M. 
Aaron Hall, A. M. 

Nathaniel Porter, D. D. 
Reed Paige, A. M. 

James Miltimore, A. M. 
Nathan Bradstreet, A. M. 
Asa McFarland, D. D. 
William F. Rowland, A. M. 
Roswell Shurtleff, A. M, 
Thomas Beede, A. ^i. 

Moses Bradford, A. M. 
John PI. Church, D. D. 
Peter Holt, A. M. 

David Sutherland, 
Pliny Dickinson, 
Daniel Merrill, A. M. 

William Allen, A. M. 

Nathan Parker, D. D. 

James B. Howe, A. M. 
Ephraim P. Bradford, A. B. 


Jer. xviii, 7-10. 
Ps. cxliv, 11-15. 
Matt, xxiv, 45-47. 
James i, 5. 
Deut. iv, 5-8. 

Neh. V, 19, 
Gal. V, I. 
Rom. xiii, 3. 

Isaiah ix, 7. 
Isaiah xlvii, 8. 
II Sam. xxiii, 3. 
Ex. xviii, 21. 
Gen. xii, 2. 
Eccl. ix, 18. 
Judges iii, 11 • 
Ps. Ixxxvii, 4-6. 
Hosea, vii, 9. 
II Chron. xix, 6. 

I Chron. xii, 32. 
Rom. xiii, 4. 
Job xxix, 14. 
Luke vii, 4-5. 

II Peter i, 19. 
Gal. V, 14. 
Rom. xiii, 1-5. 
John vii, 48. 

Francestown, i Tim. i, 15. 
Pelham, 11 Chron, xv, 2. 

Epping, Dan, ii, 44. 

Bath, Rev. i, 7. 

Walpole, II Chron. xxiv, 2. 

Nottingham W. Matt, vi, to. 
Hanover, Joshua i, 8. 
Portsmouth, John viii, 12. 
Claremont, John ix, 29. 
New Boston, Isaiah xxi, 1 1, 





Hamp. Falls, 























• The B^rmon preached in 1795 was neyer printed. 

( 68 ) 





Jonathan French, A. M. 

Daniel Dana, D. D. 

Ben net Tyler, O. D. 

Phineas Cooke, A. M. 

Ferdinand Ellis, A. M. 

Nath4 W. Williams, A. M, 

Nathaniel Bouton, A. M. 

Humphrey Moore, A. M. 

Jaazaniah Crosby, A. M. 

Nathan Lord, D. D. 

Henry E. Parker, A. M. 



No sermoos were preached between 1831 

No. Hampton, II Chron. i, 10. 
Londonderry, Prov. xiv, 34. 
Hanover, Gen. xx, 11. 

Matt, xxii, 21. 

Ps. Ixzxii, 6-7/ 

Matt, vi, 10. 

Luke xix, 13. 

I Cor. xii, 21. 
Charlestown, Deut. xxviii, i. 
Hanover, i Cor. xiii, 5. 

Concord, Jer. xviii, 7-10. 

and 1861, nor none after 1861. 



Ulysses — Odysseus. (Vol. XI, p. i6.) How is the former word 
derived from the latter, asks " Lcxsos.'* 

It is by no means certain that the name Ulysses was so derived. 
The earlier name was Uluxe^ or Siculian Oulix6s, and was written in 
classic Latin Ulixes. As the x or xi was read like j, the samech of 
the Semitic alphabets, it presently became transformed to j, or ss^ 
making the Italian name as we now have it, Ulysses. The Italian dia- 
lects were as old as the Grecian, and probably older, and what is the 
same thing, more strictly Pelasgic. The i£olic name Odysseus was a 
dialectic form of the other. If we had a vocabulary of the language 
antedating the Arabian and Italian dialects, we would doubtless find 
that the forms are all from one original source, and neither derived 
from the other. As a pure Greek word Odysseus would mean the in- 
dignant Zeus or Jove, which no one would insist. 

A. Wilder, M. D., Newark, N. J. 

John Knox. 


John Knox was a man of wondrous might, 
And his words ran bieh and shrill, 

For bold and stout was his spirit bright. 
And strong was his stalwart will. 

Kings sought in vain his mind to chain, 
And that giant brain to control, 

But nought on plain or stormy main, 
Gould daunt that mighty soul. 

John would ait and sigh till morning oold. 

Its shining lamps put out. 
For thoughts untold on his mind laid hold. 

And brought but pain and doubt. 

But lij^ht at last on his soul was cast, 

Away sank pain and sorrow, 
His soul is gay, in a fair today, 

And looks for a bright tomorrow. 

( 69 ) 

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. 

III. LEVI. — Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 

# I. The copy of the words of Levi, what things he appointed to 
his sons, according to all they should do, and what things should be- 
fall them until the day of judgment. He was in sound health when 
he called them to him^ for it had been shown to him that he should 
die. And when they were gathered together he said to them : 

2. 1, Levi, was conceived in Haran and born there, and after that I 
came with my father to Shechem. And I was young, about twenty 
years of |ge, when with Simeon I wrought the vengence on Hamor for 
our sister Dinah. And when we were feeding our flocks in Abel-Maul, 
a spirit of understanding of the Lord came upon me, and I saw all 
men corrupting their way, and that unrighteousness had built to itself 
walls, and iniquity sat upon towers ; and I grieved for the race of men, 
and I prayed to the Lord that I might be saved. Then the»'e fell upon 
me a sleep, and I beheld a high mountain: this is the mountain of 
Aspis in Abel-Maul. And behold, the heavens were opened, and an 
angel of God said to me; Levi, enter. And I entered from the first 
heaven into the second, and I saw there water hanging between the 
one and the other. And I saw a third heaven far brighter than those 
two, for there was in it a height without bounds. And I said to the 
angel. Wherefore is this ? And the angel said to me. Marvel not at 
these, for thou shalt see four other heavens brighter than these, and 
without comparison, when thou shalt have ascended thither: because 
thou shalt stand near the Lord, and shalt be His minister, and shalt 
declare His mysteries to men, and shalt proclaim concerning Him who 
shall redeem Israel; and by thee and Judah shall the Lord appear among 
men, saving in them every race of men; and of the portion of the 
Lord shall be the life, and He shall be thy field and vineyard, fruits, 
gold, silver. 

3. Hear, then, concerning the seven heavens. The lowest is for 
this cause more gloomy, in that it is near all the iniquities of men. 
The second hath fire, snow, ice, ready for the day of the ordinance of 
the Lord, in the righteous judgment of God; in it are all the spirits of 
the retributions for vengeance on the wicked. In the second are the 
hosts of the armies which are ordained for the day of judgment, to 
work vengeance on the spirit of deceit and of Beliar. And the heav- 
ens up to the fourth above these are holy, for in the highest of all 
dwelleth the Great Glory, in the holy of holies, far above all holiness. 
In the heaven next to it are the angels of the presence of the Lord, 
who minister and make popitiations to the Lord for all the ignorance 

( 70 ) 

of the righteous; and they offer to the Lord a reasonable sweet -smell- 
ing savour^ and a bloodless offering. And in the heaven below this 
are the angels who bear the answers to the angels of the presence of 
the Lord. And in the heaven next to this are thrones, dominions, in 
which hymns are offered to God. Therefore, whenever the Lord look- 
eth upon us, all of us are shaken at the presence of His majesty ; but 
the sons of men^ regarding not these things^ sin, and provoke the 
Most High. 

4. Now, therefore, know that the Lord will execute judgment upon 
the sons of men; because when the rocks are rent, and the sun quenched, 
and the waters dried up^ and the fire trembling, and all creation 
troubled, and the invisible spirits melting away, and the grave spoiled 
in the suffering of the Most High, men unbelieving will abide in their 
iniquity, therefore with punishment shall they be judged. Therefore 
the Most High hath heard thy prayer; to separate thee from iniquity, 
anh that they shouldst become to Him a son, and a servant, and a 
minister of His presence. A shining light of knowledge shalt thou 
shine in Jacob, and as the sun shalt thou be to all the seed of Israel. 
And a blessing shall be given to thee, and to all thy seed, until the Lord 
shall visit all the heathen in the tender mercies of His Son^ even for- 
ever. Nevertheless thy sons shall lay hands upon Him to crucify Him ; 
and therefore have council and understanding been given thee, that 
thou mightest instruct thy sons concerning Him, because he that bles- 
seth Him shall be blessed, but they that curse him shall perish. 

5. And the angel opened to me the gates of Heaven, and I saw the 
holy temple, and the Most High upon a throne of Glory. And He 
said to me^ Levi, I have given thee the blessings of the priesthood until 
that I shall come and sojourn in the midst of Israel. Then the 
angel brought me to the earth, and gave me a shield and a sword, and 
said. Work vengeance on Shechem because of Dinah, and I will be 
with thee, because the Lord hath sent me. And I destroyed at that 
time the sons of Hamor, as it is written in the heavenly tablets. And 
I said to Him, I pray Thee, O Lord, tell me Thy name, that I may 
call upon Thee in a day of retribution. And he said, I am the angel 
who intercedeth for the race of Israel, that He smite them not utteiTy, 
because every evil spirit attacketh it. And after these things I was 
as it were awaked, and blessed the Most High, and the angel that in- 
tercedeth for the race of Israel, aud for all the righteous. 

6. And when I came to my father I found a brazen shield {aspis) ; 
wherefore also the name of the mountain is Aspis, which is near Gabal, 
on the right side of Abila; and I kept these words in my heart. I 
took counsel with my father, and with Reuben my brother, that he 
should bid the sons of Hamor that they should be circumcised; for I 
^as jealous because of the abomination which they had wrought in 


Israel. And I slew Shechem at the first, and Simeon slew Hamor. 
And after this our brethren came and smote the city with the edge of 
the sword; and our father heard it and was wroth, and he was grieved 
in that they had received the circumcision, and after that had been put 
to death^ and in his blessings he dealt otherwise [with us]. For we 
sinned because we had done this thing against his will, and he was sick 
upon that day. But I knew that the sentence of God was for evil upon 
Shechem; for they sought to*do to Sarah as they did to Dinah our sis- 
ter, and the T/>rd hindered them. And so they persecuted Abraham 
our father when he was a stranger, and they harried his flocks when 
they were multiplied upon him ; and Jeblae his servant, born in his 
house^ they shamefully handled. Aod thus they did to strangers, tak- 
ing away their wives by force, and the men themselves driving into ex- 
ile. But the wrath of the Lord came suddenly upon them to the 

7. And I said to my father, Be not angry, sir, because the will of 
the Lord will bring to nought the Canaanites, and will give their land 
to thee, and to thy seed after thee. For from this day forward shall 
Shechem be called a city of them that are without understanding ; for 
as a man mocketh at a fool^so did we mock them^ because they wrought 
folly in Israel to defile our sister. And we took our sister from thence, 
and departed, and came to Bethel. 

8. And there I saw a thing again even as the former^ after we 
had passed seventy days. And I saw seven men in white raiment say- 
ing to me. Arise, put on the robe of the priesthood, and the crown of 
righteousness, and the breastplate of understanding, and the garment 
of truth, and the diadem cf faith, and the tiara of miracle^ and the 
ephod of prophecy. And each of them bearing each of these things 
put them on me, and said. From henceforth be a priest of the Lord, 
thou and thy seed forever. And the first anointed me with holy oil, 
and gave to me the rod of judgment. The second washed me with 
pure water and fed me with bread and wine, the most holy things, and 
clad me with a holy and glorious robe. The third clothed me with a 
linen vestment like to an ephod. The fourth put around me a girdle 
like unto purple. The fifth gave to me a branch of rich olive. The 
sixth placed a crown on my head. The seventh placed on my head a 
diadem of priesthood, and filled my hands with incense^ so that I 
served as a priest to the Lord. And they said to me, Levi, thy .seed 
shall be divided into three branches, f^r a sign of the glory of the 
Lord who is to come; and he that hath been faithful shall be first; no 
portion shall be greater than his. The second shall be. in the priest- 
hood. The third — a new name shall be called over Him, because He 
shall arise as King from Judah, and shall establish a new priesthood, 
after the fashion of the Gentiles^ to all the Gentiles. And His appear- 
ing shall be unutterable, as of an exalted prophet of the seed of 


Abraham our father. Every desirable thing in Israel shall be for thee 
and thy seed, and everything fair to look upon shall ye eat, and the 
table of the Lord shall thy seed apportion, and some of them shall be 
high priests, and judges, and scribes ; for by their mouth shall the holy 
place be guarded. And when I awoke, I understood that this thing 
was like unto the former. And I hid this also in my heart, and told it 
not to an5' man upon the earth. 

9. And after two days I and Judah went up to Isaac after our father ; 
and the father of my father blessed me according to all the words of 
the vision which I had seen; and he would not come with us to Bethel. 
And when we came to Bethel, my father Jacob saw in a vision concern- 
ing me, that I should be to them for a priest unto the Lord ; and he rose 
up early in the morning, and paid tithes of all to the Lord through me. 
And we came to Hebron to dwell there, and Isaac called me continu- 
ally to put me in remembrance of the law of the Lord, even as the 
angel of God showed to me. And he taught me the law of the priest- 
hood, of sacrifices, whole burnt-offerings, first-fruits, free-will offerings, 
thank offerings. And each day was instructing me, and was busied for 
me before the Lord. And he said to me. Take heed, my child, of the 
spirit of fornication; for this shall continue, and shall by thy seed pol- 
lute the holy things. Take therefore to thyself, while yet thou art 
young, a wife, not having a blemish, nor yet polluted, nor of the race 
of the Philistines or Gentiles. And before entering into the holy place, 
bathe; and when thou offerest the sacrifice, wash; and again when thou 
finishest the sacrifice, wash. Of twelve trees ever having leaves, offer 
up [the fruits] to the Lord, as also Abraham taught me; and of every 
clean beast and clean bird offer a sacrifice to the Lord, and of every 
firstling and of wine offer first-fruits; and every sacrifice thou shalt salt 
with salt. 

10. New, therefore, observe whatsoever I command you, children; 
for whatsoever things I have heard from my fathers I have made known 
to you. I am clear from all your ungodliness and transgression which 
ye will do in the end of the ages against the Saviour of the world, act- 
ing ungodly, deceiving Israel, and raising up against it great evils from 
the Lord. And ye will deal lawlessly with Israel, so that Jerusalem 
shall not endure your wickedness ; but the veil of the temple shall 
be rent, so as not to cover your shame. And ye shall be scattered as 
captives among the heathen, and shall be for a reproach and for a curse, 
and for a trampling under foot. For the house of the Lord shall be 
called Jerusalem, as is contained in the book of Enoch the righteous. 

11. Therefore, when I took a wife I was twenty-eight years old, and 
her name was Melcha. And she conceived and bare a son, and she 
called his name Gersham, for we were sojourners in our land ; for 

C 73 J 

Gresham is interpreted sojourning. And I saw concerning him that he 
would not be in the first rank. And Kohath was born in my thirty- 
fifth year, towards the east. And I saw in a vision that he was standing 
on high in the midst of all the congregation. Therefore I called his 
name Kohath, which meaneth, beginning of majesty and instruction. 
And thirdly, she bare to me Merari, in the fortieth year of my life; and 
since his mother bare him with difficulty, she called him Merari, which 
meaneth my bitterness, because she also died. And Jochebed was born 
in my sixty-fourth year, in Egypt, for I was removed then in the midst 
of my brethren. 

12. And Gersham took a wife^ and she bare to him Lomni and 
Semei. And the sons of Kohath, Ambram, Isaac, Chebro, and Ozel. 
And the sons of Merari, Mooli and Homusi. And in my ninety-fourth 
year Ambram took Jochebed my daughter to him to wife, for they 
were born in one day, he and my daughter. Eight years old was I 
when I went into the land of Canaan, and eighteen years when I slew 
Shechem, and at nineteen years I became priest, and at twenty-eight 
years I took a wife, and at forty years I went into Egypt. And be- 
hold, ye are my children even a third generation. In my hundred and 
eighteenth year Joseph died. 

13. And now, my children, I command you that ye fear our Lord 
with your whole heart, and walk in simplicity according to His law. 
And do ye also teach your children learning, that they may have un- 
derstanding in all their life, reading unceasingly the law of God; for 
every one who shall know the law of God shall be honoured, and shall 
not be a stranger wheresoever he goeth. Yea, many friends shall he 
gain more than his forefathers; and many men shall desire to serve him, 
and to hear the law from his mouth. Work righteousness, my chil- 
dren, upon the earth, that ye may find [treasure] in the heavens, and 
sow good things in your souls, that ye may fifld them in your life. For 
if ye sow evil things, ye shall reap all trouble and affliction. Get wis- 
dom in the fear of God with diligence ; for though there shall be a 
leading into captivity, and cities be destroyed, and lands and gold and 
silver and every possession shall perish, the wisdom of the wise none 
can take away, save the blindness of ungodliness and the palsy of sin ; 
for even among his enemies shall it be to him glorious, and in a 
strange country a home, and in the midst of foes shall it be found a 
friend. If a man teach these things and do them, he shall be en- 
throned with kings, as was also Joseph our brother. 

14. And now, my children, I have learnt from the writings of 

Enoch that at the last ye will deal ungodly, laying your hands upon 

the Lord in all malice ; and your brethren shall be ashamed because 

of you, and to all the Gentiles shall it become a mocking. For your 

father Israel shall be pure from the ungodliness of the chief priests 

( 74; 

who shall lay their hands upon the Saviour of the world. Pure is the 
heaven above the earth, and ye are the lights of the heaven as the sun 
and the moon. What shall all the Gentiles do if ye be darkened in 
ungodliness ? So shall ye bring a curse upon your race for whom 
came the light of the world, which was given among you for the light- 
ing up of every man. Him will ye desire to slay, teaching command- 
ments contrary to the ordinance of God. The offerings of the Lord 
will ye rob, and from His portion will take the choicest parts, in de- 
spitefulness eating them with harlots. Amid excesses will ye teach 
the commandments of the Lord, the women that have husbands will 
ye pollute, and the virgins of Jerusalem will ye defile ; and with har- 
lots and adulteresses will ye be joined. The daughters of the Gen- 
tiles will ye take for wives, purifying them with an unlawful purifica- 
tion j and your union shall be like unto Sodom and Gomorrah in un- 
godliness. And ye will be puffed up because of the priesthood lift- 
ing yourselves up against men. And not only so, but, being puffed up 
also against the commands of God, ye will scoff at the holy things, 
mocking in despiteful ness. 

15. Therefore the temple which the Lord shall choose shall be 
desolate in uncleanliness^ and ye shall be captives throughout all 
nations, and ye shall be an abomination among them, and ye shall re- 
ceive reproach and everlasting shame from the righteous judgment of 
God ; and all who see you shall flee from you. And were it not for 
Abraham^ Isaac, and Jacob our fathers, not one of my seed should be 
left upon the earth. 

16. And now I have learnt in the book of Enoch that for seventy 
weeks will ye go astray, and will profane the priesthood, and pollute 
the sacrifices, and corrupt the law, and set at nought the words of the 
prophets. In perverseness ye will prosecute righteous men, and hate 
the godly ; the words of jhe faithful will ye abhor, and the man who 
reneweth the law in the power of the Most High will ye call a deceiver ; 
and at last^ as ye suppose, ye will slay Him, not understanding His 
resurrection, wickedly taking upon your own heads the innocent blood. 
Because of Him shall your holy places be desolate, polluted even to the 
ground, and ye shall have no place that is clean ; but ye shall be 
among the Gentiles a curse and a dispersion, until He shall again 
look upon you, and in pit} shall take you to Himself through faith and 

17. And because ye have heard concerning the seventy weeks, hear 
also concerning the priesthood ; for in each jubilee there shall be a 
priesthood. In the first jubilee, the first anointed into the . priesthood 
shall be great, and shall speak to God as to a Father ; and his priest- 
hood shall be filled with the fear of the Lord, and in the day of his 
gladness shall he arise for the salvation of the world. In the second 

( 75 ) 

jubilee, he that is anointed shall be conceived in the sorrow of be- 
loved ones ; and his priesthood shall be honored, and shall be glori- 
fied among all. And the third priest shall be held fast in sorrow ; 
and the fourth shall be in grief, because unrighteousness shall be laid 
upon him exceedingly, and all Israel shall hate each one his neigh- 
bour. The fifth shall be held fast in darkness^ likewise also the sixth 
and seventh. And in the seventh there shall be such pollution as I 
am not able to express, before the Lord and men, for they shall know 
it who do these things. Therefore shall they be in captivity and for a 
prey, and their land and their substance be destroyed. And in the 
fifth week they shall return into their desolate country and shall renew 
the house of the Lord. And in the seventh week shall come the 
priests, woi shippers of idols, contentious, lovers of money, proud, law- 
less, lascivious, abusive of children and beasts. 

1 8. And after their punishment shall have come from the Lord, 
then will the Lord raise up to the priesthood a new Priest, to whom 
all the words of the Lord shall be revealed ; and he shall execute a 
judgment of truth upon the earth, in the fulness of days. And His 
star shall arise in heaven, as a king shedding forth the light of knowl- 
edge in the sunshine of day, and he shall be magnified in the world 
until His ascension. He shall shine forth as the sun in the earth, and 
shall drive away all darkness from the world under heaven, and there 
shall be peace in all the earth. The heavens shall rejoice in His 
days, and the earth shall be glad, and the clouds shall be joyful^ and 
the knowledge of the Lord shall be poured forth upon the earth as 
the water of seas ; and the angels of the glory of the presence of the 
Lord shall be glad to Him. The heavens shall be opened, and from 
the temple of glory shall the sanctification be upon Him with the Fath- 
er's voice, as from Abraham the father of Isaac. And the glory of 
the Most High shall be uttered over Him, and the spirit of under- 
standing and of sanctification shall rest upon Him in the wate r. He 
shall give the majesty of the Lord to His sons in truth for evermore ; 
and there shall none succeed Him for all generations, even for ever. 
And in His priesthood shall all sin come to an end, and the lawless 
shall rest from evil, and the just shall rest in Him. And He shall 
open the gates of paradise, and shall remove the threatening sword 
against Adam ; and He shall give to His saints to eat from the tree of 
life, and the spirit of holiness shall be on them. And Beliar shall be 
bound to Him, and He shall give power to His children to tread upon 
the evil spirits. And the Loid shall rejoice in His children, and the 
Lord shall be well pleased in His beloved for ever. Then shall 
Abraham and Isaac and Jacob be joyful, and I will be glad, and all 
the saints shall put on gladness. 

19. And now, my children, ye have heard all ; choose, therefore. 

( 76) 

for yourselves either the darkness or the light, either the law of the 
Lord or the works of Beliar. And we answered our father, saying. 
Before the Lord will we walk acco'-ding to His law. And our father 
said. The Lord is witness, and his angels are witnesses and I am wit- 
ness, and ye are witnesses, concerning the word of your mouth. 
And we said, We are witnesses. And thus Levi ceased giving charge 
to his sons ; and he stretched out his feet, and was gathered to his 
fathers, after he had lived a hundred and thirty-seven years. And 
they laid him in a coffin, and afterwards they buried him in Hebron, 
by the side of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob. 

The Hand Writing on the Wall. (Vol. VIH, p. 322.) We sup- 
pose the chirography at the feast of Belshazzar is referred to by the 
questioner : 

" And this is the writing that was written : 


This is the the interpretation of the thing : 

MENE, God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it. 

TEKEL, Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting. 

UPHARSIN (PERES), Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the 
Medes and Persians." — Dauiel v, 25-28. 

" Mene, Tekel, Upharsin" (numbered, weighed, divided). 

The Septuagint has the words, MANE, THEKEL, PHARES. 

Breithaupt refers to the book, " In CEnigmatibus Judaeorum Religio. 
sisimis," 1708, p. 49, wherein he says Herm. Vender Hardt, a cele- 
brated philologist of the 17th century, gives a singular alphabet used 
by the Jews. The first letter is substituted for the preceding letter 
in every instance. According to this alphabet, John Delafield, of 
Missouri, gives the following as " the handwriting on the wall," which 
an esoteric cryptic Mason will readily divine : 

□ r—LJZD □r--J CZL-LJ r-L-u_jID 

See also ^ Hercvlusde Svnde in Steganologia,'' book v. No. 4, p. 148. 

Solomon, to whom God declared " Wisdom and knowledge is grant, 
ed unto thee " (11 Chron. xxxiii, 6), must have known and have 
been familliar with the secret alphabets of his age. 

( 77) 



« ••»» 

n. C. €;OU1i]>, Editor. 

"/« order, next to the Paternal Mtnd, /, Psyche, dwell, animating all^ 

— Zoroaster. 

Vol. XI. APRIL, 1893. No. 4. 

Trutk the Law of Conscience. 

To verify the statement, by the true line of reasoning, involves a 
correct understanding of^three verbals, namely, Truth, Law, and Con- 
science, They are all necessarily graven on the line of intelligence 
that marks the distance between their divine origin and their applied 
uses. In one sense they are the interlinking Trinity that symbolizes 
Omniscience and reveals to man's highest perceptions the reason why 
he is, and to what exaltation of being he is being led on, the line of 
Eternal Life. 

They belong to the invisible potencies of both the Spirit of 
God and spirit of man. They are the out-flowings from absolute per- 
fection that gives the soul (of man) its strength and extends to all 
humanity the right of way to the home of the Blessed in the pathway 
of purity and love. Their possession by man makes him immortal, 
and ranges his scale of being only a little lower than the angels of 
of God. The question was asked of our Lord, " What is Truth ? " 
It was an anagram that needed no answer, because it anagrammatically 
answered itself. (The Latin question was Quid est Veritas, and these 
same letters might read Vir est qui adest, that is to say, " The perfect 
man before you.") 

Here Christ was the representative of the perfect law of Love in 
its absolue Truth, and His interrogator that of the human conscience 

( 78 ) 

It was the grandest incident of revealment (to all mankind) of the 
co-relation of what we call Truths and Law^ and Conscience, Let us 
look into the interior of these terms for, as they are externalized by 
man in his forgetfulness of God, they lose their divine application. 


Truth is the excut accordance with that which iSy or has been^ or 
shall be. Now it must be self-evident that the adjustments of Human- 
ity to Righteousness (another name for Truth) fall very far behind 
the standard of that Grace and Truth (John i, 17) that came by Jesus 
Christ, and that, until the will of man is entrrely subordinated to 
the will of God, will continue to recede and retreat from the favor of 
God. Truth is the universal law of good (God). It is the talisman 
of perfect adjustment and (though it may have to struggle for ex- 
pression) is the essence of every divine or human volition. There is 
nothing so false but it contains some Truth, and nothing so true 
to human cognition but it contains some error. It is only the Per- 
fect One who is Perfect Truth, and only His beloved Son who 
spoke ike Truth as never other man spoke — and whoso doeth His 
Truth (John in, 21) cometh to the light that shineth on the Law of 
Love, and Love is the Law of Life, but what is Law ? 


Every department of human knowledge has its code of laws. Or> 
ganized communities have their charters and constitutions which they 
call organic laws, but they are not law. 

Philosophy and physics prate about their law of heredity, of na- 
tions, of thought, of cause and effect, and self-preservation, but they 
are not law. 

Mathematics has its laws of variable quantities and values, but they 
are not law. 

Legal science, as Jurisprudence, Equity apd applied Justice multi- 
plies its so-called laws, but they are not law, in very tr\ith. 

In the arts, rules of construction and procedure are called laws, but 
they are not law. 

And so of the whole body of rules and regulations called laws, ap- 
plied to any one or all subjects {except one\ they are not law. 

There is no such thing as law, except as it presents and represents 

( 79 ) 

The Divine Will ; all else is but the semblance of Law. Let us look 
a little farther into this position. There is but one law, and this one 
law may be consistently pronounced The Law of God. 

It is the law of universal efficiency throughout the universe of mo- 
lecular matter. The Ether of life is by it in motion freighted with di- 
vine purposes, and every shore-line of humanity has its renewing tides 
of eternal good to mark |^ ebb and flow of Infinite Law. This one 
law supplies every demand and requirement of Time's endless now. 
What then are, what the mortal mind and the human }udgnient as^ 
sume to be, laws? They are only the fragments of a momentary de- 
cision ; the shadows of human impressions ; the glimmerings of dis- 
torted minds ; the ignes fatui of man*s mental marshes ; the outlines 
of what man sees (through his imagination) when he looks into and 
gathers up the reflections of Nature's darkened glasses. Look still 
farther. The Law of God cannot be broken nor disregarded ; it is 
the one channel and proof of divine omnipotence, of absolute om- 
niscience, and unbroken omnipresence. It is hence the swaddling 
clothes of the new-born soul, the garment of life through mundane 
experience, and the white robe that encircles the unenthralled, when 
invited to " come up higher " and enter the angelic rest, for there is 
no outside to that which is all-pervading. Let us claim, then, that we 
are only upheld by the all-sustaining power of the one law of divine 
love and wisdom, and that it is the Truth only that can make us Free. 
And now pass on to take a passing view of 


That monitor of mortal mind that stands sentinel at the door of hearts, 
ready to excuse or accuse every thought that seeks admission. Is it 
human or divine? It is a part of our humanity, and only to the ex- 
tent that man is in the image of his Maker is conscience a divine en- 
dowment for his benefit, for at the change called Death, it passeth 
away and is no more. In the light of th^e statements, then, we may 
return to oiir main subject and examine our first proposition that 


That conscience is regulated by law requires no proof ; it is self- 
evident. It is Truth that makes its motive, and Righteousness its 
purpose, for Truth is the testimony (ii Cor. i, 12) of our conscience 

( 80 ) 

(according to Paul) extended in its simplicity and to be received with 
godly sincerity. 

If angels are ministering spirits sent forth to minister to them who 
are awakened to a sense of their Son-ship with the Father, it is not 
straining the probability of conscience being their battle-ground, to say 
that as the weapons of their warfare are not carnal but spiritual, con- 
science is the field of their operation, and if they are armed, it is with 
the two-edged sword of Love and Wisdom tjguard man's soul against 
his greatjBSt enemy, himself ; to watch over him with a vision clearer 
than his now, and completely subjugate the fleshly to the spiritual will 
which alone is able to conform to the divine will and become perfect. 
And what a standard of perfection Christ set up when he uttered the 
command (Matt, v, 48), " Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father 
which is in heaven is perfect." It was as if He had said, " Truth is the 
law of Conscience and it alone can make you free from bondage, and 
clothe you in the perfection of the All-Father/' C. B. Bagster. 

Andromeda, Andro-mache, Alexandria — Meaning of Andro. 
(Vol. XI, p. 95. Hon. William E. Gladstone, in " Juventus Mundi," 
tells us that the phrase " anax andron," meaning lord of mm, is a re- 
markable one found in Homer's two poems. That they are not de- 
scriptive words, but beyond all question used as a title. He says the 
words are applied to Agamemnon forty-four times in the Hiadj and 
twice in the Odyssey, They are applied to ^neas once (Iliad v, 311)) 
Euphetes once (xv, 532) ; Anchises once (v, 268) ; Augeias twice 
(xi, 700, 739); Eumelos once (xxiii, 288;. All of these personages 
are sovereigns, but none of them at all approaching Agamemnon, in 
point of pergonal eminence, or of power. The phrase " anex andron " 
disappears from use after Homer. (Juventus Mundi, pp. 150-151) 

F. A. White, in his " Life of Homer," p. 12, says that Homer's 
name, long doubtless after his death, was twisted from Melesigenes 
(*' born on the bank of the jiver Meles "), a name given him by his 
mother, to Melesi-anax ** lord of the Meles ; and that antiquity, subse- 
quent to his death, saw in the little Asiyanax, son of Hector and 
Andrormiche, the double of the poet's early childhood. Homer, born 
near the river Meles, named Melesigenes ; and Astyanax, " lord oi the 
r//y," born near the river Scamander, named Sc2Lmandrtus, " man of 
the Scamander ; hence, " anax andron," lord 0/ men, (Iliad xxii, 551) 

( 81 ) 

The Seventy Disciples, (Luke x, i.) Why were not the names 
of the *• other seventy also " recorded for future reference. The list 
of " the twelve " are found three times in the New Testament (Matt. 
X, 2 4 ; Luke vi, 13-16 ; Acts i, 13). Is there any catalogue of the 
names of *' the seventy " preserved ? Nomen. 

Eusebius, in his " Ecclesiastical History " (i, 11), states there exists 
no catalogue of the seventy disciples, but on other matters this author 
has been shown to be mistaken, and such appears to be the case here 
also. The traditionary list of their names, as given by McClintock 
& Strong (Vol. IX, p. 600), has already been published in Notes and 
Queries (Vol. 11,665). Their list is said to be taken from an edition 
of " The New Testament Arranged in Historical and Chronological 
Order," by George Townsend. 

The Bibhoiheca Maxima (P. P. Ill) gives the following name i as 
those of ** the seventy," some of which differ from those by Townsend : 

1. Agabus, a prophet, who foretold a faminh. (Acts xi, 28) 

2. Amplias, bishop of Odyssus. (Rom. xvi, 8) 

3. Andronicus, bishop of Pannonia, or Spain. (Rom. xvi, 7) 

4. Ananias, first bishop of Damascus, who baptized Paul, and suf- 

fered martyrdom. (Acts ix, 10) 

5. Apelles, bishop of Heraclea. (Rom. xvi, 10) 

6. Apelles, bishop of Smyrna. 

7. Apollos, bishop of Corinth. (Titus iii, 13) 

8. Aristobulus, preached the Gospel in Britain. (Rom. xvi, 10) 

9. Artemas, bishop of Lystra. (Titus iii, 12) 

10. AristarchuSj bishop of Apamea, in Syria. 

11. Aristarchus, companion of Paul. (Col. iv, 10) 

12. Asyncritus, bishop of Urbaina, or Spain. (Rom. xvi, 14) 

13. Barnabas, first name Joses, bishop of Milan. (Acts iv, 36) 

14. Caesar, bishop of Dirrhachium. 

15. Carpus, a church officer at Berytus in Thrace. (11 Tim. iv, 13) 

16. Cephas, an opposer of Paul at Antioch, afterwards bishop of 


17. Clement, co-laborer with Paul, bishop of Sardis. (Phil, iv, 3) 

18. Cleophas, cousin of Jesus on Joseph's side, who accompanied 

Jesus to Emmaus. (Luke xxiv, 18) 

19. Crescens, helper of Paul, praached in Galatia. (11 Tim. iv, 10) 

20. Demas, traveler with Paul, afterwards an apostate. (11 Tim. iv, 10) 

21. Epaphroditus, bishop of Andriaca. (Phii. 25) 

( 82 ) 

32. Epenetus, a resident at Achaia, afterwards bishop of Carthage, 

and highly spoken of by Paul. (Rom. xiv, 5) 

33. Erastus, a chamberlain, bishop at Caesarea. (Rom. xvi, 23) 

24. Evodius, bishop of Antioch. (Phil, iv, 2) 

25. Gaius, bishop of Ephesus, or Pergamus. (Acts xix, 29) 

26. Hermas, bishop of Philipopolis, and some of the church fathers 

say he was the author of the book called " The Shepherd of 
Hermas,'* considered apocryphal. (Rom. xvi, 14) 

27. Hermes, bishop of Dalmatia. (Rom. xvi, 14) 

28. Hermogenes, a co-prisoner with Paul, bishop of Megara. He 

was a follower of Simon Magus, Acts viii, 9. (11 Tim. i, 15) 

29. Herodion, bishop of Tarsus. (Rom. xvi, 11) 

30. James, the brother of Jesus, bishop of Jerusalem. (Mark vi, 3) 

31. Jason, bishop of Tarsus. (Rom. xvi, 21) 

32. Jesus, whose surname was Justus, or Joses Barsabus, bishop of 

Eleutheropolis. (Acts iv, 36) 

^^, Linus, first bishop of Rome after the martyrdom of Peter a d 

34. Lucius, bishop of Laodicea and Cenchrea. (Rom. xvi, 21) 

35. Luke, the evangalist, a physician, traveler with Paul, who is said 

to have died in Greece. (Col. iv, 4) 

36. Marinus, bishop of Apollonius. 

37.' Mark, the evangelist, founder of church at Alexandria, suffered 
martyrdom. • (Acts xv, 39 , 

38. Mark, first name was John, bishop of Byblus. (Acts xii, 25) 

39. Matthias of Bethlehem, afterwards chosen to fill the vacancy 

in " the twelve."* He preached the gospel in Ethiopia, where 
he suffered martyrdom. (Acts i, 26) 

40. Narcissus, bishop of Athens, or Patra. (Rom. xvi, 11) 

41. Nicanor, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem, who is said to 

have sufiered martyrdom with Stephen. (Acts vi, 5) 

42. Nicolas, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem, afterwards 

bishop of Samaria. He is said to have later been an apostate 
and founder of the Nicoiaitanes, Rev. ii 6, 15. (Acts vi, 5) 

43. Olympas, an early convert, suffered martyrdom. (Rom. xvi, 15) 

44. Onesiphorus, bishop of Coronea. 11 Tim. iv, 19) 

45. Parnenas, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem, afterwards 

bishop at Sali. (Acts vi, 5) 

46. Patrobas, bishop of Puteoli and Naples. (Rom. xvi, 14) 

47. Philemqn, bishop of Gaza. (Pilemon i) 

( 83 ) 

48* Philip, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem, and afterwards 
bishop of Tralles, in Asia Minor. (Acts vi, 5) 

49. Philologus, bishop. (Rom. xvi, 15) 

50. Phlegon, bishop of Marathon. (Rom. xvi, 14) 

Paul. He was author of a history of the " Controversy be- 
tween Peter and Simon Magus." (11 Tim. iv, 21; 

51. Phygellus, bishop of Ephesus. He was a follower of Simon 

Magus, Acts viii, 9. (11 Tim. i, 15) 

52. Prochorus, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem, and after- 

wards bishop of Nicomedia, in Bithynia. (Acts vi, 5) 

53. Pudens, a friend to Paul, beheaded at Rome. (11 Tim. iv, 21) 

54. Quartus, bishop of Berytus. (Rom. xvi, 23) 

55. Rhodion, beheaded at Rome with Peter. 

56. Rufus, bishop of Thebes. (Rom. xvi, 13) 

57. Silas, companion of Paul, and bishop of Corinth. (Acts xv, 22) 

58. Silvanus, a faithful brother, bishop of Thessilonica. (i Pet. v, 12) 

59. Sosipater, bishop of Iconium. (Rom. xvi, 21) 

60. Sosthenes, an officer of the synagogue at Corinth, afterwards 

bishop of Colophon. (Acts xviii, 17) 

61. Stachys, bishop of Byzantium. (Rom. xvi, 9) 

62. Stephen, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem. (Acts vi, 5) 

63. Tertius, successor to Sosipater, at Iconium. (Rom. xvi, 22) 

64. Thaddeus, a pupil of Thomas, who delivered the letter, written 

by Jesus, to AbgaVus prince of Edessa. He preached to the 
Syrians. Eusebius (1,13) makes Lebbeus the apostle, and 
Thaddeus one of " the seventy." (Mark iii, 18) 

65. Timon, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem, afterwards bishop 

at Bostra, or Beroa, and suffered martyrdom. (Acts vi, 5) 

-66. Trophimus, bishop of Arelate. (Acts xx, 4) 

67. Tychicus, bishop of Chalcedon. 

68. Tychicus, co-laborer with Paul. (Acts xx, 4) 

69. Urbane, bishop of Macedonia. (Rom. xvi, 9) 

70. Zenas. a lawyer, bishop of Lydia or Disospolis. (Titus iii, 13} 
It will be observed that, with the exception of seven names, these 

names are the same and identified with those mentioned in the New 
Testament, but there is some doubt about several of them being the 
same. An examination of each name in McClintock & Strong's 
" Cyclopaedia," shows that many of them were one of " the seventy " 
according to Jerome, Eusebius, or some other church father. 

( 84 ) 

Parable of Aravi and the Stranger. 

(Vol. XI, p. 58.) The question submitted by a local patriarch not 
having called a reply, we will give the information desired. The para- 
ble now in the Golden Rnle Degree is not found in the Bible as many 
Odd Fellows suppose. It is ascribed generally to Benjamin Franklin 
and w:is quite familiar to the schoolboy of two generations ago in the 
palmy days of Wildey, Ridgely, Vansant, and their contemporaries. 

The following is the complete parable which is sometimes called 
the " Parable Against Persecution." 

Aram was sitting at the door of his tent, under the shade of his 
fig-tree, when it came to pass that a man, stricken in years, bearing a 
staff in his hand, journeyed that way. And it was noon-day. And 
Aram said unto the stranger, " Pass not by, I pray thee, but come in, 
and wash thy feet, and tarry here until the evening ; fot thou art 
stricken with years, and the heat overcometh thee." 

And the stranger left his staff at the door, and entered into the tent 
of Aram. And he rested himself. And Aram set before him bread 
and cakes of fine meal, baked upon the hearth. And Aram blessed 
the bread, calling upon the name of the Lord. But the stranges did 
eat, and refused to pray unto the Most High, saying, ** Thy Lord is 
is not the God of my fathers, why, therefore, should I present my 
vows unto him ? '* And Aram's wrath was kindled, and he called his 
servants, and they beat the stranger, and drove him into the wilder- 

Now in the evening Aram lifted up his voice unto the Lord, and 
prayed unto him. And the Lord said, " Aram, where is the stranger 
that sojourned this day with thee ? *' And Aram answered and said, 
'* Behold, O Lord, he ate of thy bread, and would not offer unto thee 
his prayers and thanksgivings. Therefore, did I chastise him and 
drive him from before me into the wilderness.'* 

And the Lord said unto Aram, " Who hath made me a judge be- 
tween me and thee ? Have not I borne with thine iniquities, and 
winked at thy backsliding ; and shalt thou be severe with thy brother, 
to mark his errors and to punish his perverseness ? Arise, and follow 
the stranger, and carry with thee oil and wine, and anoint his bruises, 
and speak kindly unto him. For I, the Lord thy God, am a jealous 
God, and judgment belongeth unto me. Vain is thine oblation of 
thanksgiving without a lowly heart. As a bulrush thou mayest bow 
down thy head, and lift up thy voice like a trumpet ; but thou obeyest 
not the ordinance of thy God if thy worship be for strife and debate. 

(85 ) 

Behold the sacrifice that I have chosen. Is it not to undo the heavy 
burdens, to let the oppressed go free, and to break every yoke ? To 
deal thy bread to the hungry, and to bring the poor that are cast 
out to thy house ? '' 

And AramTtrembled before the presence of God. And he arose, 
and put|0n sackcloth and ashes, and went out into the wilderness to 
do as the Lord had commanded him. 

It is said that Franklin was at a large party among several dignita- 
ries of the Church of England, when the subject of compelling con- 
formity to an established Church by law, was introduced. After sev- 
eral of the clergy had defended the obnoxious principle, Franklin 
was called upon for his opinion. He recited the foregoing parable ; 
and they, being somewhat convinced by its style, and Franklin's mod- 
est mein and gravity, suspected not the language, supposing it to be 
Scripture, and acknowledged its force, and yielded the argument. 

Whether the occasion and result was exactly as it is stated, or not, 
it is true that the parable was published as Dr. Franklin's, and it is 
alleged that he appropriated it from T^ren^y Taylor, who closes his 
work on the " Liberty of Prophesying " with it, giving the following 
version : 

" I end with a story which I find in the Jews' books : When Abra" 
ham sat at his tent-door according to his custom, to entertain strang- 
ers, he espied an old man who was an hundred years of age. He re- 
ceived him kindly, washed his feet, provided supper,and caused him to 
sit down ; but observing that the old man ate and prayed not, nor 
begged for a blessing on his meat, asked him why he*did not worship 
the God of heaven ? The old man told him that he worshipped the 
fire only, and acknowledged no other God ; at which Abraham grew 
so zealously angry that he thrust the old man out of his tent, and ex- 
posed him to all the evils of the night, and an unguarded condition. 

" When the old man was gone, God called to Abraham, and asked 
him where the stranger was ? He replied, * I thrust him away, be- 
cause he did not worship thee.' God answered, I have suffered him 
these hundred years, although he dishonored me, and couldst thou 
not endure him one night, when he gave thee no trouble y ' Upon this, 
saith the story, Abraham fetched him back again, and gave him hos- 
pitable entertainment and wise instruction. ' Go thou and do like- 
wise,' and thy charity will be rewarded by the God of Abraham.*' 

Now here, it must be confessed, is the story, leaving to Dr. Frank- 
lin only its dress and its interesting auxilaries. That Franklin did 
not himself claim to be the author of the story is rendered highly 

( 86 ) 

probable from the fact that it is not found in the authentic edition of 
his works, published by William Duane, Philadelphia. 

But where is to be found the original from whence Jeremy Taylor 
got his version ? It is given in Dr. Priestley's works, quoted in Latin 
from a Jewish work entitled : 

" Shebeih Jehudah, The Tribe of Judah, the Virgin Daughter of 
Solomon ; containing the Various Calamities, Martyrdoms, Disper- 
sions, etc., of the Jews. Translated from the Hebrew into Latin, by 
George Gentius, Hamburg, 1680." 

The following is the the English translation : 

** The most noble author Sadus relates that that venerable example 
of antiquity, the patriarch Abraham, celebrated for the glory of hos- 
pitality, thought it not happy nor fortunate for him, unless he had re- 
ceived some guest, whom as a presiding genius of his household, he 
might serve with all kind offices. Once upon a time when he had no 
guest, and had sent abroad to seek for a stranger, he perceived a man 
bowed down with years and wearied with travelling, lying under a 
tree. Approaching him, he led him home as his guest, and cherished 
him with every attention. When the supper was ready, and Abraham 
and his family addressed themselves to prayer, the old man stretch 
forth his hand to the food, making no show of religion or piety ; see- 
ing which, Abraham thus addressed him : ' Old man, it scarcely be- 
comes thy white hairs to lake food without previous veneration of the 
Deity.' To whom the old man replied : ' 1 am a fire-worshipper, and 
ignorant of that sort of manners, for our fathers have never taught me 
such piety.' At which works, Abraham^ horrified that he had inter- 
course with a fire-worshipper, as one profane and a stranger to the 
worship of his God, removed him from the table, and drove him from 
his house, as an offence of his company, and an enemy to his religion. 
But behold, at that moment, the great God admonished Abraham. 
* What dost thou, Abraham ? Becomes it thee to have done this ? 
I have given this old man, though ungrateful to me, life and sustenance 
for more than a hundred years ; canst thou not give the man one 
meal, nor bear with him even a moment } ' Being thus admonished 
by the Divine Voice, Abraham brought back the old man from his 
journey, and attended him with such kind offices, piety, and converse, 
that by his example he led him to the worship of the true God.*' 

Such is the version of 1680. Who can furnish the originkl of all, 
by *' Most Noble author Sadus,'* believed to be Arabic t 

Long :is this account is, with the several versions, we cannot refrain 
from adding to it the following appropriate parable, by Krummacher 

( 87) 

which further illustrates the historical foundation of the Golden Rule 
Degree : 


" A Jew Stepped into a Parsee temple, and saw there the holy fire. 
He spake to the priesl : ' What ! do you worship ? ' * Not the fire,' 
replied the priest ; * it is to us an emblem of the sun, and of its ge- 
nial light.' * Then,' asked the Jew, * do you worship the sun as your 
God ? Do you not know that this also is a creation of the Almighty ? ' 
* That we know,' answered the priest ; * but man being dependent on 
his senses, needs senible signs in order to apprehend the Most High ; 
and is not the sun the type of the Invisible, the Incomprehensible 
Source of Light that embraces and blesses all ? ' 

" Then the Israelite^ answered : ' Do your people, then, distinguish 
the type from the prototype? Already they call the sun their God, and 
even sinking from this again to a lower image, bow before an earthly 
flame. You charm his external, and dazzle his internal eye ; and 
while you hold up before him the earthly light, you withdraw frcm 
him the heavenly. You should not make unto thee any im^ge, nor 
any likeness at all.' 

" * How then,' asked the Parsee, * do you designate the highest na- 
ture ? ' The Jew replied : * We call it Jehovah Adonai, that is, t^e 
Lord who is, who was, and who will be T * Your words are great and 
glorious,' said the Parsee, 'but they are fearful.' 

" A Christian then stepped up and said : * We call him Our Father,^ 
The Christian and the Jew looked on each other with amazement ; 
when the Jew asked him ? * Who gives you the courage thus to ad- 
dress the Eternal ' * Who else,' said the Christian, * but He the 
Father himself?' .♦^^^^^^^^t** 

" And when they understood it they believed, and lifted up their 
eyes ioyfully toward heaven, and exclaimed, full of fervor and spirit, 
* Father I Dear Father I ' 

" And then all three joined right hands, and called themselves 
Brothers ? " 

To render the theosophical morals of these parables more com- 
plete, we supplement them with the following account of a traveller. 

A hungry pilgrim returning from a visit to Mecca, chanced to call 
at the door of a christian missionary for refreshments. The Christian 
invited him in, and before setting food before the pilgrim, asked him 
to repeat " Our Lord's Prayer." The pilgrim said he knew of no 
such prayer. The Christian asked him if he was willing to repeat 
it from him before eating, and the pilgrim said he would try. So the 
Christian commenced and said, " Our Father,^ but the pilgrim said 

( 8S ) 

'* your Fathtrr " Nay," said the Christian, " say Our Father;' but 
the pilgrim said " Your Father:' The Christian asked, " Why he did 
not say Our Father ? " The hungry pilgrim replied that if He was 
Our Father^ then you and / are brothers^ and you should have given 
me food before having me repeat that prayer.*' ' 

Every Odd Fellow should own and study Rev. A. B. Grosh's work, 
** Manual of Odd-Fellowship,'* and also James L. Ridgely's " History 
of American Odd-Fellowship/* from which nearly all information re- 
lating to the Order can be obtained, both exoteric and esoteric. 


Lilavctti and Vija - Ganita. 

What is the work of the Indians called Bija-Ganita, referred to by 
English authors ? Tyro. 

The Bija-Ganita is a work on arithmetic and algebra in the San- 
scrit. ,As we have a translation we will describe it. The work is the 
translation of Henry Thomas Colebrooke, in octavo, London, 1817. 
History, introduction, illustration, notes, dissertation, the age of its 
authors — Brahmegupta and Bhascara contain pp. lxxxvi 

Lildvati, arithmetic ard algebra contain pp. 128. The word 

means " delightful." The introduction is as follows : 

** Having bowed to the Deity, whuse head is like an elephant's ; 
whose feet are adored by gods ; who, when called to mind, relieves 
his votaries from embarrassment ; and bestows happiness upon his 
worshippers ; I propound this easy process of computation, delightful 
by its elegance, perspicuous with words concise, soft and correct, and 
pleasing to the learned." 

Invocation. " Salutation to Ganesa, resplendent as a blue and 
spotless lotus ; and delighting in the tremulous motion of the dark 
serpent, which is perpetually twining within his throat." 

Example 153. " In a certain lake swarming with ruddy geese and 
cranes, the t of a bud of lotus was seen above the surface of the 
water. Forced by the wind, it gradually advanced, and was sub- 
merged at the distance of two cubits. Compute quickly, ma heraati- 
cian the depth of the water." 

Example 269. ** How many are the variations of form of the god 
Sambhu by the exchange of his ten attributes held reciprocally in his 
several hands ; namely, the rope, the elephant's hook, the serpent 
the tabor, the skull, the trident, the bedstead, the dagger, the rrow 

{ 89 ) 

and the bow ; as those of Hari by the exchange of the mace, the 
discus, the lotus, and the conch/' 

Last paragraph, " Joy and happiness is indeed ever increasing in 
this world for those who have Lildvii clasped to their throats, decora- 
ted as the members are with neat reductions, multiplication and invo- 
lution, pure and perfect as are the solutions, and tasteful as is the 
speech which is exemplified." 

The Vija Ganita or Avyacia-Ganita^ Elemental Arithmetic or Alge- 
bra occupies pp. 129-276. 

Invocation, ** I revere the unapparent primary matter, which the 
Sdnc'hyas declare to be productive of the intelligent principle, being 
directed to that production by the sentient being ; for it is the sole 
element of all which is apparent. I adore the ruleing power, which 
sages conversant with the nature of soul pronounce to be the cause of 
knowledge, being so explained by a holy person ; for it is the one 
element of which is apparent. I venerate that unapparent computa- 
tion, which calculators affirm to be the means of comprehension, be- 
ing expounded by a fit person ; for it is the single element of all 
which is apparent." 

Example 207. " If thou be skilled in computation, tell me the 
number, the square of which being multiplied by fiwt^ having three 
added, and being divided by sixteen, is exhausted." 

Conclusion 217. " On earth was one named Mah^swara, who fol- 
lowed the eminent path of a holy teacher among the learned. His 
son, Bhascara, having from him derived the bud of knowledge, has 
composed this brief treatise of elemental computation." 

Ganitddhydya, on Arithmetic, the 12th chapter of the Brahme- 

Sphuta-Siddhdnta^ by Brahmegupta. contains pp. 277-324. 

Cuttacadhyaya, on Algebra, the i8th chapter of the Brahme- Sphuta- 
Siddhdnta, by Brahmegupta, contains pp. 325-378. 

These two chapters cover the several divisions found in most of 

works on arithmetics and algebras, here called the Pulverizer, 

HiESOGLiPH, '* Pierson's Traditions," p. 220^ this emblem has been 
added to the American emblems of Freemasonry within the last fifty 
years. The figure was designed by Rev. Jonathan Nye for the little 
work called the " Hieroglyphic Monitor," published by Jeremy L. 
Cross, in 181 9. The idea, doubtless, was derived from the legend of 
Isis weeping at Byblos over the column torn from the palace of the 
king, which contained the body of Osiris, while Horus, the god of 
Time, pours ambrosia on her hair. 

( 90 ) 

Odds and Ends. 


** Life of Homer," p. 208, he states that the *' quartercentenary of the 
fall of Troy (was) 783 B. C." Now this was 400 years after the fall 
of Troy (i 183, or 1184). Webster gives. the definition of centenary 
and centennial substantially the same. Is the quartercentenary of the 
discovery of America by Columbus the same as the 400th anniversay? 

G. S. M. 

Where is this quotation found ? *' It had not much consoled 
the race of mastodons, to know, before they went to fossil, that anon 
their space would quicken, with the elephant ; they were not elephants, 
but mastodons : and I, a man as nren are now^ and not as man maybe 
hereafter, feel with men in the agonizing present." 0. 

An Exercise. The following is furnished by a constant reader for 
an exercise : 

While the whole world whirls like a wheel. 
Though we go thorough through the thought. 
It will be held ' He'll heal his heel ' ; 
It ought not to go for a nought. 

'* Where is this quotation found ? The following quotation 
adorns the title-page of the pamphlet, '* The Mistletoe and its Philoso- 
phy," by Peter Davidson, Loudsville, Ga. From what source comes 
the stanza ? Every person interested in the origin and history of the 
Druids, their rites and ceremonies, should read the work : 

" I love you much and ever will, thou Mystic Mistletoe, 
Which points to dreams of bygone years, of ages long ago — 
Besides revealing clear and true the Coming Kingdom nigh, 
When Rama to the earth returns, conjoining You and I." 

How they pronounce it. The Boston Globe has the following: 

Pete sat on a log by the river side, (Mass.) 

And near him set his promised bride ; (Maine.) 

They sut there proud and satisfied (N. H.) 

To sit like that until they died. (Conn.) 

But as they sate upon that log, (R.I.) 
Up sneaked a farmer's setter dog. 

And sot'hxs teeth into Peter's hide — (Vt.) 

They sets no more by the river side, (N. J.) 

( 91 ) 


1. What is the origin of the word Ace, the name for the single 
spot on dice or cards ? Elephantine. 

2. Which was considered the most glorious monument of ancient 
Grecian architecture ? Elephantine. 

3. What is meant by the dying words uttered by the poet Burns^ 
" Let not that awkward squad fire over my grave *' ? Agla. 

4. What is meant by the words of Beily Porteus, '* War its thou- 
sands slays, Peace its ten thousands " ? Agla. 

5.' Who was Crispus Attucks to whom there is erected a monument 
in one of the public squares in Boston } W. K. S. 

6. How many yEsops were there, and on what ground is Lokm&n of 
the Kordn thought to be .^sop of fable fame ? Achsah. 

7. A Chippewa verb is said to be developed itito from five to six 
thousand forms. What is the explanation of it prolificness ? W. 

8. Who were called '* The Children of the Sun '' ? I.. L. 

g. Who were the ThamUdites^ and where <an an account of them 
be found ? Alexander. 

10. How many Popes were there whose name was Alexander, and 
who was the first person named Silvester or Sylvester recorded in any 
history ? Alexander . 

11. What is the difference between a calendar and an almanac i 

12. Were some of Jules Verne's romances taken from " The Ad- 
ventures of Pfaall," and ' The Descent into the Maelstrom," and who 
wrote the two later novels ? Jacob VanDieman. 

13. Is there any theory in philology that makes the word talisman 
to have been derived from Ajax Talemon^ one of the Grecian heroes 
at the siege of Troy ? Logos. 

14. Whe is considered the first (not foremost) American novelist? 


15. Can some one give a synopsis or account of the work entitled 
" The Physical Cause of the Death of Christ " ? Carlos. 

16. What philosopher dying uttered these words, ** I am struggling 
to liberate the divinity within me ? Who. 

17. Who is the author of the phrase, " He did his level best " \ 

(92 ) 


1. From what source came the following quotation found in the 
" Cyclopaedia " of McClintock and Strong, Vol. VII, p. 466 ? 

" Saturn, the youngest son of the gods, was my father ; I am Osiris, 
who conducted a large and numerous army as far as the deserts of 
India, and traveled over the greater part of the world, and visited the 
streams of the Ister, and the remote shores of the ocean, diffusing be- 
nevolence to all the inhabitants of the earth." Justus. 

2. Who is the author of the following euphonious arrangement? 

January, snowy ; February, flowy ; March, blowy ; 
April, showery ; May, flowery ; June, bowery ; 
July, moppy ; August, croppy ; September, poppy ; 
October, breezy ; November, wheezy ; December, f reezy. 


3. The word Bavaria gives Bavarian for its adjective; why does 
Samaria give Samaritan instead of Samarian 1 Logos. 

4. Is the following verse correctly quoted from a poem by Frances 
A. Kemble, as given in ah exchange under the caption *' Faith," and 
where can the entire poem be found ? O. H. L. 

" Better to trust and be deceived, 

And weep that trust and that deceiving; 
Than doubt one heart that it believed, 

Would bless one's life witli true believing." 

5. Were the Sibyls of ante-christian times the same as theiS/>«ij of 
classic lore, mentioned by Homer, and others ? William K. 

6. Are psychology, mesmerism, animal magnetism, hypnotism, all 
considered substantially the same state or condition. Inquirer. 

7. The most frequent number used in the Bible is seven ; ; that 
in Virgil is three ; while that in Milton and Homer is nine. Is there 
any design with the classic authors for this numeral peculiarity ? O. 

8. .\ paracrostic is a poetical composition, in which the first verse 
contains, in order, all the letters which commence the remaining 
verses of the poem or division. Can some reader give us an example 
or refer us to such ? Angelina. 

9. Can any reader give any information of the work, ** Albigenses, 
an historical novel," by Charles Robert Maturin (1782-1824)? The 
work was published in 1814. A. £. S. 

10. What are the Myriogeneses mentioned by writers in the middle 
ages ? H. H. 

( 93 ) 

Ancient Astronomy of the Heavens. 

The sacred traditions and prophecies of the Ancient Church were 
grouped together on the face of the heavens, and formed the basis of 
what is known as the ancient chart of the heavens. The fixed and 
unchangeable stars which form an unchangeable record in the skies 
were mapped into groups or constellations embodying the leading fea- 
tures of the sacred record of the Ancient Religion or Records of the 
Ancient Church. We have the Deluge, with Noah's Ark and dove 
in the ancient ship, and the deluging waves ; the Great Serpent pur- 
suing a woman to devour her and her male child as they fly into the 
wilderness. But our present duty is with the milk-white steed known 
as the constellation " Pegasus," on which Perseus rose victoriously to 
the rescue of the princess Andromeda^ who was chained to a rock 
and about to be devoured by the great sea dragon. The ancient 
Christians have always regarded the constellation '' Pegasus *' as em- 
bodying the same idea as the prophecy of the Apocalypse or '* Book 
of Revelation," in reference to the " white horse and he that sat upon 
him," " and his name is called The Word of God." (Rev. xix, ii, 13.) 
He is there spoken of as the conquering hero and victor on the Great 
White Horse, leading the armies of .heaven on white horses. On this 
account the square city of the New Jerusalem spoken of in the '* Book 
of Revelation " has always been understood as following in the train 
of this square of the constellation " Pegasus.*' 

The first meridian of the heavens has already entered this constel- 
lation ; and the historic meaning of this constellation, with its signifi- 
cant representation — if it has any at all — must now be in the order of 
fulfillment ; they must now be embodied in, and in reality must act- 
ually be, the very historic events now being enacted before our eyes 
in the events of today. Granting that this historic significance be- 
longs to this constellation " Pegasus," let us see when it began, that 
its significance may be tested by the character of the times. 

The first meridian of the heavens has entered this constellation, 
and advanced eastward, 6180.75 seconds equal to 1° 43' at the close 
of the year 1880. How long has it been since the first meridian be- 
gan to enter this celestial square of the " White Horse .> " The pre- 
cession of the equinoxes carries this first meridian backward or east- 
ward at the rate of 50^' per year. Hence the first meridian entered 
this celestial square of the ** White Horse," about 123 years ago, or 
6180.75 seconds; 50.25 = 123 years. Or 1880 — 123=1757, equals 
the date when the first meridian entered the celestial square of the 
New Jerusalem White Horse. 

It is certainly a remarkable fact that the world has advanced more 
rapidly, and has developed more new arts, sciences, and new eras 

( 94 ) I 

during this period, dating from the year 1757, than the world has ever 
done since its creation. The last 123 years since the first meridian 
entered the square of " Pegasus " are unparalleled. The White Horse 
and its rider are going forth conquering and to conquer. He who is 
faithful and true has mounted that milk-white steed, which is emblem^- 
atic of purity. The celestial square to which it belongs has been en- 
tered since the year 1757, by the first meridian, and the events of the 
time prove conclusively that a new era begad at that year, when the 
White Horse of the ancient heavens went forth eastward to introduce 
a new era of life, light, and purity. 

It is equally a remarkable fact, that Swedenborg in 1757 announced 
that that year was the beginning of this new era and second coming 
of the conquering hero of the " £ook of Revelation,*' whose " White 
Horse " represents the human understanding in relation to divine 
truth. Whilst the name of the rider is the ** Word of God,'' it means 
that the second coming of the Lord would be as the Divine Truth 
or Word of God^ and the human understanding would behold him as 
such with perfect purity and clearness. — Samuel Beswick^ in the New 
Church Independent^ yanuary^ 1881, 

The Eighth Wonder of the World. The Escurial. A famous 
monastery in New Castile, Spain^ called *' the eighth wonder of the 
world." It is a pile of granite of great magnificence. 

The tale is that Felipe II of Spain in the battle of St. Quentin 
vowed to St. Lorenzo (on whose day, 15 August, 1557, the battle was 
fought), that if he would grant him the victory he would build a mo- 
nastery to his honor. As St. Lorenzo was burned to death on a grid 
iron, the monastery was built in the form of a gridiron, long courts 
representing the bars or the gridiron. It ivas begun in 1563, and fin- 
ished in 1584, being Over twenty years in construction. It was in- 
tended for church, mausoleum, and. monastery. It has 1,400 doors, 
and 11,000 windows. 

Eighty-Six Immortals. " The Immortals " were the followers of 
Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-189 1), the Irish statesman, in the 
House of Commons in 1886. These 86 really ruled the House in that 
they voted as one man, and could overthrow or carry any measure. 
Home rule was the great question. The Tory government was thrown 
out by ** the immortal 86," and William Ewart Gladstone, who sup- 
ported Home Rule, was supported by them. 

Five Points. The five points of Calvinism are : i. Absolute elec- 
tion and reprobation. 2, Particular redemption. 3. Irresistible grace. 
4. The will is not free. 5. The perseverance of the saints. 

( 95 ) 


1. Robert Brown, Jr. in his work, " The Law of Kosmic Order," 
speaks of a symbolism " based on the Law of Least EfiEort" Please 
explain this law. Alex. King. 

2. What is & Cantab a term used in England more or less in con- 
nection with authorship. Lowell. 

3. Which is considered the lost sign of the Zodiac, and how did it 
lose its position ? Lowell. 

4. When^ by whom, and to what centuries^ was the term Dark 
Ages first applied to certain periods of European history ? A. E. G. 

5. Who is " MuMMis,'* the author of '^ The Answer to the Egyp- 
tian Mummy," the poem in this No. of Notes and Queries ? Also, 
" N. P. S.," the author of the poem " Lines to an Alabaster Sar- 
cophagus ? " Typo. 

6. Was Matthias an apostle^ or only " numbered with the eleven," 
to keep the plenary Twelve. Matthew xix, 28 ; Luke xxii, 30 ; and 
Revelation xxi, 14^ would indicate that the originally appointed twelve 
will have the preeminence which included Iscariot. X. 

7. Robert Brown, Jr., in his work on "The Law of Kosmic Order," 
p. 34, says : *' We read in the Creation Legend, ' He arranged the 
year according to the bounds that he defined. For each of the twelve 
months three constellations he fix^d.' " Where is this quotation 
found ? Student. 

8. Are there any other United States on the globe besides these : 
United States of Germany, United States of America, United States 
of Columbia ? U. S. 

9. What is the real meaning of the word Andro in such names as 
Andromeda, Andromache, Alexander, Philander, etc. Andrew. 

10. What are the characteristics of the Iliad known as the " Sturm 
and Drang characteristics," mentioned in Geddes' " Problem of the 
Homeric Poems," p. 47 ? G. C. S. 

11. From whom do the islands in the Mediterranean off the east 
coast of Spain called Columbretes take their name } Also, from whom 
does Colombo, in Ceylon^ take its name ? Philip. 

12. How many rivers, villages, towns, cities, counties, parishes, 
hundreds, districts^ etc., at the present time, in America, that have 
the name of Columbus, Columbia, and Columbiana ? Philip. 


Address to An Egyptian Mummy. 


The success of the ancient Egyptians in preserving their dead by 
the operation of embalming was surprisingly great. For a proof of 
this we have only to turn to the fact of our viewing at the present 
time the bodies of persons who lived three thousand years since. 
This ingenious people applied the powers of art to the purposes of 
their religion, and did all they could to keep the human frame extire 
after death, fondly thinking that if it proved a fit dwelling, its former 
inhabitant, the soul, would return at some distant period, and animate 
it afresh, even upon earth. 

And thou hast walked about, (how strange a story ! ) 

In Thebee*8 street three thousand years ago; 
When the Memnonium was in all Its glory, 

And Time had not begun to overthrow 
Those temples, palaces, and piles stupendous. 
Of which tne yerv ruins are tremendous. 

Speak ! for thou long enough hast acted dummy,— 

Thou hast a tongue, come, let us hear its tune : 
Thou'rt standing on thy legs aboye ground, Mummy I 

Revisiting the glimpses of the moon, 
Not like thin ghosts or disembodied creatures. 
But with thy bones, and flosh, and limbs, and features. 

Tell us. for doubtless thou canst recollect. 

To wnom should we assign the Sphinx's fame; 
Was Cheops or Cephrenes architect 

Of either pyramid that bears his name? 
Is Poropey*s Flllar really a misnomer? 
Had Thebes a hundred gates as sung by Homer? 

Perhaps thou wert a mason, and forbidden, 

By oath, to tell the mysteries of thy trade; 
Then say what secret melody was hiddeu 

In Memnon's statue, which at sunrise played? 
Perhaps thou wert a priest, and hat^t been dealing 
In human blood, and horrors past reyealing. 

Perchance that yery hand, now pinioned flat, 

Has hob-a-nobbed with Pharaoh, glass to glass ; 
Or dropped a hain)enny in Homer's hat. 

Or doffed thine own to let Queen Dido pass, 
Or held, by Solomon's own Inyitation, 
A torch at the great Temple's dedication. 

I need not ask thee if that hand, when armed, 

Has any Roman soldier mauled or knuckled. 
For thou wert dead and buried, and embalmed, 

Ere Romulus and Remus had been suckled ; 
Antiquity appears to have begun 
Long after thy primeval race was run. 

Thou couldst develop, if that withered tongue 

Might tell us what those sightless orbs have seen, 
How the world looked when it was fre^h and young. 

And the great Deluge still had lett It green : 
Or was it then so old, that History's pages 
Contained no record of its early sges i 


Still lilent, inoommnnicfttlve eltl 
Art sworn to secrecy? then keep thy vows; 

But pr'ythee tell ue Boniethine of thyself,— 
Beveal the secrets of thv piuon-boase I 

Since in the world of sptrits tbon hsst slnmberedf 

What hast thou seen, what strange adventares numbered? 

Since first thy form was in this box extended} 
We have, aboTe-groand, seen some strange matations; 

The Boman empire has begun and ended, 
New worlds have risen, we have lost old nations. 

And countless kings have into dust been humbled. 

While not a fragment of thy flesh has crumbled. 

Didst thou not hear the pother o'er thy head, # 

When the great Persian conqueror, Cambyses, 

Marched armies o'er thy tomb with thundering tread, 
O'orthrew Osiris, Apis, Isis, 

And shook the Pyramids with fear and wonder, 

When the gigantic Memnon fell asunder? 

If the tomb*s secrets may not be confessed, 

The nature of thy private life unfold; 
A heart hss throbbed beneath that leathern breast. 

And tears adown thy dusty cheeks have rolled. 
Have children climbed those knees, and kissed that face? 
What was thy name and station, age and race? 

Statue ef flesh— Immortsl of the dead ! 

Imperishable type of eyanescencel 
Posthumous man, who quitt'tt thy narrow bed. 

And standest undecayed within our presence. 
Thou wilt hear nothing till the Judgment morning. 
When the great Trump shall thrill thee with its warning I 

Why should this worthless tegument endure. 

If its undying guest be lost for ever? 
Olh let us keep the toul embalmed and pure 

In living virtue; that, when both must sever, 
Although corruption may our fhtme consume, 
Th* immortal spirit in the skies may bloom ! 

I%e Answer of the Egyptian Mummy. 


Child of the latter days, thy words have broken ' 
A spell that long has bound these lungs of clay, 

For smce this smoke-dried tongue of mine hath spoken, 
Three thousand tedious years have rolled away. 

Unswathed at length, I "stand at ease" before ye,— 

List, then, oh! list, while I unfold my story. 

Thebes was my bhrth-nlace, an unrivaled citj, 
With many gates,— but here I might declare 

Some strange plain truths, except that it were pity 
To blow a poet's fabric into air ; 

Oh! I could read you quite a Theban lecture. 

And give a deadly flnisn to conjecture. 

But then you would not have me throw discredit 
On grave historians— or on him who sung 

ThkIliap— true it is I never read it, 
But heard it read wlien I was very young; 

An old blind minstrel, for a triffllng profit, 

Becited parts— I think the author oi it. 

( 98 ) 

All that I know about the town of Homer 

Ib, that they acarce would own him in hia day— 
Were glad, too, when he proudly turned a roamer, 

Because by this they saved their oarixA-pay. 
Hia townsmen would hare been ashamed to flout him, 

Had they foreseen the fuss ^nce made about him. 

One blunder I can ftirly set at rest, 

He says that men were once more big and bony 
Than now, which is a bouncer at the best; 

I'll Just refer tou to our friend fielzoni, 
Near seven feet high! in sooth, a lofty figure I 
Now look at m«, and tell me am 1 bigger? 

Not hihf the size: but then I*m sadly dwindled ; 

Three thousand years with that embalminir glue. 
Have made a serious difference, and have awindled 

My face of all its beauty— there were few 
Egyptian youths more gay,— behold the sequel. 
Nay, smile not, yon and I may soon be equal! 

For this lean hand did one day hurl the' lance 

With mortal aim— this light fantastic toe 
Threaded the mystic mazes of the dance : 

This heart hatli throbbed at tales of love and woe, 
These shreds of raven hair once set the f^hion. 
This withered form inspired the tender paaeion. 

In vain ! the skilful band and feelings warm. 

The foot that figured In tbe bright quadrille. 
The palm of genius and the manly form, 

All bowed at once to death's mysterious will, 
Who sealed me up where mummies sound are sleeping, 
In cere-cloth, and in tolerable keeping. 

Where cows and monkeys squat in rich brocade, 

And well-dressed crocodiles in painted cases, 
Bats, bats, and owli>, and cats in masquerade. 

With scarlet flounces and with varnished faces; 
Men, birds, brutes, reptiles, fish— all crammed together. 
With ladies that might pass for well-tanned leather. 

Where Barneses and Sabacon lie down. 

And splendid psammis In his hide of crust; 

Princes and heroes, men of high renown, \ 

Who in their day kicked up a mighty dust,— ^ 

Their swarthy Mummies kicked up dust in numbers, | 

When huge Belloni came to scare their slumbers. 

Who*d think these rusty hams of mine were seated 

At Dido's table when the wondrous tale 
Of "Juno's hatred" was so well repeated? 

And ever and anon the Queen turned pale; 
Meanwhile the brilliant gas-li£hts hung above her. 
Threw a wild glare upon lier shipwrecked lover. 

Ay, gas-Ughts.' mock me not; we men of yore 

Were versed in all the knowledge you can mention; 
Who hath not heard? of Egypt's Tore? 

Her patient toil? acuteness of invention? 
Survey the proofs— our Pyramids are thriving,— 
Old Memnon still looks young, and I'm suvrvmg. 

A land in arts and sciences prolific, 

On blocks elgantic building up her tkaxe I 
Crowded with signs, and letters hieroglyphic, 

Temples and obelisks her skill proclaim ! 
Yet thoush the art and toil unearthly seem, 
Thote bloan were brought on bail-bo ads and by stbamI 

(99 ) 

How, wben, and why, our people cam« to reaV 

The Pyramid of Cheopp, mighty pile! 
TbiB and the other secrete thou shalthear; 

I will unfold, it thou wilt stay awhile, 
The hiflt'ry of the Sphinx, and who began it. 
Our mystio markB, and monsters made of granite. 


Well, then, in grierous times, when King Cephrenee^ 
But, ah! what's this?— the shades of bards and kings 

Press on my lips their Angers! What they mean is, 
I am not to revetil these hidden thinea. 

Mortal, fkrewell ! Till Science' self unbind tbem, 

Men must e'en take these secrets aa they find them. 

Lines to an Alabaster S arcophagus. 

BY N. P. S. 

The following lines are addressed to an 'Alabaster Sarcophagus, 
supposed to be that of a king, called by Belzoni Psammuthis^ but 
whose real name was Ousiree Menepthah : 

Thou Alabaster relic ! while I hold 

My hand upon thy sculptured margin thrown. 
Let me recall tne scenes thou couldst unfold, 

Mightest thou relate the changes thou hast known , 
For thou wert primitive In thy formation, 
Launched from th* Almighty^s hand at the creation. 

Yes— thou wert present when the stars and skies 

And worlds unnumbered rolled into their places, 
When God from chaos bade the spheres arise, 

And fixed the radiant sun upon its basis, 
A'bd with His finger on the bounds of spaee, 
Marked out each planet's everlasting race. 

How many thousand ages from thy birth 

Thou slept'st in darkness, it weie vain to ask; 
Till Egypt^B sons upheaved thee from the earth. 

And year by year pursued their patient task, 
Till thou wert carved and decorated thus. 

Worthy to be a king's sarcophagus. 

What time El^ah to the skies ascended, 

Or David reigned in holy Palestine, 
Some ancient Theban monrach was extended 

Beneath the lid of this emblazoned shrine, 
And to that subterranean palace borne 
Which toiling ages in the rock had worn. 

Thebes from her hundred portals filled the plain 

To see the car on which thou wert upheld. 
What ftineral pomps extended in thy train! 
* What banners waved ! what mighty music swelled, 

As armies, priests, and crowns bewailed the chorus, 
Their Kings, their God, their Serapis, their Orus! 

( 100 ) 

ThoB to thy seooDd quarnrMid they trust 
Tbee, and the lord of all the nation* round ; 

Grim &lng of lilenee! monarch of the duet! 
Embalmed, anointed, Jewelled, sceptred, crowned, 

There did he lie in state; cold, stiff, and stark, 

A leathern Pharaoh, grinning in the dark. 

Thus aoes rolled; bat their dlssoWing breath 
Conld only blacken that imprisonea thing. 

Which wore a ghastly royalty in death. 
As if it struggled still to be a king : 

And each revolving century, like the last. 

Just dropped its dust upon thy lid— and passed. 

The Persian conqueror o*er Egrpt poured 
His devastating host,— a motley crew,— 

And steel-clad horsemen,— the barbsrian horde,— 
Music and men of every sound and hue,— 

Priests, arcbers, eunuchs, concubines, and brutes,— 

Qongs, trumpets, cymbals, dulcimerg, and lutes. 

Then did the fierce Cambyses tear away 
The ponderous rock that sealed thy sacred tomb : 

Then did the slowly penetrating ray 
Redeem thee fh>m ions centuries of gloom ; 

And lowered torches flashed against thy side, 

As Asia's king thy blasoned trophies eyed. 

Plucked from the grave with sacrilegious taunt, 
The tbatures of the rojal corpse they scanned : 

Dashing the diadem from his temple gaunt, 
They tore the sceptre firom from his graspiess hand ; 

On those fields where once his will was law 

Left him for winds to waste, and beasts to gnaw. 

Some pious Thebans, when the storm was nast, 
Upclosed the sepulchre with cunning skill; 

And Nature, aiding tfaeir devotion, cast 
Over its entrance a concealing rill ; 

Then tliy third darkness came, and thou didst sleep 

Twenty.three centuries in silence deep. 

But he, fh)m whom nor pyramid nor sphinx 

Can hide its secrecies, Belzoni c^me, 
From the tomb's mouth unclosed the granite links,— 

Oave thee again to light, and life, and fifime,- 
And brought thee f^om the sands and desert forth. 
To charm **tbe pallid children of the North." 

Thou art In London, which, when thou wert new, 
Was what Thebes m, a wilderness and waste. 

Where savage beasts more savage men pursue, 
A scene by nature cursed, by man disgraced. 

Now 'tis the world's metropolis, the high 

Queen of arms, learning, arts, and luxury. 

Here, where I hold my band, 'tis strange to think 
What other hands, perchance preceded mine; 

Others have also stood beside thy brink 
And vainly conned the moralising line. 

Kings, sages, chieft! that touched Uiis stone, like me, 

Where are ye now? Where all must shortly be I 

All is mutation ; he within this stone 
Was once the greatest monarch of the hour : 

His bones are dust.— his very name unknown,— 
Go learn i^om him tbe vanity of power! 

Seek not the frame's corruption to control 

But build a lasting mansion for thy soul! 



fl. C. C^Oirii]^, Kdltor. 


** Neither height nor depth can measure the possibilities of the human soulJ^ 

Vol. XL MAY, 1893. No. 5. 

*^ Truth the Law of Oonscience." 

To the Editor of Notes and Queries : 

I was struck by the earnest effort made by C B. Bagster^ in an 
article with the above heading in Notes and Queries for April, 1893, 
and knowing you, Mr. Editor^ to be not only a student, but an or- 
dained worker in the field of thought where divinity and humanity co- 
mingle to effect a satisfactory solution of that which correlates the 
former to the latter, the following remarks on the subject are submit- 
ted for the consideration of you and your readers. I take this mode of 
action in addressing you as a friend whom I know personally, in pref- 
erence to directly replying to Mr. Bagster whom I do not know, but 
who has now won my esteem by what he meant to say. . Yet, I do 
not wish to pose as a critic unless the criticism should suggest some- 
thing of value or worthy of mention. 

The great trouble in discussing abstruse metaphysical topics has 
always been a lack of clear definitions of the leading terms used in 
the discourse, and exponents often believe that everybody knows 
■what they mean without preliminary definitions. As little as any ex- 
act science can be taught without preliminary definitions, as little can 
it be expected that metaphysics can be taught without it. 

In the article alluded to, ** Truth " is defined : " The exact accord- 
ance with that which «, or has been, or shall beJ* According to that, 
parallel wrongs constitute Truth, yet, nothing that is wrong can be 
true to a standard of Truth. The writer of the article says : " There 

( 102 ) 

is no such thing as law except what represents the Divine Will.'' 
That is very good if only Good Law is meant^ but what about bad 
law ? for bad law there certainly is. In the article the writer says : 
" Mathematics has its laws of variable quantities and values^ but they 
are not /aa/j." That is a libel on the architect of the universe who 
has handed down to man through human agency those irrevocable 
laws which govern every relation and proportion of all the geometric 
elements. These laws of variable quantities in mathematics embody 
the very essence of Divine Law in primordial form. They constitute 
the basis of equity and righteousness as the ABC constitutes the pri- 
mary factors to erudition. As to conscience, the writer of the article 
asks : " Is it human or divine ? " It is evidently human as every one 
experiences more or less of it in consequence of good or evil acts. 
But, conscience, like law, may be good or bad, according to teachings 
of what is right or wrong. 

If we are to discuss metaphysics^ let us discuss it as we would any 
other subject requiring system and method in order to make the dis- 
cussions of permanent beneficent value to posterity. If we^ for want 
of sufficient knowledge, cannot now exhaust the subject, let us lay 
down premises on which we all agree, or which we all can understand, 
and develope therefrom so far as we can a concatenated series of in- 
disputable truths. Then, later, where we in the present leave off, the 
thread of discourse can be taken up and perpetuated again by those 
who live in the future now. 

Geometry, which is a divine science presenting to us in miniature 
the plan of the universe, was formulated in its primordial aspects sev- 
eral thousand years ago, so far as we know, and after being consigned 
to oblivion for a period since then, we find it now again, in the last 
quarte. of the nineteenth century, resurrected as it were. The latest 
discoveries in, and the fast approaching perfection of that science is a 
case in point of the value to work on, to discuss, and to preserve aU 
that is acquired of positive knowledge ; for without the premises laid 
down in that distant period by men who failed to exhaust the subject, 
no one today could have advanced the science so near a completion^ 

The three terms. Truth, Law, Conscience, are prime factors, in meta- 
physics, but neither of these are fundamental. Order must be de- 
fined first in opposition to chaos, since law is the linguistic expres- 

( 103; 

sion of order, whether it be static or dynamic. Consciousness must 
precede conscience, for until we recognize the relation of these two 
terms to the ego we have no premises to stand upon in support of ar- 
gument relative to moral right and wrong. 

As to Truth, there is nothing ready made of that, as it is the result 
of constantly repeated agreement between any two " things," minds, 
or any two acts. Virtually, therefore, Truth is a true measurment ob- 
tained by comparing two measures. When we argue, the words we use 
are the measuring means ; the meaning of the words is the standard 
for the measures ; the niutual harmonious understanding of these 
measures, meaning, and concurrent acquiesence of this meaning is 
the measurement obtained and recognized as true. Likewise, when 
in chemistry we recognize the fact that oxygen and hydrogen in cer- 
tain proportions make water, that establishes a phenomenal truth 
because it re-occurs as often as the operation is repeated. 

Charles DeMedici, New York City. 


A Shakespearian Table. Professor Rolfe, the Shakespearian 
scholar, has counted the lines which the principal characters of Shake- 
speare's plays have to speak. His rule was to consider parts of lines, 
beginnings and endings of speeches as full lines. The following is 
the result, as given in the World Almanac for 1893 • 










Henry V, as king and prince (in ** Henry IV," and " Henry V," 
has 1,987 lines to speak, and Fallstaff, in both parts of ^ Henry IV " 
and " Henry V," and in the " Merry Wives," has 1,895. 


- 1,569 

Touchstone, . 

Richard HI, 





Helen (" All's Well'') . 



Isabella, , . . . 



Desdemona, . 



Mistress Page, 

Antony (Cleopatra's) 





;ulia ("Two Gentlemen") 

Richard H, 








Lady Macbeth, 



Katherine (" The Shrew " 



Miranda (" Tempest ") 





. 585 


( 104) 

Questions and Answers. 

Ace, Origin of Word. (Vol. I, p. 91). The unit of cards or dice 
was called by the Romans unus (one) ; the Greeks who borrowed. the 
game of dice from the Romans called unus onos ; but onos in Greek 
mean *' an ass." The Teutons learned the games from the Greeks, 
and translated the word into *' ass." Italian, asso ; French and 
Spanish, as ; English, ace, 

" Bate me an ace quoth Bolton." Give me some advantage. What 
you say must be qualified, as it is too strong. Ray says that a col- 
lection of proverbs was once presented to the virgin queen with the 
assurance that it contained all the proverbs in the language, but the 
queen rebuked the boaster with the proverb, " Bate me an ace quoth 
Bolton," is a proverb omitted in the compilation. John Bolton was one 
of the courtiers who used to play cards and dice with Henry VIII, 
and flattered the king by asking him to allow an ace as some advan- 
tage of the game. David M. Drury, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The game of dice, according to Theodore A. Buckley's translation 
of the Iliad (xxiii, 87) was one of the known games before the sack- 
ing of Troy. Patroclus, the nearest friend of Achilles, confessed that 
he " slew the son (Clysonymus) of Amphidamas, not wishing it, (be- 
ing) enraged about the dice," which occurred before 1184 B. C. The 
question of priority of the game of dice with the Romans and the 
Greeks is an open one. iEneas left the doomed city and sailed to the 
Lavinian shores. The origin of the Roman race is involved. The 
Greeks were famous for their knowledge and practice of games. 

Jerusalem. What was the ancient name of this city? James. 

The Hebrew name is Yerushalaitn (** Foundation of Peace "). The 
Greek spelling is Hierosoluma^ as if from hikros^ sacred, holy, with 
some reference probably to its name, ** The Holy City " (Matt, iv, 5). 
The Arabic name is El Khuds, " The Holy,** or Beit-el-Makdis, "The 
Holy House." The other Greek forms of the name are Hiero Solumd^ 
" The Holy Solyma " (Josephus), Hierhn Salomonos^ '* Solomon's 
Holy Place " (Eupolemus), while others have traced a connection 
with H'urosuloi^ " Spoilers of Temples." Similar Greek formations 


are Hierecho and Hieromax (a river in Palestine). The Hebrew word 
was probably an adaptation of the Canaanitish name Yehi^s VedUsi 
(Joshua XVIII, 28). The city of Kadytis^ mentioned by Herodotus 
{Thalia 5), has been identified by some with Jerusalem, as if only a 
Grecized form of Kadesh, " The Holy Place " (Stanley's " Jewish 
Church," Vol. Ill, p. 92). 

Breeches Bible. " Edward the Elder " can easily satisfy him- 
self by visiting some library, the Public Library, Boston, the Astor 
Library, New York City, (and possibly others in New England, even), 
to see a copy of this Scripture, and turn to Genesis lu. 7 ; 

" Sewed figge-tree leaves together and made themselves breeches." 

(Matthew XXIII, 8-10). "But be not ye called Rabbi, for one is 
your doctour, to wit, Christ, and all yee are brethren. And call no 
man your father upon the earth, for there is but one, your father 
which is in heaven. Be not called doctours, for one is your doctour, 
even Christ." 

This correspondent should read the articles in Notes and Queries, 

Vol. I, pp. 43, 84-85 ; Vn, pp. 9-40. 

Winter Weather Walking. I send you a cutting to illustrate our 
locality, which will go with that submitted for authorship by "Julius," 
on page 92 of the current volume. C. R. H. 

" First it is slippery, then it is sloppery ; 
Now it is skippery, now it is hoppery ; 
Jumping and dashing, plunging and splashing, 
Muddery, slushery, gummed shoes and gushery ; 
Gossamers, wraps, falls and mishaps. 
Arnica, lint — words not for print,'' 

Talisman from Telamon. (Vol. XI, p. 91.) Herbert, in his 
work entitled " Nimrod," Vol. I, p. 41, says the golden telamon of Her- 
cules is no other then the belt of Orion, so celebrated in the Sphere. 

This telamon or belt grew into a person, and forms in mythology 
the hero Telamon the father of Ajax. " Swift-footed Ajax, the son of 
Oileus^ was leader of the Locrians ; less in stature than, and not so 
tall as Ajax, the son of Telamon^ but much less " (//. 11, 528). The 
said hero did little or nothing on his own account, but was the sole 
companion or partner of Hercules in three notable enterprises, viz. : 
The liberation of Hesione and seizure of the city of Ilion ; the de- 

( 106 ) 

struction of the Meropes ; and lastly, and most to our purpose, the 
capture of the Talismanic Belt from the Queen of the Amazons, to 
obtain which, they made an expedition into Scythia. Telamon is 
therefore the telamon of Hercules ; but is the Homeric Telamoniades 
by a patronymic from a real min's name, and be not rather expressive 
of some superstitious idea respecting the birth of Ajax, we must then 
understand that some favorite and confidential friend of Nimrod, was 
standing instead, which was mystically denoted by the belt. 


XI, p. 91.) I think Plotinos discoursed of the 'Miberating of the di- 
vinity (daimon) within him." The phrase, however, has been the 
theme for gross misconstruction. The Neo-Platonists regarded the 
alliance of noos or intellective principle to the body as itself death to 
the real life. This intellective principle Plato taught had its seat in 
the summit of the head, where phrenologists place the organ of Ven- 
eration. This noos Menander declares " is our daimon or divinity. 
It was regarded as emanating or extending from the Absolute 
Noos or Divine Mind, and returning to it when its earthly career was 
fully ended. This, however, was not effected simply by dying, but by 
that death to the sensuous and mundane life, which the philosophic 
life was regarded as accomplishing. The dramas in the mystic initia- 
tions, and afterward in the Theatre, figured this discipline and expe- 
rience which emancipated the spirit or noos from its bonds. 

A. Wilder. 

The Thamudites. (VoU XI, p. 91.) We find the mention of Ad 
and Thamud in E. W. Lane's version of the " Thousand and One 
Nights." The legend makes Ad a Kushite who migrated from archaic 
Khusistan or Persia, and settled in eastern or southern Arabia. They 
were probably identical with the Rephaim of the Bible, and archaic 
remains in Arabia are yet known as houses of Ad. The ThamOdites 
were of cognate race and occupied Idumsea and Western Arabia. 
Lenormant considers them Canaanites, and there are also traditions 
that they lived or more probably worshipped in grottoes, had a wick- 
ed and immo al religion and were finally destroyed by Kodar al 
Ahmed. (Compare Genesis xvi.) Doubtless the whole legend is 
closely related to Sodom and Gomorrah^ the cities of the plain. 

A. Wilder. 

C 107 j 

Myriogeneses. (Vol. XI, p. 92.) This word myriogeneses means 
** many births,*' governed by all degrees ; the personifications of the 
influences of each individual degree. Scaliger gives the ascendants 
in each sign as represented by the Arabian astrologers, as they pre- 
tended to have received them from the Egyptians. Those of the first 
Decanus in Aries will suffice, by (he real mediaeval nature cf the 
representations themselves, to demonstrate the doubtfulness of 
their pretended designs, and the more recent origin of such figures. 

Aries, the first Decanus Asiccan of Mars, gives courage and for- 
wardness, which sometimes is little short of impudence. 

1. Man holding in his right hand a pruning-hook, in his left a 
cross bow. 

2. Dog-headed man, with right hand extended, a wand in his left. 

3. Man holding out various ornaments in the right hand, his left 
placed in his girdle. 

4. Man with curly hair, in his right hand a hawk, in his left a whip. 

5. Two men, one cleaving wood with an axe, the other holding a 
sceptre. ' . • 

6. A king crowned, in his right hand the orb, in his left the sceptre. 

7. Man in armour holding an arrow. 

8. Man with a helmet, in his right hand a crossbow. 

9. Man bareheaded, a sword in his left. 
10. Man spearing a boar. 

All these types were expressive of corresponding inclinations and 
qualities in the native under each degree. But Scalager explains, and 
very plausible, many of the compound figures holding zodiacal signs 
in their handS; and usually classed among the gnostical, as genuine 
representations of the myroigeneses. 

One decan^ or ten degrees being one-third of a sign, is also called 
an dbraxoid. 

Lost Sign of the Zodiac. (Vol. XI, p. 95.) In regard to the 
^^ lost sign of the zodiac," probably Robert Brown's exposition is the 
best summary at hand. It was at a remote antiquity known as 
Tulku the Sacred Mound, and represented by the conical block there. 
The form of the abbreviation now called Libra ( ^ ) denoted that 
aymbol. The sign or symbol probably lost its position as Babylon 
lost her existence, as one 0% the results of conquest. Ubray or the 
Balance, was introduced to|[take its place. A. Wilder. 

( 108 ) 

Crispus Attucks. (Vol. XI, p. 91.) Crispus Attucks was the 
first man killed at the " Boston Massacre," of March 5, 1770. He 
was a colored man, and had made himself marked as the leader of a 
conflict with a party of British soldiers at Murray's Barracks in Brat- 
tle Street. An hour later the quarrel was taken up anew in King 
street, near the Custom House ; the crowd attacking a file of soldiers 
with snow-balls, oaths, and foul language. Henry Knox, afterwards 
Secretary of War, Samuel Gray, and others attempted to prevent a 
riot, when seven of the men one by one, discharged his musket with 
deadly aim. Attucks was leaning upon a large billet of wood watch- 
ing the affair, when a bullet hit him, killing him on the spot' Gray 
next fell ; then Patrick Carr who was crossing the street ; then James 
Caldwell, and finally Samuel Maverick, a boy of seventeen, who was 
running out to a fire a few streets away. The troops were speedily 
sent out of Boston, and the American Revolution postponed five 
years. A. Wilder. 

" Children of the Sun." (Vol. XI, p. 91.) " Children of the 
Sun " is a phrase that has been employed at various times, and in 
different regions. The Yncas of Peru professed to be of solar de- 
scent and established a worship very analogous in rites and practices 
to solar cults in others countries. Samas the sun-god of Assyria was 
probably the tutelary of the Semitic peoples. Marduk, or Amar- 
Utuki the Akkado-Chaldean divinity, was a personification of the sun. 
The Rajputs of India are also called children of the sun, and they 
venerate Rama as the chief of the solar race in India. After the 
Aryan colonists became permanent in India, the sun-dynasty made its 
principal capital at Ayodhya (Oude), and some centuries later a sec- 
ond invasion established the Moon-race at Hastirapura, or Dehli. 

A. Wilder. 

Cantab. (Vol. XI, p. 95.) Cantab is an abbreviation of the word 
Cantabrigian^ a student or alumnus of the University of Cambridge, 
England. A. Wilder. 

First American Novel. (Vol. XI, p. 91.) I think that the first 
work regarded as an American novel, warf" The Algerine Captive," 
published nearly a century ago. A. Wilder. 


Almanac AND Calendar. (Vol. XI, p. 91.) Calendar has rela- 
tion to the calling of the month \ and the noting of days in an ac- 
count book for the collecting of interest and rents. Almanack is ap- 
parently Arabic and was used in connection with the casting of horo- 
scopes, etc. In common usage there is not now much difference in 
the sense of the words. A. Wilder. 

Bavaria and Samaria. (Vol. XI, p. 92.) The analogy between 
the names Bavaria and Samaria is only a seeming one. The former 
forms its adjective and other derivatives after the style of the Latin 
language ; the latter by the Greek and Semitic. A. Wilder. 

Sibyls and Sirens. (Vol. XI, p. 92.) The Sibyls and Sirens were 
beings of different natures and offices. We find the Sibyls first 
named by Plato in the Fhadrus^ as employing prophetic inspiration 
and predicting future events. The term is from the Doric Sio-bolla^ 
for Theo Bouli^ and means the publisher of the divine caused. At 
first but one, the Cumaean, seems to have been recognized. . 

In regard to Sirens, 1 am disposed to favor Jacob Bryant's expla- 
nation that they were priestesses or . magdalens at the temples^ who 
charmed and attracted strangers by their songs and fascinations to 
come to their temples, there to be slain as sacrifices. The Hebrew 
term Siruth means " women who sing." A. Wilder. 

The Creation Legend. (Vol. XI, p. 95.) The inquiry made re- 
specting my worthy correspondent's quotation (Robert Brown, Jr., of 
Barton-on-Humber, England), I would suggest that the question be 
sent to him directly. He would be sur^ to answer it. By refer- 
ence to " The Chaldean Account of Genesis,'* translated from the 
Assyrian Tablets by the late George Smith, page 64, the quotation 
will be found : " He arranged the year according to the bounds that 
he defined," — meaning the twelve signs of the zodiac. The book can 
be obtained from Scribner, New York. A. Wilder. 

Popes Named Alexander. (Vol. XI, p. 91.) There were six 
pope Alexanders in the roll. The last of the number, Roderigo Bor- 
gia attached such a fragrance to the name that no pontiff seems 
have cared to adopt it as his titular designation. A. Wilder. 

( 110) 

Law of Least Effort. (Vol. XI, p. 95.) The phrase, " law of 
least effort," is applied by Mr. Brown to the principle of abbreviation, 
by which part of a word, or idea-symbol, is written to express the 
whole ; or as a numerical figure is used in preference to writing 
out the whole amount in words. The law is simply that of doing as 
little as possible to accomplish a desired purpose, avoiding any super- 
fluous waste of energy. A. Wilder. 

Sea-Girt Land. A recent issue of a newspaper, the Sacramento 
Bee^ published in California, speaks of that state as a " sea-girt, sun- 
kissed state."' Now, can the compound " seagirt " be properly ap- 
plied to that state? C. B. S. 

Webster defines sea-girt as " surrounded by the water of the sea or 
ocean," as a sea-girt isle, referring to Milton. 

Buckley's prose translation of the Odyssey (i, p. 3, Bohn's edition), 

says, (the blue-eyed goddess Minerva speaking) : 

" But my heart burns for the prudent ill-fated Ulysses, who, away 
from his^ friends a long time, is suffering calamities in a seagirt island, 
where is* the center of the sea, a woody island, and in her mansion a 
goddess dwells, the daughter of all-wise Atlas.'' 

In John Pierpont's poem, ** Napoleon at Rest," we have the lines: 

** Behind thiB sea-girt rock, the star, 

That led him on ftoui crown to crown. 
Has sunk ; and nations from afieur 
Gazed as It ttuled and went down." 

Psychology, Mesmerism, Hypnotism, etc. (Vol. XI, p. 92.) As 
words are used, or rather m/xused, psychology is the science of alien- 
ism ; but a bastard verb " psychologize " has been coined to express 
an occult psychic influence akin to mesmerizing. In court speech, 
psychology is the science of the soul and its qualities ; mesmerism is 
the art of inducing trance, sleep, and cessation of pain^ promulgated 
by Anton Mesmer \ animal magnetism denotes the same art ; hypno- 
tism was invented by Braid and is applied inacurately to the art or 
condition, on purpose to evade giving credit where it is due^ and to 
make the art " scientific " or orthodox^ this last term should not be 
used. A. Wilder. 

Seven-Hilled City. Urbs Septicollis, Ancient Rome built on 
seven hills surrounded by fortifications : i. The Palatine ; 2. the Capi- 
tolinus ; 3. the Quirinalis ; 4. the Caelius ; 5. the Aventinus ; 7. the 
Viminalis ; 7. the Esquilinus. 


( 111 ) 

" Read Homer once, and you will read no more.'* (Vol. II, 
P' 35*') " 'Omerus," in April, 1F84., asks for the name of the poem, 
from which was taken the lines which characterize an ardent admirer 
of the Homeric epics. I do not recall that his question has been an- 
swered, and therefore will say the four lines are found in the poem an 
" Essay on Poetry," by John Sheffield, Duke of Buckinghamshire 
(1649- 1 721). It is written in the heroic couplet, and seems to have 
suggested Pope's " Essay on Criticism." M. 

" Read Homer once, and you can read no more, 

For all books else appear so mean, so poor^ 
Verse will seem prose ; but still persist to read, 
And Homer will be all the book you need." 

— Sheffield's Essay on Poetry. 

• " Be Homer's works your study and delight, 
Read them by day, and meditate by night ; 
Thence form your judgment, thence your maxims bring, 
And trace the muses upward to their spring." 

— Pope's Essay on Criticism. 

" And when I die, be sure you let me know 
Great Homer died three thousand years ago ; 
Why did I write ? what sin to me unknown 
Dipped me in ink, my parents' or my own ? *' 

— Pope's Prologue to the Satires. 

" Homer is gone, and where is Jove ? 
And where the rival cities seven ? 
His song outlives time^ tower, and god, 
All thSt then was, save Heaven." — Bailey's Festus. 

Presidential Historical Coincidences. John Adams was 8 
years older than his successor^ Thomas Jeiferson, he 8 years older 
than James Madison, he eight years older than James Monroe, and he 
8 years older than John Quincy Adams. George Washington ended 
his presidential term in the 66th year of his age, and so did John 
Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. 
Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both died on the same day, July 
4th, 1826, just 50 years from the Declaration of Independence. James 
Monroe died July 4, 1831. It is said that all the presidents had blue 
eyes except William Henry Harrison. 

( 112 ) 

Correspondence Between Ahgarios and Christ 

We are again asked to print the correspondence between Abgarus 
king of Edessa, and Jesus the Christ. We are asked if the corres- 
pondence was genuine. We refer ** Leon " to ecclesiastical history 
and judge for himself. We are told by John, the evangelist (viii, S-), 
** Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground, as 
though he heard them not" This is historical evidence that he could 
write ; then why should he not answer a letter sent to him by post ? 


Abgarus^ Prime of Edessa^ to ^esus, the merciful Saviour, who has ap- 
peared in the country of yerusalemy greeting : 

I have been informed of the prodigies and cures wrought by you 
without the use of herbs or medicines, and by the effiacy only of your 
words. I am told that you enable cripples to walk ; that you force 
devils from the bodies possessed, that there is no disease, however 
incurable, which you do not heal, and that you restore the dead to life. 
These wonders persuade me that you are some god descended from 
heaven, or that you are the Son of God. For this reason I have 
taken the liberty of writing this letter to you, beseeching you to come 
and see me, and to cure me of the indispostion under which I have 
so long labored. I understand that the Jews persecute you, murmur 
at your miracles, and seek your destruction. 1 have here a beautiful 
and agreeable city which, though it be not very large, will be sufficient 
to supply you with everything that is necessary. 


You are happy Abgarus, thus to have believed in me without hav- 
ing seen me ; for it is written of me, they who shall see me will not 
believe in me, and they who have never seen me shall believe and he 
saved. As to the desire you express in receiving a visit from me, I 
must tell you that all things for which I am come must be fulfilled in 
the country where I am ; when this is done, I must return to him that 
sent me. And when I am departed hence, I will send to you one of 
my disciples, who will cure you of the disease of which you complain, 
and give life to you and to those that are with you. 

These two letters are as given by Eusebius. Eusebius further says 
that, after the ascension of Christ, the apostle Thomas sent Thaddeus 
(one of the seventy, Luke x, i), to Abgarus, who cured him of lep- 


( 118 ) 

rosy, and converted him, together with his subjects. Moses of Cho- 
rene says that the letter of Jesus was written by Thomas who acted 
as amanuensis. This Moses also states that Christ sent to Abgarus 
with the reply a handkerchief impressed with his protrait (a veronica), 
but this is considered apocryphal by many. The authenticity of the 
letters are defended by Tillemont, Wette, and several others. 


There is a sublime poem in William Russell's " American School 
Reader," p. 216, entitled Man, credited to the N. Y, Evening Post, 
Who is the author of it? It is as follows : G. 

. Tbe human mlnd—tbat lof(y thing I 

llie palace and the throue, 
Where reason nits a sceptred king, 

And breathes bis Judgment tone. 
Oh I who with silent step shall trace 
The borders of that haanted place, 

Nor In his weakness own 
That mystery and marvel bind 
That lofty thing— the human mind I 

The human heart— that restless thing \ 

'nie tempter and the tried; 
Tbe joyous, yet the suffering,— 

The source of pain and pride; 
The gorgeous thronged,— the desolate. 
The seat of love and hate, — 

Self-stnng, ^elf-deified ! 
Yet do we bless thee as thou art. 
Thou restless tbiug— the human heart. 

The human soul— that startling thing ! 

Mysterious and sublime ! 
The angel sleeping on the wing 

Worn by the scoft's of time,— 
The beautiful, tbe veile<l, the bound, 
The eartb-ensliived. tlie glory-crowned, 

Tbe striclcened in its prime t 
From heaven in tears to earth it stole, 
Tliat startling thing— the human soul ! 

And this is man : Oh ! at>kof him, 

Yhe gifted and forgiven; 
While o'er his virion, drear and dim, 

The wrecks ot time are driven; 
If pride or jkassion in their power. 
Can chain the time, or charm the hour, 

Or stand in place of heaven ? 
He bends tbe brow, he bows the knee,— 
" Creator, Father ! none but thee ! '* 


Correspondence Between Agbarus and Jesus. Our correspon- 
dent " Leon '' will find much to enlighten him on the correspondence 
between Abgarus and Jesus in the following collection of documents: 

Ancient Syriac Documents relative to the Earilest Establishment 
of Christianity in Edessa, and the neighboring Countries, from the 
year after Our Lord's Ascension, to the beginning of the Fourth Cen- 
tury. Discovered, edited, translated, and annotated by W. Cureton, 
D. D., Canon of Westminster. 4to. London, 1864. 

" Father Jove, grant us food, whether we pray for it or not ; and- 
avert from us evil, even though we pray for it/' — a prayer by an un- 
known poet, highly comiftended by Plato. 

The Enchanted Cock. Bring a cock into a room with both your 
hands close to his wings, and hold them tight ; put him on a table, 
and point his beak down as straight as possible ; then let one draw a 
line with a piece of chalk, and all the noise you can possibly make 
will not disturb him for some time from the seeming lethargy which- 
you have placed him, has effected. 

Luminous Writing. Take a piece of phosphorus, and during can- 
dle-light, write upon a whitewashed wall any sentence or word, or you 
may draw any figure according to fancy. Withdraw the candle 
from th eroom, and direct the attention of the spectators to the writ- 
ing. Whatever part of the phosphorus has touched the wall will be 
rendered quite luminous, emitting a whitish smoke or vapor. Care 
must be taken while using the phosphorus to dip it frequently in a ba- 
sin of cold water, or the repeative friction will throw it into a state of 
the most active combustion, to the manifest detriment of the operator^ 

Conversation Parties. These parties are very popular. Divide 
the company into groups indicated by the color of the ribbon tied in 
their number card. The numbers from i to 12 will have yellow rib- 
bons, 13 to 25 blue, and so on, which, in a large company, simplfies 
finding one's partner, and saves valuable time for discussion. When 
the absorbing question, ** Do hens have souls ? " has to be settled in 
five minutes, it will be seen that economy of time is vital. 

A Fagot Party. A fagot party is a pleasant way to pass an even 
ing. After the guests have arrived a bundle of fagots about an inch 
long is brought in, and the sticks are distributed to the company, and 
each guest in turn puts a fagot in the fire, and while it is burning, 
must entertain the company, either with a story, or in any way he or 
she may choose. 

( 115 ) 

Names of Buddha. George S. Faber, in his " Pagan Idolatry " 
(Bk. IV, chap, v, p. 349), gives the following as a variety of the names 
of Buddha, which seem to be about as prolific as those applied to the 
Supreme Being in the Bible : 

" His especial name Buddha is variously pronounced and expressed 
Boudh, Bod, Bot, But, Bad, Badd, Buddou, Boutta, Bota, Budsdo, 
Pot^ Pout, Pota, Poti, and Pouti, The Siamese make the final Tox D 
quiesent, and sound the word Po ; whence we have seen, the Chinese 
still further vary it to Pho or Fo. In the Tamulic dialect, the name 
is pronounced Poden or Pooden ; whence the city, which once con- 
tained the city of Sumnaut or Suman-Nath, is called Patten-Sumaut, 
The broad sound of the U or Ou or Oo passes in the varation Patten 
into A, prounounced Ah or Au ; and in a similar manner, when the P 
is sounded B, we meet with Bad^ Bat, and Bhat, All these are in 
fact no more than a ringing of changes on the cognate letters B and 
r, rand Z>. 

Another of his names is Saman, which is varied in Somon, Somono, 
Samana, Sutnan-Nath, and Samana, From this was borrowed the 
sectarian appellation of Samanhans or Sarman^ans, 

A third is Gautama ; which is indifferently expressed Gautameh^ 
Gcdama, Codam, Cadam, Cardam, and Cardama, This perpetually 
occurs in composition with the last, as Somono-Codom or Samana- 

A fourth is Saca, Sacya, Siaka, Shaka, Xaca, XacaMuni, or Saca- 
Menu, and Kia which is the uncompounded form of Sa-Kia, 

A fifth is Dherma or Dharma, or Dherma-Eajah. 

A sixth is Hermias, Her-Moye, or Heri-Maya, 

A seventh is Daita, Datt-Atreya, That-Dalna, Date, Tat or Tot, Deva- 
Tat, or Deva-Twaslda, 

An eighth is «7atn, Jina, Chin, Jain-Deo, Chin-Deo, or Jain-Eswnr, 

A ninth is Arhan, 

A tenth is Mahi-Man^ Mai-Man, or (if Om be added) Max-Man-Om. 

An eleventh is Min-Eswara, formed by the same title Mtn or Man or 
Menu joined to Eswara. 

A twelfth is Qomat or OomatEiwara. 

A thirteenth is Ma-Eaa or Har-Esa, when he considered as Estoara 
or Siva ; that is to say, the great E&a, or the lord Esa, 

A fourteenth is Dagon or Dagun or Dak-Po, 

A fifteenth is Tara-Nalh. 

And a sixteenth is Arca-Bandhau or Kinsman of the Sun. " 

( 116 ) 


1. What is the etymology of the name Thesaurochrysouicochrysides^ 
found in Plautus's " Captives " ? Logos. 

2. There was a symbolic story among the Romans of 12 vultures, 
and 12 ages of 120 years each, which was in some way supposed to be 
connected with the phcenixperiod of 500 years. Where can the full 
account be found ? Israel. 

3. From what probable source originated the practice of selecting 
and adopting family coats-of-arms, heraldry etc. ? T-^uis. 

4. Will some one tell us how the popes got into the habits of using 
pseudonyms instead of their own names. Z. 

5. Will some one give us the derivation and' import of the words 
Atnen and Omen ? The " So be it " explanation not wanted. M. 

6. A work on philosophy speaks of Prof. Weber as the leader of 
German Orientalists of the type of "Christophjles.*' Who are the 
Christophiles > Elwyn. 

7. What is the difference between the tenets of belief of the three 
sects : Christians, Christianity and Christadelphians ? Elwyn. 

Who was Elephas Levi, and what works did he leave behind 
him ? Edouard. 

9. Who was called the '* Gerenian Knight " Who received the 
name of " The Nameless Bard ? " Edouard. 

10. Why is the Greek letter- mark stigma applied to a person who 
has made mistakes either accidental or designed ? H. H. 

11. Every root-race has been separated by catastrophes, cataclysms, 
and the like. Where or when did such take place as to account for 
the origin of the marked distinction between the Caucasian and the 
Mongolian race s? . Ethnos. 

12. '* William Rowan Hamilton was born at midnight between the 
3d and 4th of August in the year 1805. The precise time of his birth 
was recorded by his father. Hamilton was astronomer royal of Ire- 
land and a man of world wide reputation. Can any one cite another 
instance of such exactity of birth ? A. B. 

13. Where can the poem of Mrs Hemens be found entitled " The 
Purple Anemone," sometimes printed " The Blue Anemone " by error ? 


( 11^ ) 


To the Editor of Notes and Queries : 

As you considered my former article (N. and Q., Vol. X, p. 241, 
October, 1892), *' The Mount of Footprints/* of sufficient interest to 
publish it as a leader, I suppose that what I hold is corroborative evi- 
dence to the truthfulness of that article. I suppose your readers will 
accept a few comments in answer to the query embodied by the 
writer of the narrative, whose name I regret to say was not to be 
found on either of the fly-leaves I had preserved from my friend's 
waste-basket. The narrator spells the name Zimbabye (not Timbabye). 
My remarks corroborate those views that it belongs to a primeval age. 
To convey fully this important impression I shall have to give a full 
account of his visit as he presents it. 

*' Whilst resting at Victoria, we thought it a good opportunity to pay 
a visit to. the famous ruins of Ziwibabye, lying about fifteen miles to 
the east. Mr. Watkins was desirous that I should go first, so on the 
morning of the 22d of August I set off in true African style. Our com- 
pany consisted of two white men, a friend and myself, Michael the 
native teacher, pioneering as guide, and two other natives. After a 
most enjoyable march in Indian file, through grand and varied scen- 
ery, we reached our destination soon after dark. The next day we 
examined the wonderful ruins as thoroughly as our limited time 
would permit, and the two or three rough sketches I enclose may give 
you some idea of the place. (These articles the writer never saw). 

The oval building on the plain is about 260 feet long, and 200 wide. 
The wall is 30 feet high, and in some places fully 30 feet thick. Part 
of a second high wall runs parallel inside with the great outer wall, 
thus forming a damp narrow passage where no ray of sunlight never 
enters. Within this there is a portion of a third wall about 10 feet 
long. The interior of the building is filled with broken wall and 
heaps of stone, and piles of broken rubbish, scattered about in such 
apparent confusion, that it is almost impossible to form a true con- 
ception of the original plan. Many of the passages have low gate- 
ways with grooved projections built upon both sides as if heavy stone 
slabs had once been used as sliding doors, whilst here and there are 
stone steps in a remarkable state of preservation. Great trees hun- 
dreds of years old, now stand in the aisles and courts once trodden 
by a forgotten oriental people, and the whole place is overgrown and 
overshadowed with the neglect of ages. 

The solid stone tower near the southern end is probably a monu- 

( H8 ) 

ment built over the ejave of some distinguished personage, for as 
neither passage nor doorway can be found in it, the supposition that 
it was used for purposes of worship doses not seem very probable. 
Outside this marvelous building, and extending directly up the hill, 
about half a mile north, the plain is covered with broken walls and 
debris. We ascended this Kopjie (400 feet high) and found it a verit- 
able mountain of mystery. Walls everywhere, some on smooth slop- 
ing rocks, others filling the space between mighty boulders with regu- 
lar layers of stone ; on the tip were great ramparts and small broken 
towers, as if the whole place had at one time a strangely fortified 
garrison. One remarkable point to be specified is, that all the walls 
and towers at Zimbabye of small dressed granite block, and not a 
porticle of mortar of any kind has been used by the builders. There 
is a native village in the hills, but the huts are built in the ordinary 
way of ^' wattle and daube." Although thousands of tons of excellent 
stone lie all around the place, they have only clay, straw, and wood, 
lest the gods who built Zimcabye should come and punish them. 

These natives could give us no information whatever as to the his- 
tory of the ruins. Their forefathers had found the ruins of the build- 
ngs there when they came to the country, and that was all they 
knew about it. Even the quarry that furnished the stone has not yet 
been discovered." 

The author then goes on and speaks of a Mr. Bent who had been 

3ent there, whose work the writer has seen advertised in the Londoa 

TYmes : 

^* Perhaps Mr. Bent who has been sent to the country to explore 
and report, may be able soon to give some light as to the origin and 
history of these ruins ; and there are many other old building, though 
not so important, scattered about this part of the country, a thorough 
exploration, I think, would bring many strange things to light." 

Thus the elucidation of the question appears to the author and 

many others, to be worthy of any valuable aid to assist, and for this 

purpose the account seems to be given, as to what age the structures 

belong. Those accounts which he gives, are : 

** Many different opinions are now being circulated. Zimbabye, it 
is said, may have been a fortified place built for the purpose of ob- 
taining the gold of the regions." 

It was evidently constructed by a people that understood the arts 
of civilized life, and who had with them great numbers of slaves. 
Sofala is only :ibout 200 miles east, and from this port gold and other 
precious commodities could have been shipped to the north. Many 
hold firmly to the belief that King Solomon's mines were actually in 
this country ; others incline to the opinion, that as the word Zimbabye 

( 119 ) 

means '' a palace," this may have been the residence of the Queen of 
Sheba, and there are get a few who maintain that in the buildings of 
Zimbabye we have the remains of a gorgeous heathen temple. 

I will on these various hypothetical ideas only notice that regarding 
Solomon's supplies of gold. All modern geological discovery proves 
that this precious metal has been highly valued by all classe :of peo* 
pie in all ages ; and very rich resources for it were to be found in 
those Asiatic regions over which Solomon's rule mostly had sway, as 
well as other historical records respecting Africa ; at all events 
this view would forever leave us in the dark on that ground, so it may 
be dropped. As to the holding of many slaves there can be no higher 
assistance, for as the world of mankind both before and after Noah's 
time has been always full of the passion of conquest to make slaves 
in various degrees of subjection to conquerors, this helps us in no 
special degree respecting the building period. 

The fact is the chief evidence must rest in the mode of the building, 
or on the archaeological views. There are two observations given us 
by our intrepid and intelligent author, his name I regret I cannot give* 

The first is, that all the walls and towers are built of small dressed 
•granite blocks, and not a particle of mortar of any kind was used by 
the builders. This he truly calls one remarkable point to be specially 
-noticed*. I think the same with him. Hence we have to conclude 
that while the builders might, to have a remarkably strong building, 
as it was to be 30 feet thick in some parts to as many in height, so 
this solidity must be considered to have been intended to enable it to 
resist any good shock at any time^ either by force or otherwise^ by 
the mere mass of the piles of ruins. Now this shows us a great primi- 
tive zeal in a favorite object of men ; and as great a deficiency in the 
arts of life ; as it cannot be supposed that th^ would take the time 
needed for squaring or dressing in any way so much stone, and set it 
together in such fine manner, and not also to have used a mortar, if 
they had known how to use it or even make it. At all events this sets 
aside the idea of its belonging to either Solomon's day, or that of the 
lady queen of the east, his contemporary : neither of these would 
•build a temple or a palace without cement. Does it not, then, take 
41S at once back to an age when builders found, that to use bitumen 
as a cement near at hand, and showing at once its adhesive value to 
bind brick together ; as recorded in the old historical work of the 
early attainments of man, and his doings, a progress in the arts so 
naturally suggested to them for success, from Noah's time by the 
•most simple observation then required. War, to keep possession of 
lands attained, driving others to emigrate who were unwilling to give 
up their claims, has been the history of all ages, and the arts of peace 
thereby thrown into the backgrown. Other such deficiencies of such 
building shall have been found of even more modern timesth an was 


supposed. Again, the author of this adventure tells us that no quarry 
has been found, but that the stone is of the same class as that found 
to have been so soft as to receive the footsteps of men for impressions 
at the */ Mount of Footprints '* before presented. 

Then, as boulders of the same stone, granite, where near the 
** Mount of Footprints," was soft as that of the mount itself, so that, 
occasionally, human impressions were lo be seen on . them also, and 
sealed by the changed of time. What need could there be for the 
fashioners of the stone used at Zimbabye to go into such heavy work 
as quarrying it out ? 

It is certain that our Dartmoor end Cornish stone-masons would 
never now use such labor if the masses of boulders lying in those 
hills every where, could be so easily worked as such impressions have 
proved them possible. Hence, by the class of building material used 
and so fixed, its immense thickness in places, and and also its timely 
stability against otherwise a rolling destructive force, we trace out it 
belong to an epoch before the rushing tide of animal life fleeing from 
that solemn catastrophe, of which the only record of the history of 
changes, and even more traditions coming down from a series of past 
ages, state such desolation must follow. Such fears, such forces of 
ruins ; all exactly effective to show such a scattering. When jiot so, 
by what meaus is part revealed ? The great weight of the simple 
mass. Whether the thousands of tons of scattered stone said to be 
around, or not, be of the same class is not stated. But even if not, 
the supply of slaves to bring them, not a day's journey, would secure 
the use of the most plastic stone from the neighborhood of that place 
he terms the " Mount of Footprints." 

What is that to the labor used to remove from the known quarry in 
Egypt whence the immdViced stone used when the pyramids were 
formed, one of which still lies there of their equal ; but the masonry 
shows different stages of time. As to the epoch the two testimonies 
are of one interest in connections. Like the dream of Nebuchadnez- 
zer and its interpretation. 

What was the use of the building does not interest me much ; but 
as the secret character of the enclosure between the walls, so exclud- 
ing! ight, appears to be the common idea of the times, for religious se- 
clusion. My view would be that all the peculiarities in the style of 
the building was for an adapted sanctuary ; whether used, as such 
have too often been,, for vile mysteries of idolators, or better objects, 
will probably be ever unknown. Monasteries have been looked at and 
used as palatial residences since then, that no idea of help by nomen- 
clature can be of value, is made clear in the statement. For if the 
title Zimbabye belongs to the place now, how could it come down, 
through the ages by natives who admit that they know nothing re- 
specting it, as their forefathers found the place as it is. When quite, 

( 121 ) 

as strangers, they came into the country. This again looks towards 
the implication, that it was built in an age from which no tradition 
respecting the place would descend, as it must have been so if built 
before Noah's day, Centuries must have elapsed before his descend' 
ants would have reached that part of Africa. The Bible alone gives 
us a key to the period of raising the structure. The flood, it speaks of, 
for the class of the scattened confusion of the minor buildings, the 
tower of babel for such a desire to get a great mass of matter togeth- 
er for the strength and present state thereof, as the flood accounts 
for the struggling animal life of all classes at the " The Mount of 
Footprints." No other means remain to get all the points together for 
a different solution. Where hills were higher no doubt the struggle 
for safety was alike. The object was probably for a local plan of 
some sort of religious ritual of that people, and the effect of that catas- 
trophe a cause for an effort to build a tower to secure the true faith 
as a standard which then seem to be need, and which has ever led to 
interior confusion by human difference of judgment, a bable college. 

Edward Dingle, Tavistock, Devon, England. 

Address to An Egyptian Mummy. 


And thou hast walked about, (how strange a story I ) 
In Thebeit's utreet three thoasand yeiirs ago ; 

When the Memnonlum was in all Its glory, 
And Time had not begun to oveitUrow 

Those temples, palaces, and piles stupendous, 

Of which the very ruins are tremeudoos. 

Speak I for thoa long enough hast acted dummy,— 
Thou hast a tongue, come, let us hear its tune : 

Thoa*rt standing on thy legs aT>ove ground, Mummy I 
Revisiting the glimpses oi the moon, 

Not like thin ghosts ur dirambodled creatures. 

But with thy Dones, and flosh, and limbs, and features. 

Tell us. for douVtIess ihou canst recollect, 
To whom should we assign the Sphinx's lame; 

Was Cheops or Cephrenes srchitect 
Ot either pvramid that bears his name? 

Is Pompey's 'Pillar reallr a misnomer? 

Had Thebes^ hundred gates as sung by Homer? 

Perhaps thou wert a mason, and forbidden, 
By oath, to tell the mysteries of thy trade; 

Then say what secret melody was hidden 
In Memnon's statue, which at sunrise played? 

Perhaps thou wert a priest, and hat>t been dealing 

In human blood, and horrors past revealing. 

Perchance that very hand, now pinioned flat. 
Has hob-a-nobbed wiih Pharaoh, glass to g.ass; 

Or dropped a balf^nny in Homer's hat, 
Or doSM thine own to let Queen Dido pass, 

Or held, by Solomon's own Invitation, 

A torch at the great Temple's dedication. 

I need not ask thee If that hand, when armed. 
Has any Roman soldier mauled or knuckled, 

For thou wert dead and buried, and embalmed, 
Ere Romulus and Remus had been suckled ; 

AnUqnIty appears to have begu)« 

Long after thy primeval race was run. 

< 122 ) 

Thon oottldst develop, if that withered tongue 
Might tell ns'wbat those siflrbtleee orbs have aeen. 

How the world looked when it was fire^h and yoang, 
And the great Deloge still bad left It green: 

Or was It then so old, that History's pages 

Contained no reoord of its early ages I 

Btlll silent, incommnnicative eltl 
Art sworn to -secrecy? then keep thy vows; 

But pr'ythee tell as something of thyself,— 
Reveal the secrets of thy prison-house I 

Since in the world of spirits thon hast slvmbered. 

What hast thou seen, what strange adventures numbered?' 

Since first thy form was in this box extended, 
We have, above-ground, seen some strange mutations; 

The Roman empire has begun and ended. 
New worlds have risen, we have lost old nations. 

And countless kings have Into dust been humbled. 

While not a fhigment of thy flesh has crumbled. 

Didst thon not hear the pother o*er thy head, 
When the great Persian conqueror, Cambyses, 

Marched armies o*er thy tomb with thundenng tread, 
O'orthrew Osiris, Apis, Isis, 

And shook the Pyramids with fear and wonder. 

When the gigantic Memnon fbll asunder? 

If the tomb*s secrets may not be confessed. 

The nature of thy private life unfold; 
A heart has throbbed beneath that leathern breast, 

And tears adown thy dusty cheeks have rolled. 
Have children climbed those knees, and kissed that face?* 
What was thy name and station, age and race? 

Statue of flesh— Immortal of the dead! 

Imperishable type of evanescence! 
Posthumous ^an, who quitt*Bt thy narrow bed. 

And standest undocayed within our presence. 
Thou wilt hear nothing till the Judgment morning, 
When the great Trump shall thrill thee with Its warning! 

Why should this worthless tegument endure, 

If Its undying guest be lost fbr ever? 
Oh, let us keep the goul embalmed andptar^ 

In living virtue; that, when both must sever, 
Although corruption may ou^ fkmme consume, 
Th* immortal spirit In the skies may bloom! 

The Answer of the Egyptian Mummy, 


Child of the latter days, thy words have broken 
A spell that long has bound these lungs of clay, 

For since this smoke-dried tongue of mine hath spoken. 
Three thousand tedious years have rolled away. 

Unswathed at length, I "stand at ease'* befbre ye,— 

List, then, oh! list, while I unfold my story. 

Thebes was my birth-place, an unrivaled city* 

With many gates,— out here I might declare 
Some strange plain truths, except that it were pity 

TO blow a poet's fabric into air ; 
Oh! I could read you quite a Theban lecture. 
And give a deadly flnisn to coiOeotare. 

But then you would not have me throw discredit 

On grave hlstoriana— or on him who sung 
The Iliad— true it Is I never read It, 

But heard It read when I was very young; 
An old blind minstrel, for a triffllng profit. 
Recited parts— I think the a^ihor of it. 

All that I know about the town of Hombr 
Is, that they scarce would own him in his day— 

Were glad, too, when he proudly turned a roamer. 
Because by this they saved their t»ari«A-|NStf. 

His townsmen would have been ashamed to flout him, 
Had they foreseen the fUss since made about him. 

( 123 ) 

One blander I can (kirly let at rest^ 
He saye that men were once more big and bony 

Than now, which is a bonnoer at the beet; 
ril JoBt refer yoo to our friend Belzoni, 

Near seven foet high I in uoth» a lofty flgorel 

Now look at me, and tell fle am I bigger? 

Kot half the Biaee: bat then I*m padly dwindled; 

Iliree thoaaand yean with that embalmlncr gins. 
Have made a serloat differenoe, and have swindled 

My face of all ito beaaty->there were fisw 
Egyptian yoathe more sav,->behotd the neqa^I. 
May, smile not, yoa and i may soon be equal ! 

For this lean hand did one day harl the lance 

With mortal aim— this light fkntastic toe 
Threaded the mystic mazcH of the dance : 

This heart hath throbbed at tales of love and woe. 
These shreds of raven hair once set the fiuhion, 
Ihls withered fbrm inspired the tender passion. 

In vain! the slcilfhl hand and feelings warm. 

The foot that figured in the bright qoadrille, 
The nalm of genius and the manly fbrm, 

All bowed at onoeto death's mysterloiip will. 
Who sealed me up where mammies sound are sleeping, 
In cerecloth, and in tolerable keeping. 

Where cows and monkeys squat in rich brocade, 
And well-dreaed croeodiles In painted chms, 

Jiats, bats, and owln, and cats in masquerade. 
With scarlet flounces and with varnished faces; 

Hen, birds, brutes, reptiles, fish— all crammed together. 

With ladies that might pass for well-tanned leather. 

Where Riuneses and Babaoon He down, 

And splendid peammis in his hide of crust; 
Princes and heroes, men of high renown, 

Wlio in their day kicked up a mighty dnst,— 
Their swarthy Mummies kicked up dust In numbers. 
When bugeBelloni came to scare their slumbers. 

Who*d think these rusty hams of mine were seated 

At Dido's table when the wondrous tale 
Of *'Jnno''s hatred" was so well repeated? 

And ever and anon the Queen turned pale; 
Meanwhile the brilliant ffas-llsbts hung above her. 
Threw a wild glare upon oer shipwrecked lover. 

Ay. gas-Ughtt! mock me not; we men of yore 
were versed In all the knowledge you can mention; 

Who hath not heard? of Egypt's Tore? 
Her patient toil? acuteness of invention? 

Survey the proofs— our Pyramids are thriviuff,— 

Old Memnon still looks young, and I'm suvrvlng. 

A land in arts and sciences prolific, 
On blocks gigantic building up her fitme I 

Crowded with signs, and letters h tercel vphic, 
Temples and obelisks her skill prociafm I 
Yet though the art and toil unearthly seem, 

TTtote blodti were Invught on bail-bo ads and by stbam ! 

How, when, and why, our people came to rear 

The Pyramid of Cheops, mighty pile! 
This and the other secrets thou shaft hear; 

I will unfold, it thou wilt stay awhile, 
The hist'ry of the Sphinx, and who began it. 
Our mystic marks, and monsters made of granite. 

Well, then, in grievous times, when Kfng Gephrenes— 
But, ah! what's this?->-the shades of bards and kings 

Press en my lips their fingers! What they mean is, 
I am not to reve«il these hidden things. 

Mortal, flu'ewell! Till Science* self unbind them. 

Men must e'en take these secrets as they find them. 

( 121) 

Lines to an Alabaster Sarcophagus. 

BY N. p. S. 

The following lines are addressed to an Alabaster Sarcophagus, 
supposed to be that of a king, culled by Belzoni Psammuthis, but 
whose real name was Ousiree Menepthah : 

Thoa Alabaster relic! while I hold 

My hand upon thy Bcnlptured margin thrown. 
Let me recall the scenes thoa couldst unfold, 

Miffhtest thou relate the changes thou hast known , 
For thou wert primitive in thv formation. 
Launched fVom th' Almighty's hand at the creation. 

Yes—thou wert present when the stars and skies 

And worlds unnumbered rolled into their places, 
When God from chaos bade the spheres arise, 

And fixed the radiant sun upon its basis, 
And with His finger on the bounds of space, 
Marked out each planet's everlasting; race. 

How many thousand ages Arom thy birth 

Thou slept'st in darkness, it weie valii to ask; 
Till E^pt*s sons upheaved thee t^om the earth, 

Anit year by year pursued their patient tat>k, 
Till thon wert carve>l and decorated thus, 

Worthy to be a king's sarcophagus. 

What time ElUah to the skies ascended. 

Or David reigned in holy Palestine, 
Some ancient Theban monrach was extende'l 

Beneath the lid of this emblazoned shrfaie. 
And to that subterranean palace borne 
Which toiling ages in the rock had worn. 

Thebes from her hundred portals filled the plain 

To see the car on which thou wert upheld. 
What ibnerai pomps extended in thy train! 

What banners waved ! what mlghtv music swelled, 
As armies, priests, and crowns bewailed the chorus, 
Their Kings, their Ood, their Serapis, their Oms ! 

Thus to thy second quarrv did they trust 

Thee, and the lord of all the nations round ; 
Urim King of silence! monarch of the dust! 

£mbalme<l, anointed. Jewelled, sceptred, crowned, 
There did he lie in state; cold, stiff, and itark, 
A leathern Pharaoh, grinning in the dark. 

Thus affes rolled ; but their dissolving breath 

Coula only blacken that imprisoned thing, 
Which wore a ehastly royalty in death, 

As il it struggled still to be a kins: 
And each revolving century, like the last. 
Just dropped its dust upon thy lid— and i-assed. 

The Persian conqueror o'er Egvpt poured 

His devastating host,— a motley crew,— 
And steel*olad horsemen,— the barbarian horde,— 

Music and men of ev«ry sound and hue,— 
Priests, archers, eunuchs, concubines, and brutes,— 
Gongs, trumpets, cymbals, dulcimers, and lutes. 

(125 ) 

Tlien dtd the fierce Cftoibyses tear away 

The ponderous rock that sealed thy sacred tomb : 
Then (fid the slowly penetrating ray 

Redeem tliee fVom long centuries of gloom; 
And lowered torches flaslied against thy side, 
Am Ahia's king thy blazoned trophies eyed. 

Plucked from the grave with pacrilegious taunt, 

The features ot the royal corpne they scanned: 
Dashing tlie dlarlem from liis temple gaunt. 

They tore the sceptre fttmi from his graspleiw band; 
On those tleUIs where once his will was law 
Left iiim tor winds to waste, and beasts to gnaw. 

Borne pious Thebans, when the storm was past, 

Upcloaed the sepulchre with cunning skill; 
And Nature, aiding their devotion, cast 

Over its entrance a concealing rill ; 
Tlien thy third darkness came, and thou didst sleep 
Twenty.three centuries in silence deep. 

But he, fV'Om whom nor pyramid nor sphinx 

Can hide its jiecrecies, Belzoni came. 
From the tomb's mouth unclosed the granite linlu,^ 

Gave thee again to light, and life, and ftme,— 
And broiigtit thee flroni the sands and desert forth, 
To charm ''the padid children of the North.*' 

Thou art in London, which, when thou wert new, 

Was what Tliebes is, a wilderness and waste. 
Where savage beasts more savage men pursue, 

A Msene by nature cursed, by man disgraced. 
Now 'tis the world's metropolis, the high 
Queen of arms, learning, arts, and luxury. 

Here, where I hold my hand, 'tis strange to think 
What other handp, {lerchanoe precedra mine; * 

Othera have also stood beside thy brink 
And vainly conned the moralizing line. 

Kings, sages, chietis! that touched this stone, like me, 

Whero are ye now? Where all must shortly be! 

Ail is mutation ; he within this stone 

Was oDce the greatest monarch of the hour: 
His bones are dust.— his very name unknown,— 

Go learn tt'om him the vanity of power! 
Seek not the frame's corruption to control 
But build a lasting mansion for thy soul! 

<>— <§)—<> 

The success of the ancient Egyptians in preserving their dead by 
the operation of embalming was surprisincrly great. For a proof of 
this we have only to turn to the fact of our viewing at the present 
time the bodies of persons who lived three thousand years since. 
This ingenious people applied the powers of art to the purposes of 
their religion, and did all they could to keep the human frame extire 
after death, fondly thinking that if it proved a fit dweJIing, its former 
inhabitant, the soul, would return at some distant period, and animate 
it afresh, even upon earth. 


There has been so many who wanted the foregoing three poem in 
compact form we have reprinted them by adding extra pages. 

( 126 ) 

To Trisect a Given Line A B. 

KG And LB perpendicular to A B. Then will AK = KL ^\L B. 

Because < S AF= < A FE, and <AS 0= < £ O A'and. 
< AffB^ < OHF; therefore, the A ^^^and A OFfftn 
similar ; and therefore A H : HF :: A B : OF;batA£=.i OF, 
therefore ^^=2^^. 

Because ffZ is perpendicular to A Bit will be parallel to BF;, 
therefore, AL\LB v. AH: HF; but AHt= -IHF; therefore, 
AL^%LB,qjLB = ^AL. 

In like manner it may be shown that AK=-\ KB. 

Therefore AJii=KL = LB. Q. E. D. 

NoU. If desirable, the parallelogram A B FE may be drawu in- 
stead of ^ABO D,OT the center of E /"connected with A and B- 
and then proceed as above. 

B. A. Mitchell, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 

( 127) 

The Homeric Club of Manchester, JST. H. 

The second annual meeting of the Homeric Club was held April 24^ 
1893^ that being the 3077th anniversary of the Fall of Troy, according 
to chronologists. The officers elected for the ensuing year were for 
jPrestW^nf, John Dowst ; Secretary, S. C. Gould ; Treasuer, O. H. Leavitt. 

The retiring president^ S. C. Gould, for two years, gave a sketch of 
the life of Homer, also a synopsis of the events which led to the war 
that formed the subject of the two epics. In his address he said. 

** Every people has its literature to which it points with pride and 
glory and considers it a treasure that h:is descended to it, and the 
more ancient nations trace their literature and race as coming even 
from the goddesses and the gods themselves, (lote the following : 

The Mah&bhirata and Ramiyana of India, the Kalewala of Fin« 
land^ the Eddas and Sagas of Scandinavia, the Psalms and Songs of 
David and Solomon, the Sibylline Oracles of the Romans, and not 
last nor least the //tad and Odyssey of the Greeks. These two latter 
epics stand without a rival or parallel, and are at the present time a 
mine of study and research. Even the " Grand Man," Rt. Hon. Wil- 
liam E. Gladstone, has devoted a lifetime to their study^ and has left 
us as monuments of research and study at least six volumes of his 
labor of love ; and even now re-reads Homer with new pleasure and 

The Homeric Club was formed April 24, 189 1, the 3075th anniver- 
sary of the Fall of Troy,w ith but few members for the purpose of rota-^ 
tion reading of the Homeric poems, and the sessions during the past 
two years have been intellectual treats ; and several of the evening ses- 
sions have held the members until the hands of the dial have nearly 
pointed to heaven. 

** Achilles Wrath " consumed the first years* sessions ; but whew 
" The man for wisdom's various arts renowned " engaged the atten- 
tion of the members, they seemed almost enrapted with Circe's magic 

Several translations have been read, all owned by the members of 
the Club : Buckley's, Chapman's, Cowper's, Perby's, Merivales', New- 
man's, the Oxford, Palmer's, Pope's, and other work on Homer ; but 
Buckley's and the Oxford translations seem to be the favorites. 

Supper was enjoyed at the Dix Caf^ following the anniversary ex« 
ercises. — Mirror^ April 25, 1893. 

( 128 ) 

Homeric Literature. 

The following works, are in the Library of the members of the 
Homeric Club, which have greatly helped the readers : 

Achillies* Wrath, by P. Roosevelt Johnson, 1875 ; Age of Homer, 
by Hodder M. Westropp, 1884; Adventures of Ulysses, by Charles 
Lanib, 1890 ; Destruction of Troy, being the Sequel to the Iliad, (by 
Tryphiodorus), by J. Merrick, 1739. Studies on Homer and the Ho- 
meric Age, three volumes, 1858 ; Juventus Mundi, the Gods and Men 
of the Heroic Age, 1869 ; Homeric Synchronism, the Time and Place 
of Homer, 1876; Landmarks of Homeric Study, 1889, five volumes 
iby Right Hon. Wm. E. Gladstone. Homeric Translation, by F. W. 
Newman, 1861 ; Homer and the Epic, by Andrew Lang. 1893 ; Ho- 
meric Language and Verse, by Thomas D. Seymour 1889 ; Homer, 
an Introduction to the Iliad and Odyssey, by R. C. Jebb, 1890 ; Ho- 
•meric Doubts, by Hodder M. Westropp, 1880 ; Enquiry into the Life 
and Writings of Homer, by Thomas Blackwell, 1757 ; Life of Homer, 
F. A. White, 1889 ; Myth of Kirk^, and the Visit of Odysseus to the 
Shades, by Robert Brown, Jr., 1883 ; Minor Poems, the Battle of the 
Frogs and Mice, Hymns and Epigrams, translated by Parnell, Chap- 
man, Shelley, Congreve, and Hole, 1872 ; Myths of the Odyssey 
in Art and Literature, by J. E. Harrison, 1882 ; Problem of the Ho- 
meric Poems, by William D. Geddes, 1878 ; Iliad and Odyssey of Ho- 
mer, according to the text of Wolf, by John J. Owen, 1869 ; Track of 
vUlysses, by W. J. Stillman, 1889 ; Who Wrote Homer's Iliad ? by 
A. H. Sayce, 1886 ; Wanderings of Ulysses, by Prof. C. Witt, trans- 
lated by Frances Younghusband,, 1885. History of Ilium or Troy, 
.including the adjacent country, by the author of *' Travels in Asia 
Minor and Greece, 1802. 

Homeric Dictionary, by Dr. Georg Autenreith, translated by Robert 
P. Keep, 1877 ; Clavis Homerica, Lexicon of all the, Words that oc- 
cur in the Iliad, by John Walker, 1829 ; Classical Manual, or a Com- 
•mentary on Pope's Homer, and Dryden's ^neid of Virgil, 1827 ; and 
Liddell & Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, 1846. 

(Articles and Reviews). Andromache, the Daughters of Priam; 
The Horses of Neptune ; Homer and his English Translators ; The 
Place of Homer in History and Chronology ; The Shield of Achilles ; 
Reply of Achilles to the Envoys of Agamemnon. Lectures ** On 
Translating Homer." Review of Schliemann's " Trojan Antiquities." 

Reviews and criticisms on the translations of Bryant's, Derby's, 
Pelton's, Hayman's, Palmer's, and others. 

( 129 ) 



Manchester, N. H., January i, 1893. 

For several month past, a number of ladies and gentlemen in Man^ 
Chester, interested in the study of archaeology, Egyptology, Assyri- 
ology, ancient writings and manuscripts, Aryan literature, ancient 
America and the lost Atlantis, folk-lore, the wisdom-religion, occult 
and psychical laws, and kindred subjects, have contemplated the for- 
mation of a society for the purpose of study and enquiry in reference 
to these subjects and others. Accordingly the opening of the Colum- 
bian new year was deemed an appropriate time to inaugurate such an 
event. An invitation was extended to several persons who had fav- 
ored such an organization, to meet in Knights of Honor Hall, Room 
32, Tewksbury Block, 852, Elm Street, Sunday, January i, 1893, at 4 
o'clock p. M., and organize. 

A sufficient number assembled, Mr. S. C. Gould called the meeting 
to order, and was subsequently chosen chairman, and Miss G. M. 
Webster, secretary, on motion of Wm. K. Stockdale. 

It was deemed advisible to consider the meeting a committee of the 
whole for selecting officers. The committee reported the following: 

President — S. C. Gould. 
Vice Pres. — Wra. K. Stockdale. 
Secretary — Gertrude M. Webster. 
Cor. Sec — F. T. E. Richardson. 
Treasurer — John Dowst. 

Director. ' -^^'''''^ ^- Whiltemore. 

Librarian, — Annie L, Gould. 
Committee on Rules, — S. C. Gould, G. M. Webster, S. E. Whittemore. 

Several names were proposed for the new society, among them the 
following: Arjuna, Atlantean, Cosmian, Luxian, Theosophian, etc., 
but the first proposed seem to be characteristic of enquiry, being one 

( 180 ) 

^f the personifications in the colloquy in the great Sanskrit epic poem 
entitled The Bhagavad Gita, or " the Lord's Lay/' and the name was 
accordingly adopted. Arjuna was a devoted disciple in search for 
Truth, and was a constant enquirer of his teacher for an explanation 
of any and all possible light on God ordained laws, and had a desire 
to ''know for himself," believing that " those who know themselves 
know their own Creator." 

After the organization had been completed, the following literary 
programme was carried out as an initial exercise, it being suggestive 
of some of the subjects that will engage the attention of the members. 

1. Chapter I, of the Bhagavad Gita, entitled " The Despondency 
of Arjuna," or " Survey of Army," was read by S. C. Gould, with the 
notes, from the translation of J. Cockburn Thomson ; after which it 
was briefly commented upon, with remarks from several present. 

2. Cleanthes' " Hymn to Jupiter," the prose translation, was read 
by Miss Sarah £. Whittemore. Dr. Philip Doddridge says this poem 
to Jupiter the Supreme God, '' is, beyond comparison, the purest and 
finest piece of natural religion^ of its length, in the whole world of 
Pagan antiquity, and contains really nothing unworthy of a Chris- 
tian, or almost of an inspired pen." Paul quotes from it in Acts 
(xvii, 28), " For we are also his offspring," — God begotten. 

3 The " Universal Prayer," by Alexander Pope, was read by Wm. 
K. Stockdale. This poem of Pope contains the very essence of the 
whole duty of man — the religion of the universe — The Golden Thir- 
teen Stanzas, being the twin of the poem entitle "God," from the Rus- 
sian poet Derzhavin^ which has been translated by James Bowring. 

4. A short address was then given by the President on the objects 
and aims of the society, and the large field to delve in, from which 
the members could select material to develop and discuss in future. 

5. "Intimations of Immortality," a poem by William Wordsworth* 
was read by Miss Gertrude M. Webster. This poem is very impres- 
sive in sentiment as to its inspirational promptings of a previous ex- 
istence and a future r^eneration by reincarnation. 

6. " The Human Form," a suggestive poem by William Blake, was 
read by Miss Annie L. Gould. This poem was one of two selected 
by J. J. Garth Wilkinson, to illustrate and support his belief of a fu- 
ture knowing existence, or in revelation it is the I am. 

After some general suggestions as to the exercises for the regular 

meetings, on motion, the society voted to meet the first Sundaj 

. each month, at four o'clock p. m., or if deemed advisable, to the ca 

•the President. Duration of this meeting exactly one hour. Om ! 



m. C C^UIJD, Editor. 

*' The action of the Iliad t« centrifugal ; that of the Odyssey, centripetal,*' 

— William Geddes. 

Vol. XL JUNE. 1893. No. 6. 

Modern Homers. 

The articles on, and references to, Homer, author of the I/iad and 
Odyssey^ has prompted me to gather the so-called modern Homers 
together for information and reference hereafter : 

The British Homer. Milton is called the British Homer. 

" No more the Grecian muse unrivaled reigns. 
To Britain let the nations homage pay-; 
She felt a Homer's fire in Milton's strains, 
A Finder's rapture in the lyre of Gray." 

— On Oray^a Monument in Westminster Abbey, 

The Celtic Homer — Ossian, son of Fingal king of Morven. 

The Homer of our Dramatic Poets, So Shakespeare is called by 
Dryden (1564-1616). 

'' Shakespeare was the father of our dramatic poets ; Jonson was 
the Virgil. I admire rare Ben, but I love Shakespeare." — Dryden, 

The Homer of Ferrara, Aristo was so called by Tasso, " Omero 
Ferrares^ ( 1 474-1533)- 

The Homer of the Franks, Angilbert was so called by Charlemagne 
(died 814). 

The Homer of the French Drama, Pierre Corneille was so called 
by Sir Walter Scott (1606-1684). 

The Homer of Oeometry, A nickname given to Archimedes be- 

( 132 ) 

cause he stands as high in that science as Homer does in epic poetry. 
It must not be concealed that he fell into the prevailing error of the 
ancient philosophers, that geometry was degraded by being employed 
to produce anything useful. 

The Homer of Portugal. A sobriquet applied to Camoens, author 
or the Lusicul, 

Homerowicw^tos. Zoilos of Amphipolis (b. c. 259-^36). So called 
for his caustic criticism on Homer. 

The Homer of the Me." So Cowley, in his " An Answer to a Copy 
of Verses sent me to Jersey," probably refers to William Prynne. 

The Homer of Modern Days— Sir Walter Scott (i 771- 1832). 

The Oriental Homer — Fredusi, the Persian poet, who wrote the 
SMk Mmeh or history of the Persian kings. It contained 120,000 
verses, and was* the work of thirty years (840-1020). 

The Fro&e Homer. Henry Fielding the novelist is called by Byron 
** The Prose Homer of Human Nature " (1707-1764). 

The Homer of Philosophers — Plato (b. c. 429-347). 

The Scottish Homer — William Wilkie, author of the 7^ Epigonaid 


I he Homer of This Age, An epithet conferred sarcastically on 
riel Harvey, by Nash, in his *' Have with you to Saffron Walden " 
(London, 1596). 

The Homer of Women, So Nash, in his '* Anatomy of Absurdity," 
calls Robert Greene. 

Homer the Younger — Philiscos, one of the seven Pleiad poets of 
Alexandria, in the time of Ptoltmy Philadelphos. 

Homerites. A people of ancient Arabia dwelling in Arabia Felix. 
Gibbon says the first silk veil of the Kaaba or temple of Mecca was 
an offering by a pious king of the Homerites 700 years before the 
birth of Mahomet. Alexander. 

Amen. (Vol. XI, p. 116.) Ammon called by the ancient Egyp- 
tians Amen or Amun was the chief god of ancient Egypt where the 
Hebrews were once captives. The *' Encyclopaedia Britannica " says 
of him : 

**His principal titles are — Lord of the heavens, king of the gods, 
substance of the world, and resident on the thrOnes of the world, 
eternal ruler, application of his celestial and terrestrial functions. He 
was also Lord of heaven and earth, streams and hills^ and as a demi' 

( 133 ) 

urgos, the creator of beings. The hymns addressed to him designate 
him as the sole and only god, in terms applicable to one god who 
alone exists, who molds and governs the world. 

" At one time an attempt was made to identify him with the 
solar orb, considered as the active, intelligent, and prevailing spirit of 
the universe, he transfuses the breath of life into the nostrils of kings 
and other persons. *♦#*** 

** The worship of the celestial Ammon prevailed at Thebes, where 
with the Mut or ' mother ' goddess, and his son Khonsu, or Chons, 
he formed the Theban Triad, and the sacred. name of Thebes was the 
abode of Amen." (See '^Encyclopaedia Britannica," 9th ed.. Vol. I, 

The reader who will take the trouble to read the title " Ammon," 
and " Babylonia '* in the above mentioned encyclopaedia and will re- 
flect that the Hebrews were at one time captive in Egypt, and again 
in Babylon, will be at no great loss to account for the Bible and He- 
brew religion as well as for the account of Christ and Christianity. 

Broughton, III. J. G. Gholson. 

Amen. (Vol. XI, p. 116.) Amen in Hebrew is formed of the let- 
ters A M N = I, 40, 50 = 91, and is thus a simile of "Jehovah 
Adonai '* = 10, 5, 6, 5 and i, 4, 50, 10 = 91 together ; it is one form 
of the Hebrew word for " Truth." 

In esoteric parlance Amen means '* the concealed." Manetho Seb- 
ennites says the word signifies " that which is hidden," and we know 
through Hecataeus and others that the Egyptians used the word to call 
upon their great God of Mystery, Ammon (or " Ammas, the hidden), 
to make himself conspicuous, and manifest to them. Bonomi, the fa- 
mous hieroglyphist, calls his worshipers very pertinently *' Amenoph," 
and Mr. Bonwick quotes a writer who says : " Ammon, ** the hidden 
god, will remain forever hidden till anthropomorphically revealed ; 
gods who are afar off are useless." Amen is styled ** Lord of the new- 
moon festival.'' Jehovah- Adonai is a new form of the ram-headed 
god Amoun, or Ammon, who was invoked by the Egyptian priests 
under the name of Amen. 

Elephas Levi. (Vol. XI, p. 116.) The real name of this learned 
Kabalist was Abb^ Alphonse Louis Constant. Elephas Levi Zahed 
was author of several works on philosophical magic. Member of the 
Fraires Lucis ( Brothers of Light) ; he was also once a priest, an 

( 184 ; 

abbe of the Roman Catholic Church, which promptly proceeded to un- 
frock him, when he acquired fagne as a Kabalist. He died some 20 
years ago, leaving five works : "Dogma et Rituel de la Haute Magie," 
1856 ; " Histoire de la Magie/* i86o ; " La Clef des Grandes Mys- 
teries," 1861 ; *' Legendes et Symboles," 1862 ; " La Science des 
Esprits," 1865 ; also some other works of less importance. His style 
is extremely fascinating, but his works contain some paradoxes which 
betray his sincerity at all times. (See ** Theosophical Glossary, by 
H. P. Blavatsky, p. 187.) X. 

Eliphas Levi. (Vol. XI, p. 116.) Eliphas Levi was a French 
nineteenth-century occulist or magician. His name was Alphonse 
Louis Constant, which he Hebracized into Eliphas L^vi Zahed. He 
was a candidate for priesthood, but never took the final vow, and 
voluntarially returned to the world. He is often erroneously called 
Abb^ Constant, and it is often erroneously stated that he was un- 
frocked by the church on account of his occultic heresy. Even Mad- 
ame Blavatsky called him Abb^ Constant, and the Mahatma Koot 
Humi, in a letter to A. O. Hume, said he was unfrocked by the church. 
He was born about 1809^ and at an early age became absorbed in oc- 
cultic studies. In 1854 and 1856 he published the Dogme et Rituel de 
la Haute MagU^ and in 186 1 a new edition thereof was issued. This 
work was followed by the Histoire de la Magie, In 1861 appeared 
La Clef des Grandes Mysteries^ diVkd also the Sorcier de Meuder, In 
1862 was issued the first series of the Philosophe Occulte^ called Fables 
and Symboles ; and in 1865 the second series or Za Science des Esprits, 


He died in 1875, the year in which the Theosophical Society was 
founded in New York City. It is note-worthy that the earlier teach- 
ings of H. P. Blavatsky largely coincide with those of Eliphas L^vi. 
His system of occultism was ostensibly based upon the Kabala^ but 
he handled the Kabalistic ground work in a very free and independ- 
ent manner. Not long ago all of his works were on sale in Paris, ex- 
cept Histoire de la Magie ; and of that work second-hand copies can 
occasionally be obtained. An excellent digest of all his writings, in 
English translation, almost wholly, if not quite so, in Levi's own lan- 
guage, is found in The Mysteries of Magic ^ by A. E. Waite, London, 
1886. ^A sketch of his life, which I have utilized above, is in the 
same volume. Wm Emmette Coleman. 

t 135 ) 

Queen Isabella of Spain. What were some of the characteristics=- 
of Queen Isabella of Spain ? 1492. 

Isabella was of medium size, well formed, with a fair complexion,- 
auburn hair, and clear blue eyes. There was a mingled gravity and 
dignity in her bearing, and her sweetness of countenance and singu- 
lar modesty showed a great firmness of purpose and a deep earnest- 
ness of spirit. She was a beautiful combination of resolute and ac- 
tive qualities^ usually considered masculine, purified and enob],ed by 
the enthusiasm and kindly charity of women. She determind that 
she would give to Columbus the royal recognition and furnish him 
the pecuniary assistance that would enable him to undertake his cher- 
ished voyage of discovery ; and her celebrated final answer to her 
associate sovereign and husband, who opposed her bitterly in this de- 
cision which she made '' for the glory and benefit of. Spain and the 
Church," is a clear indication and a good illustration of her character. 
Standing before them in resolute dignity, her eyes and gesture an- 
nouncing a not-to-be-changed determination, she said, " I will assume 
the undertaking, for my own crown of Castile ; and I am ready to 
pawn my jewels to defray the expenses of it, if the funds in the treas- 
ury shall appear inadequate." 

Isabella furnished and fitted out two small vessels, the Pinta and 
Mina. These were small coasting caravals, with partial decks fore 
and aft, but no deck midships ; and they were provided with oars to 
used in case of a calm or light wind, when their limited sails would be 
comparatively useless. The Santa Maria, which Columbus, through 
the influence and assistance of a wealthy and enterprising family, the 
Pizons, secured and supplied^ was somewhat larger and had a full deck. 

Robert Allen Campbell, in his work, " Our Flag, or the Evolution 
of the Stars and Stripes," says that Columbus died after landing at 
the mouth of the Orinoco in 1497, and that he never knew that he had 
discovered a new continent. He supposed he had discovered an 
island near the mainland of Eastern Asia. 

Americus Vespucius, in 1497, discovered the mainland or the West- 
ern Continent at Yucatan ; and two years later he landed at several 
places north of the Orinoco. In 1507 he made the first announce- 
ment that these places were not Eastern Asia, but that a new conti- 
nent had been discovered. 

(136 ) 

*• Homer sometimes nods." (Vol. IX, p. 22.) . This expression 
is from Horace, in Ars Foetica^ line 359 : 

Quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus. 


** Good Homer sometimes nods." 

Philip Francis, D. D., in his translation of the works of Horace, 
Vol. n, p. 212, o:ives it as follows : 

" If honest Homer slumber o'er his Muse."s 

Cobham Brewer explains this to mean : " We are apt to make mis- 
takes sometimes." But some others quote this to show that through- 
out a poem there are some portions of it not up to the standard, and 
even then " Homer sometimes nods." 

Political or Social. How are we to understand the ytoxdi political 
as used by Platp in his Republic ; Novice.' 

Unfortunately we have no English word which exactly corresponds 
with the Gretk poliiikos. The word " social " comes nearer to it than 
" political." The Greek word expresses that relation between man 
and man, which the duties of a citizen, that is, of one who has a politi- 
cal status, necessitates. It is equivalent to the Latin " civilis," used in 
its primary acceptation. We use the word *' social " for all relations 
between man and man, whether the parties have a political status or 
not. Thus we apply it to the relations of private life, and even to the 
family relations. But its Greek politikos bios^ " the life of the citizen," 
was opposed to bios oikelos^ " domestic life," and bios kat idias^ *^ pri- 
vate life.'* When we employ '* social," therefore, in speaking of 
Plate's philosophy, it is necessary to remember that it is used in gen- 
eral to represent /^////^<7J. 

The Forty-Five Men. Who were the co-called '* forty-five men " ? 

J. H. C. 

The ** forty-five men so called were Jacobites who had taken part 

in the rebellion of 1745, when the anti-Hanoverian fu^'ore ran very 

high, not only in the Highlands of Scotland, but also in England. 

" He designated thetebellion of 1745 *s the affair 0/ 45, and spoke 
of one engaged in* it as a person who had been nut in thefofty-fivn, 
*• I suffered in the forty-five. An old forty five man, ^' — Walter Scott. 

Similarly we speak of those who left the east for California^ in 1849, 

zs forty-niners. 

( 137 ) 

A School Boy's Poem on "Columbus." A young man in a New 
Hampshire town, back in thefiftieSj was told to write a compostion on 
Columbus and his discovery. This was at the close of reading two 
exercises in " Town's Fourth Reader," pp. 77 and 79 : " The Last 
Night of the Voyage,'* and '* The Return and Reception of Columbus." 
Two or three days after, the young man passed in the following orig- 
inal poem, which somewhat surprised the teacher, which was slightly 
corrected. Subsequently it was read with others to the school. Not" 
withstanding a little crudeness, it appeared in the Manchester Weekly 
American^ December 11, 1863. 


Coluuibas WM a man renowned, 
His like before him ne*er was found— 

A navigator; 
And the |>Iace where he obtained 
Hi3 learning, it must be far-famed— 

Hit Alma Mater. 

** Land in the West,** he mapped his page, 
And went to Spain for patronage, 

With visions bulkv; 
He hiid his chart before the coart, 
When the King made this report— 

•' Ne plus ultra. " 


The Queen then turned to Ferdinand, 
To grant the aid to search fbr land, 

And to assist her 
In fitting oat a fleet to tlnd, 
This country which she saw in mind, 

The Buena Vista. 

The fleet was fitted for the sea, 
Columbus then sailed oft' in glee, 

Trans eum ; 
Yes, the land he found in truth, 
To Qod, the praise he then sent forth. 

In a Te Deum. ^ 

Back o'er the oceau then he turned, 
Tu vouch the truth his chart affirmed. 

This great land seeker; 
First to the court of Spain he hied, 
And there before his patrons cried. 

The land, Eureka. 

Says he, " the voyage I lonpr have wished, 
And now I see it accomplished, 

With your flotilla; 
You liave the honor, Queen of Sp<iln, 
And to the land I gAve your name, 

'Queen Isabella.'" 

" You aided me far o'er the main. 
Your name is honored Queen of Spain, 

The land's found, truly. 
Another voyage I now ask more, 
To further seek and to explore 

The UUinw. Thule." 

And still another voyage he sailed 
From all, " L)if>coverer," he was hailed, 

** Extend each Journey ; •' 
The continent he found that time, 
The solid earth, a country fine. 

The Terra Firma. 

The Sibyl and Homer. (Vol. IX, p. 12.) The question asks for 
the Sibyl which speaks of Homer as a false bard. In answer we will 
say that while no Sibyl calls the name no doubt Homer is meant 
The third book of the Sibylline Oracles, said to have been the utter- 
ances of the Erythraean Sibyl (the fifth in order), says 

'* And then a certain old man will appear, false writer and of a 
doubtful native land, and in his eyes the light will sink away ; aud he 
will have large mind, and song immense of understanding, blended 
with two names. Chios he will be called, and he will write of Ilion, 
not truthfully indeed." 

( 138 ) 

Napoleonic Masonry, " Initiate " inquires for " Napoleonic 
Masonry," and in answer we will give it as described by Albert G. ^ 
Mackey. He says that the Order under this name, called also the 
French Noachites, was established at Paris in 1816 by some of the 
adherents of the Emperor Napoleon. It was divided into three de- 
greeri : t. Knight. 2. Commander. 3. Grand Elect. This last 
degree was again subdivided into three points, namely : i. Secret 
Judge. II. Perfect Initiate, in. Knight of the Crown of Oak. 

The mystical ladder in this rite consisted of eight steps, or stages, 
whose names were Adam, Eve, Noah, Lamech, Naamah, Peleg, 
Oubal, and Orient. The initials of these words, properly transposed, 
compose the word napoleon, and this is sufficient to show the charac- 
ter of the system. General Bertram was elected Grand Master, but 
as he was then in the Isle of St. Helena, the order was directed by a 
Supreme Commander and two Lieutenants. It was Masonic in form 
only, and lasted only a few years. 

M OR N IN THE CATECHii>M. What do these letters stand for in 
the catechism ? Olive. 

M is said to be a contraction of double NN (names). N is for 
name. The respondent is required to give his names if he has more 
than one, or his name if only one. In the marriage service M stands 
for mas (the man), or maritus (the bridegroom), and N for nupta (the 
bride). There are some who think M stands for Mary^ the patron 
saint of girls ; and N for Nicholas^ the patron saint of boys. 

Lost Sign of the Zodiac. (Vol. XI, pp. 95, 107.) I have made 
the 2k>diac a study for some years past and the question asked,'* which 
is the lost sign," does not seem to be answered by your correspon- 
dent " A. Wilder." Can you enlighten me ? Israel. 

Prof. Sayce says that the sign of the Zodiac represented now by 
Libra (iAi) is of modern origin according to Akhilles Tatius who also 
states that Libra -was originally denominated the Claw of the Scorpion. 

Robert Brown, Jr., says the abbreviation 6x symbol for the Bal- 
ance appears to have been mistaken for part of a pair of Scales. The 
kosmic world is the vast altar upon upon which the solar flame is of- 
fered, and the fire on the earthly altar responds to his blaze. I do 
not doubt, therefore, that the lost Zodiacal Sign is the Altar, 

( 139 ; 
Chapitre Metropolitain de France. 

Where can I find the names of the degrees of the Metropolitan 
Chapter of France, and some account of it ? Eugene H. 

Oliver's *^ Landmarks of Masonry," Vol. II, p. 20, gives a sketch of 
this body of Masonry. 

About the year 1809, this body made it appearance in Paris. The 

body practised a very extensive system of Sublime Masonry, which 

was divided into several series of degrees, amounting in the whole to 

ninety- two degrees. We give the series here : 

First Series. i. Entered Apprentice. 2. Fellow Craft. 3. Her 
noetic Apprentice. 4. Hermetic Fellow Craft. 5. Secret Master 
6. Master by Curiosity. 7. Intimate Secretary. 8. Provost and Judge 
9. Intendant of the Buildings. 

Second Series, 10. Elect of Nine. 11. Elect of Fifteen. 12. Per 

feet Elected. 13. Master Elected. 14. Secret Elected. 15. Sub 

lime Elected. 16. Scotch Elected. 17. Elect of the Twelve Tribes 
18. Elect. 

Third Series. 19. Particular Master. 20. Knight of the Lion 
21. Knight of the Anchor. 22. Petit Architect. 23. Grand Archi 
tect. 24. Illustrious Knight Commander of the White and Black 
Cagle. 25. Mysterious Initiate. 26. Master of the French Lodges. 
27. Perfect Mason. 

lourth Series. 28. Golden Ring. 29. The Sacrifices. 30. Scotch 
Degree of Clermont. 31. Scotch Degree of Franville. 32. Scotch 
Iconnus of the Three J. J. J. 33. Knight of the Sacred Vault of . 
James VI. 34. Scotch Degree of Forty. 35^ Ecossais Fran^ais. 
36. Scotch Degree of Montpelier. 

Fifth Series. 37. Elder Brother of the Triple Triangle. 38. Sub- 
lime English Ecossais. 39. Scotch Degree of Perfection. 40. Knight 
of Two Crowned Eagles. 41. Elect Ecossais. 42. Scotch Degree of 
Naples or Sicily. 43. Scotch Trinitarian. 44. (^Concealed Degree.) 
45. Grand Scotch Architect, 

Sixth Series. 46. The Noachites. 47. Quadruple Respectable 
Master. 48. Knight of St. John of Palestine, 49. Knight of Be- 
nevolence. 50. Knight of the Holy Sepulchre. 51. Knight of the 
Holy Unction. 52. Knight of the East or the Sword. 53. Prince of 
Jerusalem. 54. Commander of the East. 

Seventh Series. 55. Knight of the Eagle or Master Elect. 56. Per- 
fect Master of Architecture. 57. Knight of the Star in the East. 
58. Grand Commander of the Temple.5 9. Grand Master of Masons^ 

( HO) 

60. The Antipodeans. 61. Masonry Crowned. 62. Profound Mys- 
teries of Initiaiion. 63. Ecossais of St. Andrew. 

Eighth Series. 64. Knight of the West. 65. Knight of Jtrusalem* 
66. Knight of the Triple Cross 67. The True Light. 68. Proselyte 
of Jerusalem. 69. Knight of the Temple. 70. Elected of London. 
71. Grand Inspector Commander.* 72. Knight of the Sun. 

Ninth Series, 73. The Hermetic Mason. 74. Supreme Elected. 
75. Knight of St. Andrew of Charbon. 76. Knight of the Black 
Eagle. 77. The Philosophers. 78. Supreme Commander of the Stars. 
79. Sublime Philosopher (Inconnu). 80. Knight of the Kabala. 

Tenth Series, (12 degrees). 82 to 92. Twelve Signs of the Zodiac, 
Knight of Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, 
Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces. 

** The Image which fell down from Jupiter " (Acts xix, 35). 

" The Lost Histories of America," by VV. S. Blacket, p. 226, says that 

it may be interesting to see what the town clerk of Ephesus said on 

the occasion of the tumult created by the preaching of Paul : 

" Ye men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not, how 
that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipqer of the Great Goddess 
Diana, and of the image which fell down from Jupiter.*' 

In the Greek, this is ''^^Aptemidos ka\ tou Diopetous.** This can be 

well understood from a quotation from Parkhurst's Lexicon. 

DIOPETES. An image which fell down from Jupiter ; agalma 
being understood. So Numa pursuaded the Romans, that a certain 
shield fell from heaven, to which Plutarch applies the same ward, dio- 

petes, as he also does to the famous Trojan palladium, or image of 

Pallas, which protected Troy, and was supposed to have fallen from 

heaven ; and Euripides, speaking of the image of Diana Taurica, says : 

** And th' image of the Goddess take, which fell, 
They say, from heaven, into this holy fane." 

He afterwards calls it DIOI*ETES AGALMA, the image which 
fell from Jupiter. So Herodion call the image of the mother of the 

gods^ agalma Diopetes, 

In the extract above given the Palladium has the same history as 
the Palenque image which must have gone round the world. It must 
have been carried into Africa. At Ephesus the image was black, or 
at least the tint of ebony, and it was covered with Zoomorphic char- 
acters, or attributes. Wild beasts hang upon it. Ephesus was built 
by the Amazons, who worshipped Diana of the Ephesians as the 

( 1-n ) 

fnother of the gods. Diodorus Siculus puts the Amazones in Africa 
before they settled in Asia Minor ; so that the image must have 
travelled, picking up fresh attributes and changing its color, till at 
Ephesus, the city of the Amazons, ii became a compound figure, and 
being crowded with indications of a world-wide history. 

It goes far to confirm the present strange theory, that there are 
other instances of a similar kind in ancient legends, especially in re- 
gard to what are called the ** stones of Baal." 
E. G. Squier, in his work called " The Serpent Symbol," New York, 
1852, says that ** Baal's image was a black stone fallen from heaven 
into the Estuary of Hamath (Emessa) or the mouth of the Grontes, 
on the coast of Syria." 

There is a similar legend in Ireland. In the " Chronicle of Eri," 
it is said, that " long before the Celts left Spain, the God Baal had 
sent the blessed stones, the Laic feal, to their ancestors." This last 
tradition shows what is meant by the saying ** fallen from heaven." 
These stones, shields and images, must have been brought into 
Europe and Asia, from across the Atlantic Ocean, in those great mi- 
grations and warlike expeditions, of which Plato speaks in the 

The Palenque image must have been the earliest type of the Diana 
of the Ephesians. In its simgle form, it can be traced accross the 
Atlantic Ocean, into Western Europe. The German Hertha is the 
same figure. Perhaps it may be a question whether the German Her- 
that cannot claim primogeniture for the idol. It may have been car- 
ried into the Atlantic Isle. If otherwise it must have been carried 
from Central America to Germany. 

Diana of Ephesus stands out prominently as the progenitor of the 
human race, by her mammal attributes. When she is found in Cen- 
tral America, she must be considered as the Goddess of Races, that 
came originally from Asia, from the great country of Isis and the 
Issadones, from the vast and ancient empires which have retained to 
the present day, the existences, the characteristics, and the religion of 
a world too ancient for research, in short, from the stem-mother of the 
white races. 

The lost Atlantis is a factor in the chain of evidence of communica - 
tion between the two continents. 

( U2 ) 

Christmas Carols. 

William Hone said, October 3, 1822, thu at a dinner of a city com- 
pany in London, he heard Mr. Taylor of Covent Garden Theatre sing 
a new ballad of " Good Old Times," when 

*' Christmas had its Christmas carols, 
And ladies' sides were hooped like barrels." 

Carols began to be spoken .of as not belonging to that century, and 
yet no one that he was aware of had attempted a collection of those 
fugitives. As the carol then printed will at no distant period become 
obselete, he recorded in alphabetical order those in his possession. He 
excluded all that were disused at that time^ and did not include any 
of the numerous compositions printed by religious societies under the 
denomination of Carol. We here reprint his list of 89 distinct carols 
then in vogue : 




4. All Christians I pray you now attend. 

5. All Englishmen I pray you now attend. 

6. All hail the ever glad'ning morn. 

7. All hail the morn ! loud anthems raise. 

8. All honor, glory, might, and power. 

9. All you that are to mirth inclined. 

10. All you that live must learn to die. 

11. Arise, and hail the sacred day. 

12. As I passed a river's side. 

13. As I sat on a sunny bank. 

14. As it fell out one May morning. 

15. As it fell out upon a day, rich Dives made a feast, 

16. Attend, good people, now I pray. 

17. Awake dark thoughts, awake my joys. 

18. Behold the grace appears. 

19. Christians awake ! salute the happy morn. 

20. Christmas, now is dawning near at hand. 

21. Come, behold the virgin Mother. 

22. Come, ye rich, survey the stable, 

23. From the High Priest an armf:d band. 

24. Good Christians all with joyful mirth. 

25. Good Christian people, pray attend. 

26. Good Christian people, pray give ear. 

( 143 ) 

2j, God's dear Son, without beginning. 

28.- God rest you, merry gentlemen. 

29. Hark ! all around the welkin ring. 

30. Hark ! hark ! what news the angels bring. 
$1* Hark I how the heralds of the Lord. 
32. Hark ! the herald angels sing 
^S. Have you not heard, and seen our Sauiour's love. 

34. Here is a fountain of Christ's blood. 

35. Hosa^na ! TO the Prince of Light. 

36. In Bethlehem city, in Judea, it was. 

37. In friendly love and unity. 

38. In God let all his saints rejoice. 

39. Inspire me, heaven, nor in me leave a thought. 

40. In the reign of Great C^^sar, the Emperor of Rome. 

41. Let all good Christian people here. 

42. Let all who are to mirth inclined. 

43. Let children proclaim their Saviour and King. 

44. Let mortals all rejoice. 

45. Let Christians all with one accord rejoice. 

46. Let Christians now in joyful mirth. 

47. Mortals, awake ! with angels join. 

48. My gift is small, a dozen of points. 

49. My Master and dame I well perceive. 

50. Now when Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem bound.. 

51. O fair, O fair Jerusalem I when shall I come to thee. 

52. O FAITHFUL Christians, as you love. 


54. O ! TEE man's Saviour, in Bethlehem born. 

5$. O ! FHE Almighty Lord. 

56. Of Jesus' birth, lo ! angels sing. 

57. On Christmas day in the morn. 

58. On Christmas night all Christians sing. 

59. One God there is of Wisdqm, glory, might. 

60. One night as slumbering I lay. 

61. Reader^ pray do not think I am unkind. 

62. Rejoice and be merry, set sorrow aside. 

63. Rejoice now all good Christians. 
6d. See how the Blessed babe on Mother's knees. 

65. Shepherds rejoice, lift up your eyes. 

66. Sinners, who now do at this time. 

67. Sweeter sounds than music knows. 
•68. The faithfess, proud, aud sinful man. 

69. The first good joy our Lady had. 

70. The holly and the ivy, now are both well grown. 

71. The King of Glory sends his Son. 

( 144 ) 

72. The moon shines bright, and the stars give a light. 

73. The shedherds amazed, the Saviour behold. 

74. The second Carol, here I sing. 

75. This is the truth sent from above. 

76. Thus angels sing, and thus sing we. 

77. Turn your eves that* are so fixed. 

78. Upon the five and. twentieth of December. 

79. When bloody Herod reigned king. 

80. When Christ the Saviour did appear. 

81. When Christ our Lord drew nigh. 

82. When Jesus Christ drew nigh. 

83. When Jesus Christ our Lord. 

84. When righteous Joseph wedded was. 

85. When Zachariah was a priest. 

86. When shepherds watched their flocks by night. 

87. Within this rock that rock is laid. 

88. Ye mortals all, of high and low degree. 

89. Ye young and ye gay. 

Mr. Hone adds that if there be one who has proceeded until now 
without tiring, he will know how much pleasantness there is in a pur- 
suit like this. To the one who inquires of what use they are, be an- 
swers that he has found them agreeable recreation at leisure moments. 
He says he loves an old manuscript, and a '* ballad in print/' and he 
knows of no distance he would not travel to obtain Autolycus's 
'^ Ballad of a Fish that appeared upon the coast, on Wednesday, the 
forescore of April, forth thousand fathoms above water, and sung the 
ballad against the hard hearts of maids." 

He cannot tell why collectors have almost overlooked Carols, as a 
class of popular poetry. To him they have been objects of interest, 
from circumstances which occasionally determine the direction of his 

The wood-cuts around the annual sheets, and the melody of the 
Carol, " God rest you Merry Gentlemen," delighted his childhood; 
and he always listened with pleasure to the shivering carolist's even- 
ing chant towards the clean kitchen window decked with holly, the 
flaring fire showing the whitened hearth, and reflecting gleams of 
light from the surfaces of the dresser utensils. 

*• May all who do these truths condemn, 
Never taste a drop of them. 
Here, nor in the new Jerusalem." 

( 145 ) 

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs- 

IV. JUDAH. Concerning Fortitude, and the Love of Money. 

I. The copy of the words of Judah, what things he spake to his 
sons before he died. They gathered themselves together, and came 
to him, and he said to them : I was the fourth son born of my father, 
and my mother called me Judah, saying, I give thanks to the Lord, 
because he hath given to me even a fourth son. I was swift and ac- 
tive in my youth, and obedient to my father in everything. And I 
honored my mother and my mother's sister. And it came to pass 
when I became a man, that my father Jacob prayed over me, saying. 
Thou shalt be a king, and prosperous in all things. 

2 .The Lord showed me favor in all my works both in the field and 
at home. When I saw that I could run with the hind, then I caught 
it, and prepared meat for my father. I seized upon the roes in the 
chase, and all that was in the plains I outran. A wild mare I outran 
and caught it and tamed it ; and I slew a lion, and plucked a kid out 
of its mouth. I took a bear by its paw, and rolled it over a cliff ; and 
if any beast turned upon me, I rent it like a dog. I encountered the 
wild boar, and overtaking it in the chase, I tore it. A leopard in He- 
bron leaped upon the dog, and I caught it by the tail, and fiung it 
from me, and it was dashed to pieces in the coasts of Gaza. A wild 
ox feeding in the field I seized by the horns, and whirling it round 
and stunning it, I cast it from me, and slew it. 

3. When the two kings of the Canaanites came in warlike array 
against our flocks, and much people with them, I by myself rushed 
upon king Sur and seized him ; and I beat him upon the legs, and 
dragged him down, and slew him. And the other king, Taphue, I 
slew as he sat upon his horse, and so I scattered all the people. 
Achor the king, a man of giant stature, hurling darts before and 
behind, as he sat on horseback, I slew ; for I hurled a stone of sixty 
pounds weight, and cast it upon his horse, and killed him. And I 
fought with Achor for two hours, and I killed him ; and I clave his 
shield into two parts, and I chopped of{ his feet. I stripped off his 
breastplate, and behold, eight men, his companions, began to fight 
with me. I wound round therefore my garment in my hand ; and I 
slang stones at them, and killed four of them, and the rest fied. And 
Jacob my father slew Beelisa, king of all the kings, a giant in strength, 
twelves cubits high ; and fear fell upon them, and they ceased from 
making war with us. Therefore, my father had no care in the wars 

( 146 ) 

when I was among my brethren. For he saw in a vision co: ceming 
me^ that an angel of might followed me everywhere, that I should not 
be overcome. 

4. And in the south there befell a greater war than that in Shech- 
em ; and I joined in battle array with my brethren, and pursued a 
thousand men, and slew of them two hundred of them and four kings, 
Ane I went up against them upon the wall, and two other kings I 
slew ; and so we freed Hebron, and took all the captives of the kings. 

5. On the next day we departed to Areta, a city strong and walled 
and inexcessible, threatening us with death. Therefore I and Gad 
approached on the east side of the city, and Reuben and Levi on the 
west and south. And they that were upon the wall, thinking that we 
were alone, charged down upon us ; and so our brethren se reily 
climbed up the wall on both sides by ladders, and entered the city, 
while the men knew it not. And we took it with the edge of the 
swprd ; and those who had taken refuge in the tower, we took, and 
set fire to the tower. And as we were departing the men of ThafFu 
set upon our captives, and we took it with out; sons, and fought with 
them even to Thaffu ; and we slew them, and burnt their city, and 
spoiled all the things that were therein. 

6. And when I was at the waters of Chuzeba, the men of Jobel 
came against us to battle, and we fought with them ; and their allies 
from Selom we slew, and we allowed them no means of escaping, and 
of coming against us. And the men of Machir came upon us on the 
fifth day, to carry away our captives ; and we attacked them, and 
overcame them in fierce battle ; for they were a host and mighty in 
themselves, and we slew them before they had gone up the ascent of 
the hill. And when we came to their city, their women rolled upon 
us stones from the brow of the hill on which the city stood. And I 
and Simeon hid ourselves behind the town, and sized upon the heights 
and utterly destroyed the whole city. 

7. And the next day it was told us that the cities of the two kings 
with a great host were coming against us. I therefore and Dan feigned 
ourselves to be Amorites, and went as allies into their city. And in 
the depth of night our brethren came, and we opened to them the 
gales, and we destroyed all the men and their substance, and we took 
for a prey all that was theirs, and their three walls we cast down, 
and we drew near to Thamna, where was all the refuge of the hostile 
kings ; and having received hurt I was wroth, and charged upon them 
to the brow of the hill ; and they slang at me stones and darts ; and 
had not Dan my brother aided me, they would have been able to slay 
me. We came upon them therefore with wrath, and they all fled; 
and passing by another way they besought my father and he made 
peace with them, and we did them no hurt, but made a truce with them. 

{To be concluded,^ 


( 147 ) 

The Stone Wliick the Builders Rejected/' 

A Sunday school teacher asks us, ** What was the stone which the 
builders rejected ?" which was proposed to her by one of her scholars. 
We will answer, after quoting the several texts : 

" The stone wAicA the builders refused is become the head ston^ of 
the corner " ^ Psalm cxvin, 22). 

** The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the 
head of the corner " (Matthew xxr, 42 ; Luke xx, 17). 

" The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the 
corner " (Mark xri, 10). 

•* The stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the 
head of the corner (II Peter 11, 7). 

" This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders, which 
is become the head of the corner " (Acts iv, 11). 

Here we have the five texts. The first from Psalm cxviii is the 
text which the New Testament writers are supposed to quote but the 
words of each are identical with the Douay version. De Wette has 
made a tabular statement of the whole Book of Psalms. He says of 
Psalm CXVIII, " verses i to 4, and 29 " were written on the '* dedica- 
tion of Solomon's Temple" ; that "verses 5 to 28 " were written on 
" David's capture of Jerusalem," and founded on II Samuel v, 6 to 9, 
This latter division includes the 22d verse quoted. 

Commenting on this *' rejected stone," Dr. Adam Clarke says : 

" It is an expression borrowed from Masons, who, finding a s^one 
which, being tried in a particular place, and appearing inproper for it, 
is thrown aside and another taken; however, at last, it may happen 
that the very stone which had been before rejected may be found as the 
most suitable as the head stone of the corner ^ 

This is precicely the symbolism of the Mark Master or fourth de- 
gree of the American Rite, where the rejected stone is suggested to 
the neophyte, " as a consolation under all the frowns of fortune, and 
as an encouragement to hope for better prospects." 

G. F. Gates says that the symbolism of the rejected stone in the 
present Mark Degree is not in the original Mark Master Mason's de- 

( 148) 

gree, out of which Webb manufactured his ritual, but was introduced 
by him from some other unknown source. 

Every Mark Master Mason is taught the traditionary history of 
the " stone which was rejected/' and how found when it was wanted 
for the completion of the temple. 

The ^<ry-stone, and the Stone of Foundation, both would make a 
chapter by themselves. The application of the " rejected stone " to 
the Messiah does not specially concern the question as it was pro- 
posed to us, so we leave that to be explained in the usual Christian 
way. We might add here that one version has the peculiar wording; 
* The stone which the builders rejected was composed of three triangles.' 

Hints on the Icosian Calculus, of which the Icosian Game is 
' designed to be an illustration. (Vol. I, pp. 24, 128, 245.) 

In a " Memorandum respecting a New System of Roots of Unity," 
which appeared in the Philosophical Magazine for December, 1856, 
Sir William Rowan Hamilton expressed himself nearly as follows, 
(a few words only being here omitted) : 

" I have lately been led to the conception of a new system, or rather 
family of systems^ of non-commutative roots of unity ^ which are entirely 
distinct from the i j k of the quaternions, though having some general 
analogy thereto ; and which admit, even more easily than the quater- 
nion symbols do, of geometrical interpretation. In the system which 
seems at present to be the most interesting one among those includ- 
ed in this new family, I assume three symbols, i, A, ^ such that i^^=l, 
A;^==l, i^=l, hzAh \ where ih must be distinguished from fcV, since 
otherwise we should have ^^=1, lz=\. As a very simple specimen of 
the symbolical conclusions deduced from these fundamental assump-' 
tions, I may mention that if we make m=iil^^=X%l^ we shall have also 
m^=l, l^=zmim\ so that m is a new fifth root of unity, connected with 
the former fifth root I by relations of perfect reciprocity. A long 
train of such symbolical deductions is found to follow ; and every one 
of the results may be interpreted as having reference to the passage 
fromy^r^/<?/a^^ (or from corner to corner) of the icosahedron (or of 
the dodecahedron) j on which account, I am at present disposed to 
give the name of the * Icosian Calculus ' to this new system of sym- 
bols, and of rules for their operation." 

In a " lithograph," which was distributed in Section A of the 

( 149 ) 

British Association, during its meeting at Dublin in 1857, Sir William 
Rowan Hamilton pointed out a few other symbolical results of the 
same kind, especially the equations lm^l=mltn, mPm^lmlf lmH=m^t 
»fPjw=iP ; and the formula (Pfw3./^)2^2^=1^ which serves as a com- 
mon mathematical type for the solution of all cases of the first problem 
of the (Icosian) game. He also gave at the same time an oral (and 
hitherto unprinted) account of his rules of interpretation of the princi- 
ples symbols ; which rules, with reference to the Icosian Diagram, 
may be stated as follows : 

1. The operation t reverses (or reads backward) a line of the 

2. The operation U causes a line to turn in a particular direction 
round its final point. 

3. The operation I changes a line considered as a side of a penta- 
gon to Xht following side thereof, proceeding always right handedly for 
every pentagon except the large or outer one. 

4. The operation m is contrasted with /, and changes a line consid- 
ered as a side of a different pentagon^ and in the opposite order of rota- 
tion, to the consecutive side of that other pentagon. 

5. The only operations employed in the game are those marked 
I and m\ but another operation, = ImhnX = mlmlm, having the prop- 
erty that ^^=1, was also mentioned in the " Lithograph " referred to 
above ; and to complete the present statement of interpretations, it 
may be added that the effect of this operation is to change an edge 
of a pentagonal dodecahedron to the opposite edge of th^t solid. 

The foregoing hints and examples, and a diagram, were furnished 
by the inventor of the Icosian Game. 

The game was called Icosian from the Greek word signifying " twenty *' 
because the player is to place the whole or a part of the set of twenty 
numbered pieces or counters upon the points, or in the holes of the 
boatd, in such a manner as always to proceed along the lines of the 
figure, and also to fill other conditions^ which may in various ways be 
assigned by another player. Ingenuity and skill may thus be exer- 
cised in proposing as well as resolving problems of the game. 

This game is now being introduced into this country, and each per- 
son must judge for him- or herself as to skill in placing the counters. 
One of the first persons to receive the game made in an artistic 
manner was Rev. T. P. Kirkman, Bowden^ £ngland, being presented 
to him by the inventor. 

( 150 ) 

Elementals. Spirits of the Elements. The creatures evolved in 
the four kingdoms of the elements, namely, earth, air, fire, and water. 
They are called by the Kabalists, Gnomes (of the earth), Sylphs (of 
the air), Salamanders (of the fire), and Undines (of the water). Ex- 
cept a few of the higher kinds, and their rulers, they are rather forces 
of nature than ethereal men and women. These forces^ as the ser- 
vile agents of the occultists, may produce various effects ; but if em- 
ployed by " Elementaries," in which case they enslave the medium, 
they will deceive the credulous. All the lower invisible beings gen- 
erated on the fifth, sixths and seventh planes of our terrestrial atmos- 
phere, are called " Elementals.*' Several of their names are these: 

Peris, Devs, Djins, Sylvans, Satyrs, Fauns, Elves, Dwarfs, Trolls, 
Kobolds, Brownies, Nixes, Goblins, Pinkies, Banshees, Moss People, 
White Ladies, Spooks, Fairies, etc. 

SuFiSM. What is Sufism alluded to in your pages (Vol. X, p. 324), 
by quotations, and where does it hail from ? Justice. 

While it would take several pages to give a detailed answer to this 
question we will at this time give a brief reply, and later on a fuller 
response. Sufism is from the root of Sophia^ " Wisdom." This 
mystical sect hails from Persia and they are something like the Ve 
dantins ; though very S(lrong in numbers, none but the more intelli- 
ligent men join the society. They claim, and very justly, the posses, 
sion of the esoteric philosophy and doctrine of the real and tiue Is- 
lamism. The Sufic doctrines are a good deal in touch with those of 
Theosophy, inasmuch as they preach a universal creed and outwardly 
they respect and tolerate every other exoteric faith. It is also in rap- 
port with Masonry. They have four degrees and four stages of initia- 
tion, as follows : 

1. Probationary^ with a strict outward observance of Mussulman 
rites, the hidden meaning of each ceremony and dogma being ex- 
plained to the candidate. 

2. Metaphysical training. 

3. The Wisdom Degree, when the candidate is initiated into the in- 
nermost nature of things. 

4. Final Truth ; when the adept attains divine powers, and com- 

( 151 ) 

pletes a union with the one Universal Deity in ecstac}\ or Smadhi. 

" Existence was made for man, and man for the knowledge of God." 
To the same purport is the answer given to Dvaid : Dvaid inquired 
of God and said, " Oh Lord ! why hast thou created mankind ? " 
God replied, " I am a hidden treasure, and I would fain become 
known," This forms the basis of the whole system of Sufism. The 
Ascent, or upward progress, naturally presents itself to the Sufic man 
in the form of a journey, and the doctrines which profess to describe 
it are accordingly called the road. 

The Searcher after God is called a Tdlib, One who inclines 
is called a Murld. The road is called the Tarikat The ascent is 
called 'Uriij, The descent is called NuzHi, 

The divisions of the ceremony that a Traveler passes are the Road, 
the Stages, the Goal. A Suiic poet has said : 

" Plant one foot on the neck of self, 
The other in thy Friend's domain ; 
In everything His presence see, 
, For other vision is in vain." 

That is, while you are looking up to self you cannot see God, but 
when you are not looking up to self all that you see is God. Such is 
the solution of their axiomatic maxim, ** There is no road from man 
to God," namely that the error of imagining an existence separate 
from God is the only road to him ; this separation is the error and 
hence " there is no road from man to God." Some of the Persian 
poets can put more thought into a stanza, or even one line, than many 
of the modern clergy do into a sermon of an hour's duration. 

Charles B, Bagster Deceased. The Vineland (N. J.) Daily Re- 
publican of May 3, 1893, announced the sudden death of our philo- 
sophical correspondent on May 2, 1893. He was 78 years of age. 
He was the youngest son of the noted London Bible publishers viz. ; 
" Samuel Bagster & Sons," whose motto is " On earth, many tongues ; 
in heaven, but one." Mr. Bagster's articles in N. and Q., (Vol. 
VIII, p, 404; X, pp. 177, 214, 287 ; XI, p. 77) have attracted much 
attention from the novel method he dealt with the etymology of his 
subjects, and his methods of expression. 

( 152 ) 

The Arjuuncb Society. 

Sunday, February 5, 1893. The Arjuna Society met at four o'clock 
p. M. The subject of Egyptology was discussed both in its ancient 
phase and it modern aspects. The three poems were read, " Address 
to an Egyptian Mummy," by Horace Smith ; " Answer of the Egyp- 
tian Mummy," by Mummis ; " Lines to an Alabaster Sarcophagus," 
by N. P, S. These were published in the April No. of N. and^Q., and 
again in the May No. to meet the wants of those whojdesired copies. 

Sunday^ March 5, 1893. The Arjuna Socictyjmet at four o'clock, 
p. M. The subject proposed for consideration was Deity. What is 
the Word, the Logos, the En Soph ; the I- Am, Was, and Shall-Be? 
Questions much easier asked than answered. However, they served 
to draw out 'other inquiries which developed into an interesting mee - 
ing, which suggested the poem, entitled " God," by rhe Russian poet 
Derzhavin, translated by John Bowring, which was read by Miss S. E. 
Whittemore. " Being whom we call God — and know no more." 

Sunday y April 2^ 1893. The Arjuna Society met at four o'clock 
p. M, The subject of Reincarnation was discussed with great interest, 
several of the members relating their own personal psychic feelings 
on various occasions. The arguments brought forward were many of 
them novel. This meeting was the most interesting of the four thus 
far held and lasted two hours. The poem, " The Arsenal at Spring- 
field," by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, was read by Miss S. E. 
Whittemore. A half hour talk was prompted by the truth told in the 
ninth stanza : 

" Were half the power that fills the world with terror, 
Were half the wealth bestowed on camps and courts. 
Given to redeem the human mind from error, 
There were no need of arsenals and forts." 

Sunday y May 7, 1893. The Arjuna Society met at four o'clock, 
P.M. The subject for discussion was Immortality; what are the 
most potent proofs ; in what respect is Reincarnation different from 
immortality ? This meeting seemed to be only a continuation of the 
previous one when ReincarnSition was discussed. The modern creeds 
are involved in the question of Immortality. " Ye must be born 
again," says one of the Messiahs (John iii, 7.) Again, " Ye which 
have followed me in the regeneration " (Matthew xvi, 28). At the 
close of the talk an extract from '* Cato," by Joseph Addison, was 
read by Miss S. E. Whittemore : 

( i«8 ; 

" It must be so. — Plato, thou reasonest well. 

Else when this pleasing hope, this fond desire, 

This longing after immortality ? " 
" 'Tis the divinity that stirs within us ; 

'Tis Heaven itself that points out a hereafter, 

And intimates eternity to man." 

The poem, ** The Dying Christian to his Soul," by Alexander Pope, 
was read by one of the members. " Vital spark of heavenly flame." 

The society contemplates publishing an abstract of some of the pa- 
pers and*discussions, in pamphlet form annually or oftener. 


V JMy Dear Sir : I notice in the May No. of Notes and Queries, 
that on January i, 1893, a " New Lord's Day," there was born in 
your city a new society composed of men and women who have been 
prompted to unitedly join hands and efforts in the work inaugurated. 

Hadl ! I say, to the Arjuna Society. In it I see the possibilities 
of a potent factor which sooner or later will develop into an institu- 
tion or giant exposition of what is needed in this age — research — 
and which has been unjustly ignored. What we want is literary and 
original research for cues in tields of science and philosophy which 
have been consigned to oblivion in the twirl of worldly excitement, 
without warrant ; and we want literary evolution from the cues thus 
obtained by research, so that the requirements of this exalted age can 
be met by human agency. Let it be hoped that some of those who 
have been favored by a guiding providence to figure as instruments 
through whom can be expressed the ordinations of Jehovah's will, will 
succeed in bringing about the desired conditions of intellectual 
supremacy. I shall await the proceedings, papers, and discussions, 
of the society, and will propose myself for membership, if eligible, and 
assist in its objects and desired results. 

New York City, May 11, 1893. Charles DeMedici. 

Who was Arjuna ? This question promptly comes from a corres- 
pondent. We reply in brief that Arjuna literally means '* white.*' 
The third of the five brothers Pandu or the reputed sons of Indra. 
A disciple of Krishna, who visited him and married Su-bhadrd, his 
sister. During the war between the Kauravas aid the Pindavas, 
Krishna instructed him in the highest philosophy, while serving as 
his charioteer. Procure a copy of " The Bhagavad Giti " and read 
the whole Book. (See N. and Q., Vol. viii, p. 219 223.) 

( 154 ) 

The Homeric Club of Manchester, JV*. H. 

The following works, in addition to those previously announced in 
May, are in the Library of the members of the Homeric Club, which 
have greatly helped the readers in understanding the epic poet : 

A Burlesque Translation of Homer in two volumes ; fourth edition, 
by Thomas Brydges, London, 1797. 

Homer's Iliad ; a Burlesque Translation by Thomas Brdyges ; re- 
vised and modified by George S. Smith, Philadelphia, 1889. 

An Essay on the Original Genius and Writings of Homer, with a 
comparative view of the ancient and present state of the Troade, by 
Robert Wood, 1824. 

Greece in the Time of Homer ; an account of the life, customs, 
and habits during the Homeric Period, by T. T. Timayenis. 

Introduction to the Study of the Greek- Classic Poets, by Henry 
Nelson Coleridge, M. A., 1830. 

Letters Concerning Homer the Sleeper in Horace, by Kenrich 
Prescot, D. D., 1773. 

The Iliads and Odysses of Homer, translated out of Greek into 
English, by Thomas Hobbes, of Malmesbury, with a large preface 
concerning the virtues of a heroic poem, written by the translator, 
London, 1844. 

On Translating Homer, by Matthew Arnold, Boston, 1882. 

The Origin of the Homeric Poems ; a lecture by Hermann Bonitz, 
translated by Lewis R. Packard, New York, 1880. 

The Iliad of Homer, translated by T. S. Brandreth, two volumes, 
London, 1846. 

Examination of the Primary Arguments of the Iliad, by Granville 
Penn, 1821. 

The Casket Homer. An edition corrected by Aristotle, which 
Alexander the Great always carried about with him, and laid under 
his pillow at night with his sword. After the battle of Arbela, a gold- 
en casket richly studied with gems was found in the tent of Darius 
and Alexander being asked to what purpose it should be assigned, re 
plied : " There is but one thing in the world worthy of so cosll 
depository," saying which he placed therein his edition of Home 

( 155 ) 

M I S C E L L A N'E O U S 


• ^•^» 

n. c. c^ouiiO, Manor. 

" In the friction of minds there must be scintillations of Lights 

— Henky a. Brown. 

Vol. XL JULY. 1893. No. 7. 

The Tarot. 


[" Inquirer " (Vol. VII, p. 146) desires information on cards that 
are called the '* The Tarot," and we take this article from the work of 
the above author on the subject.] 

To enter, within the limits of this short treatise, upon any long in- 
quiry into the history of cards is utterly out of the question ; and I 
shall therefore confine myself to examining briefly into what relates to 
their most ancient form, the Tarot y or Tarocchi cards, and to giving, 
as clearly and concisely as possible, instructions as will enable my 
readers to utilize them for fortune-telling, to which they are far better 
adapted, from the greater number and variety of their combinations, 
than the ordinary cards. I shall also enter somewhat into their oc- 
cult and Qabalistical significations. 

The term Tarot ^ or Tarocchi^ is applied to a pack of 78 cards, con- 
sisting of four suits of 14 cards each (there being one more court 
card than in the ordinary packs — the cavalier, knight, or horse- 
man), and 22 symbolical picture-cards answering for trumps. These 
latter are numbered from i to 21 inclusive, the 22d card being marked 
with a zero, o. The designs of these trumps are extremely lingular, 
among them being such representations as Death, the Devil, the Last 
Judgment, etc. 

The idea that cards were first ** invented " to amuse Charles VI of 
France is now exploded ; and it is worthy of note in this connection 
that their suppositious ** inventor " was Jacques Gringonneur, an 

( 156 ) 


astrologer and Qabalist. Furthermore, cards were known prior to this 
period among the Indians and the Chinese. Etteilla, indeed, gives in 
one of his tracts on the Tarot, a representation of the mystical ar- 
rangement of these cards in the Temple of Ptah at Memphis, and he 
further says : 

*^ Upon a table or altar, at the height of the breast of the Egyptian 
Magus (or Hierophant), were on one side a book or assemblage of 
cards, or plates of gold (the Tarot), and on the other a vase, etc.* 

This idea is further dilated upon by P. Christian (the disciple of 
Eliphas L^vi), in his Historie de la Ma^e^ to which I shall have occa- 
sion to refer later. The great exponents of the Tarot^ Court de Gebe- 
lin, L^vi, Etteilla, have always assigned to the Tarot a Qabalistical- 
Egyptian origin, and this I have found confirmed in my own researches 
into this subject, which have extended over several years. 

W. Hughes Willshire, in his remarks on the general history of play- 
ing-cards, says : 

** The most ancient cards which have come down to us are of the 
character of the Tarot. These are the four cards of the Musde Cor- 
rer at Venice ; the seventeen pieces of the Paris Cabinet (erroneously 
often called the Gringonneur^ or Charles VI cards of 1392 ), five Vene- 
tian Tarois of the 15th century, in the opinion of some not of an 
earlier date than 1425 ; and the series of cards belonging to a Min- 
chiate set, in the possession of the Countess Aurelia Visconti Gonzaga, 
at Milan, when Cicognara wrote." 

W. A. Chatto, in his " History of Playing Cards,*' says that cards 
were invented in China as early as a. d. 1120, in the reign of Seun-Ho, 
for the amusement of his numerous concubines. 

J. F. Vaillant, in Les KomeSy histoire vraU des vraies Bohkmiens^ 
Paris, 1857, that the Chinese have a drawing divided into compartments 
or series, based on combinations of the number 7 (this being partly 
taken from Court de Gobelin's Monde Primiiif, Vol. VIII, p. 387). 

•* It so closely resembles the Tarot^ that the four suits of the latter 
occupy its first columns ; of the 21 atouts 14 occupy the fifth column, 
and the seven other aiouis the sixth column. The sixth column of 7 
atouts is that of the six days of the week of creation. Now, accord- 
ing to the Chinese, this representation belongs to the first ages of 
their empire, to the drying up of the waters of the deluge by lAO ; 
it may by concluded, therefore, that it is an original, or a copy of the 
Tarot, and under any circumstances, that the latter is of an origin an- 
terior to Closes, that it belongs to the beginning of our time, to the 
epoch of the preparation of the Zodiac, and consequently that it must 
own 6j6oo years of existence." 

But, notwithstanding the apparent audaci ty of this latter statement, 
it must be evident on reflection that the Tarot, consisting, as it does, 
of the ten numbers of the decimal scale counterchanged with the 

( 157 ) . 

tetrad, and of a hieroglyphical alphabet of 22 mystic symbols, must 
be relegated to a far earlier period in the history of the world than 
that usually assigned to the introduction of cards into Europe ; and 
we may take the fact of the Tarot as being the origin of the modern 
cards as being now pretty, well established by general concensus of 

It was Court de Gobelin who, in his Monde Primitif^ (Paris, 1781), 
wrote : 

" Were we to hear that there exists in our day a work of the an- 
cient Egyptians, one of their books which had escaped the flames 
that devoured their superb libraries, and one which contains their 
purest doctrine on most interesting subjects, every one would doubt- 
less be anxions to acquire the knowledge of so valuable and extra- 
ordinary a work. Were we to add that this book is widely spread 
through a large part of Europe, and for several centuries it has been 
accessible to any one, would it be still more surprising ? ^ And would 
that surprise be at its height were it asserted that people have never 
suspected that it was Egyptian, that they possess it in such a manner 
that they can hardly be said to possess it at all, that no one has ever 
attempted to decipher a single leaf, and that the outcome of a recon- 
dite wisdom is regarded as a mass of extravagant designs which 
mean nothing in themselves ? Would not people think that one was 
trying to amuse one-self with, and to play upon the credulity of one's 

** Yet this a true fact. This Egyptian book, the sole remains of 
their superb libraries, exists to our day ; it is even so common that 
no savant |ias deigned to trouble himself about it, no one before my- 
self having suspected its illustrious origin. This book is composed 
of 77 leaves or illustrations, or rather of 78, divided into five classes, 
which each present objects as various as they are amusing and in- 
structive. In one word, this book is the Pack of Tarot Cards,'* 

Let us now examine the woid Tarot, or Taro ,and discover, if we 
can, its true derivation and meaning. Court de Gbbelin states that 
there are three words of Oriental origin preserved in the nomencla- 
ture of the pack. These are Taro^ Mat, and Pagad, Taro, he says, 
is pure Egyptian ; from Tar, path, and Ro, Pos, or Pog, Royal — . the 
** Royal Path of Life." Mat is Oriental, and means overpowered, 
murdered, cracked-brained ; while Pagad, he adds, is also Oriental, 
from Pag, chief, or master, and Gad, fortune. Vaillant says : 

** The great divinity Astaroth, A.s-iaroth, is no other than the Indo- 
Tartar Tantara, the Tarot, the Zodiac." 

My derivation of the word, which I have never found given by the 
author, is from the ancient hieroglyphical Egyptian word tdru, to re- 
quire an answer, or to consult ; ergo, that which is consulted, or from 
which an answer is required. This appears to be the correct origin of 

. ( 158 } 

the word, while the second / is an £gyptian hieroglyhic finals which is 
added to denote the feminine gender. The following are interesting 
metatheses of the letters of TARO : TOR A {Hebrew), Law ; TROA 
(Hebrew), Gate ; ROTA {Latin), Wheel ; OR AT {Latin), to speak, 
argue, or entreat ; TAOR {Egyptian), Taur, the goddess of darkness ; 
ATOR {Egyptian \ Athor, the Egyptian Venus. 

A Mr. Lumley tells me there is a Zend word tarisk, meaning " to 
require an answer." 

There are Italian, Spanish, and German Tarot packs, and since the 
time of Etteilla, French also, but these latter are not so well adapted 
for occult study owing to Etteilla's attempted '* corrections " of the 
symbolism. The Italian are decidedly the best for divination and 
practical occult purposes^ and I shall, therefore, use them for the ba- 
sis of my treatise. Unfortunately the old-fashioned single-headed 
cards are obselete now, and the only ones made are double-headed, 
which circumstance alters the symbolism in a few instances. I shall, 
therefore, wherever necessary, describe the omitted portion of the de- 
sign, enclosing it within parentheses to mark the same. 

As before observed, the Tarot pack consists of 78 cards, namely, 
four suits of 14 cards each, and 22 symbolic numbered trumps. The 
four suits are : 

Italian, French. English. Answering to 

Bastoni; Batons. Wands^ Scepters or Clubs, Diamonds. 

Copp^, Coupes, Cups, Chalices, or Goblets, Hearts. 

Spad^, Spades, Swords Spades. 

Denari, Deniers^ Money, Circles, or Pentacles, Clubs. 

Each suit consists of ace, deuce, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, 
nine, ten ; fanti, or valet, knave ; cavallo, knight, or horseman ; dama, 
or reine, queen ; re, king. 

The kings in each instances, wear a cap-of maintenance beneath the 
crown ; the queens wear the crown only. The queen of pentacles 
and the knave of scepters are the only ones represented in profile. In 
the suit of scepters the king bears a wand akin to that represented on 
the small cards of the suit, while the other three honors bear a bludg- 
eon similar to that which is shown for the ace. In the suit of cups, 
that only which is held by the queen is covered, thus showing the 
essentially ./^/«/«tf properties of the suit ; while the scepter held by 
the king of the preceding suit shows its more masculine character. 

If we examine the small cards carefully we shall be struck at once 
by the comparative similarity of pattern of the scepters and the 
swords, which are only distinguished from each by the former being 
straight and the latter being curved. We also notice that the deuces 
have peculiarities of their own, which distinguish them from the rest 
of the suit. The deuce of scepters forms a cross with two roses and 

( 159 ) 

two lilies in the opposite angles ; the cross "between the Rose of 
Sharon and the Lily of the Valley. The deuce of cups shows a tesse- 
lated pavement or cloth whereon the cups stand ; between them is a 
species of caduceus, whose serpents are replaced by lion-headed folia- 
tions, which recall the Chuphis Serpent of the Gnostics, and^ certain 
familiar forms of the elemental spirits ; practical occultists will know to 
what I allude. The deuce of swords forms a species of vesica pisces 
enclosing a mystic rose of the primary colors. The deuce of penta- 
cles is bound together by a continuous band in such a manner as to 
form a figure 8, and represents the one as being the reflection of the 
other, as the Universe is that of the Divine Idea. 

The four aces stand out by themselves from the rest of the pack, 
each forming, as it were, the key of its respective suit. The ace of 
scepters recalls the Club of Hercules \ it is surrounded by eight de- 
tached leaves, whose shape recalls that of the Hebrew letter Yod, or 
letter I, and is crowned with the symbol of the triad represented by 
the three lopped branches ; it is the symbol of Almighty Strength 
within the cube of the Universe, which latter is shown by the eight 
leaves, for 8 is the first cubical number. The ace of cups is of Egyp- 
tian origin, which can be more easily seen in the Spanish Tarot, The 
figure like an inverted letter j^ on its front, is all that remains of the 
Egyptian twin serpents which originally decorated it. It represents 
the waters of creation in the first chapter of Genesis. It is the sym- 
bol of the power which receives and modifies. The ace of swords is 
a sword surmounted by a crown, from which depend on either side an 
olive and a palm branch, symbolic of mercy and severity ; around it 
are six Hebrew letter Yods, recalling the six days of the Mosaic crea- 
tion. It is a symbol of that justice that maintains the world in order, 
the equilibrium of mercy and severity. The ace of pentacles repre- 
sents eternal synthesis, the great whole of the visible universe, the 
realization of counterbalanced power. 

The 22 trump cards are the hieroglyphic symbols of the occult mean- 
ing of the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. They are numbered 
from o to 21 inclusive, and are as follows : 

No, Letter, Italian. French. English. 

1. Aleph. II Bagatto {Pagad), Le Bateleur, Juggler, Magician. 

2. Beth. Le Papessa, La Papesse, High Priestess, or 

Female Pope. 

3. Gimel. L'Imperatrice, L'Impdratrice, Empress. 

4. Daleth. L'Imperatore, L*Empereur, Emperor. 

5. He. II Papa, Le Pape, Hierophant, Pope. 

6. Vau. Gli Amanti, L'Amoureux, Lovers. 

7. Zain. II Carro, Le Chariot, Chariot. 

8. Cheth. La Guistizia, La Justice, Justice. 

( 160 ) 

9. Teth. L'Eremita, L'Ermite, Hermit. 

10. Yod. Rota^ Di Fortuna, La Roue de 

Fortune, Wheel of Fortune. 

1 1. Kaph. La Forza, La Force, Strength, Fortitude. 

12. Lamed. II Penduto, Le Pendu, Hanged Man. 

13. Mem. II Morte, La Mort, Death. 

14. Nun. La Temperanza, La Temperance, Temperance. 

15. Samech.Il Diavolo, Le Diable, Devil. 

16. Ain. La Torre, Le Maison Dieu,Lightning-Struck ' 


17. Pe. Le Stelle, L'Etoile, Star.' 

18. Tzaddi.LaLuna, La Lune, Moon. 

19. Qoph. II Sole, Le Soleil, Sun. 

20. Resh. L*Angelo, Le Jugement, Last Judgment 

21. Shin. II Matto (Mat), Le Fou, Foolish Man. 

22. Tau. II Mondo, Le Monde, Universe. 

The description of these 22 trumps will be continued in a future 
number, which will give our readers an opportunity to judge for them- 
selves as to the recondite meaning of this wonderful Egyptian book as 
claimed by Court de Gobelin in Monde Primitif, 

" The generations of men are as leaves." (Vol. X, p. 220.) 

This quotation is found in the Iliad (vi, 148-149), and are the words 

which Homer puts into the mouth of Glaucus, son of Hippolochos, in 

his reply to Diomede, son of Tydeus. Glaucus^ boasting of his race, 

says : 

" As is the race of leaves, even such is the race of men. Some 
leaves the wind sheds upon the ground, but the fructifying wood pro- 
duces others, and these grow up in the season of spring. Such is the 
generation of men ; one produces, another ceases (to do so). — BuckUy, 

Pope translates the original into smooth rhythm, as follows : 

" Like leaves on trees the race of man is found, 
Now green in youth, now withering on the ground ; 
Another race the following spring supplies ; 
They fall successive and successive rise : 
So generations in their course decay ; 
So flourish these, when those are passed away." 

Homer of Dramatic Poets. Shakespeare is thus called. ^* Shake- 
speare was the Homer or father of our dramatic poets ; Jonson was 
the Virgil. I admire rare Ben, but I love Shakespeare." — Dryden 


( 161 ) 

Modem Iliads 

The French Iliad is The Romance of the Rose^ a poetical allegory, 
begun by Guillaume di Loris in the latter part of the 13th century, 
and continued by Jean de Meung in the former half of the 14th cen- 
tury. The poet dreams of Idleness, Pleasure, Love, Youth, Joy, Shy- 
ness, Fear, Slander, etc., all personified, reminding us pf Bunyan's 
" Pilgrim's Progress." The sequel to the Romance takes up the tale 
at its close and is somewhat longer than the 24 books of Homer's 

The German Iliad is Tne Nibelungen*Lied (1210 . It is divided 
into 2 parts, and 32 lieds or cantos. The first part ends with the death 
of Siegfried, and the second part with the death of Kriemhild. The 
authorship has been ascribed to Heinrioh von Ofterdingen, a minne- 
singer ; but it is claimed to have been in existence before that time, 
if not as a complete whole, as being in separate lays, and all that 
Heinrich von Oftendingen could have done was to collect the floating 
lays, connect them, and form them into a complete story. Friedrich 
A. Wolf (1759-1824) wrote a learned b»ook to prove that Homer did 
for the Iliad and Odyssey what Heinrich von Ofterdingen did for the 
Nibelungen Lied, Other Homeric scholars say that Pisistratus collec- 
ted Homer's lays and compiled the two epics. 

The Portuguese Iliad is The Lusiad^ the adventures of the Lusians 
f Portuguese), under Vasquez da Gama. in their discovery of India. 
This navigator sailed three times to India : in 1497, with four vessels, 
in 1502, with twenty ships, and in 1525, when he established his 
government at Cochin. The story of The Lusiad is the first of these 
expeditions. It consists of 10 books (1572). 

The Scotch Iliad is The Epigoniad, composed by William Wilkie 
(1721-1772). This is the tale of the Epigoni, or seven sons of the 
seven chieftians who laid seige to Thebes. The tale, in brief, is this : 

When CEdipos abdicated, his two sons agreed to reign alternately, 
a year each, but at the expiration of the first year, the elder son 
(Etdocl^s) refused to give up the throne. Whereupon the younger 
brother (Polynik^s) interested six Grecian chiefs to espouse his cause. 
The allied armiesr laid siege to Thebes without success. Subsequently 
the seven sons of the old chiefs went against the city to avenge the 
deaths of their fathers, who had fallen in the former siege. They suc- 
ceeded in taking the city and placing Thersander on the throne. The 
names of the seven sons were Thersander, yEgialeus, Alkmaeon, Dio- 
med^s, Sthenelos, Promachos, and EurySlos. 

The Iliad of Old English Literature is The Knighfs Tale of Pali- 
mon and Arcite in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1388). These Tales 

( 162 ) 

are a series of stories told by members of a party of Pilgrims going 
from the Taberd Inn, London, on a pilnrimage to the tomb of Thomas 
d Becket. 

The " Iliad of Woes " is from the Latin Ilias Malorum, a world of 
disasters (Cicero, Atticus viii, ii). Homer's Ilicul is an epic of woe, 
from first to last. ('* Achillies* baneful wrath resound.*' — Chapman^ 

" Let others boast of blood, and spoils of foes, 
Fierce rapines, murders, Iliads of woes." 

— William Drummond, Death of Maliades (1612)., 

" The New Odyssey of the Spanish Homer, being the Travels of 
the Christian Hero, Ulysses T)esiderius Pius, throughout the Universe, 
to the Palace of that Sovereign Princess styled the Science of Salva- 
tion ; contained in nineteen chapters, rhapsodies or visions, to be read 
a chapter every night, between Twelfth-day and Christmas-day, as so 
many most diverting and instructive Christmas Nights Entertainments, 
the whole making a fine Spiritual Romance ; or, rather a Sublime 
Allegorical Poem. Being the valuable work of the learned and pious 
Bishop of Osma (sirhamed, by the late Marquis of Fenelon, Arch- 
bishop of Cambray, the divine) Don JOHN de Palafox & Mendoza, 
Manjuis of Hariza, in the kingdom of Arragon. Translated into most 
languages of Europe, applauded universally through many editions ; 
and vastly recommended, as an inimitable Master-piece of that fine 
Visionary and Allegorical Manner of Writing, by the late Archbishop 
of Cambray, in his Original Preface to his Excellent Books of Telem- 
achus." Dublin : Printed by R. CROSS, No. 28, Bridge-street. 
24mo. pp. xn-l-204. 

The Iliad in a Nutshell. Pliny tells us that Homer's 7?/a//was 
once copied in so small a hand that the whole of the 24 books were 
shut up in a nutshell. — History^ vii, 21. 

Huet, Bishop of Avranches, demonstrated the possibility of this 
being done by writing 80 lines of the Iliad on the space occupied by 
half a a line of 24 em's width, so that the whole Iliad might be writ- 
ten into less than one octavo page. 

In No. 530 of the Harleian Manuscripts is an account of a similar 
performence to that of the Iliad in a nutshell, by Peter Bales, a chan- 
cery clerk in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. He wrote out, in 1590, 
the whole Bible, and enclosed the manuscript in a wulnut shell. His 
manuscript contained as many leaves as an ordinary Bible, but their 
size was reduced, and the paper was as thin as possible. 

Cobham Brewer says he has seen the Ten Commandments, the 
Lord's Prayer, the Apostles* Creed, and " Gad save the King " ail 
written on a space not larger than a silver threepence. 


( 163 ) 

An Autohiography. 

In our minor days while a student at Boscawen (N. H.) Academy or 
Elm wood Literary Insiitute, as it was known then, we heard the fol- 
lowing read as a composition, an exercise required fortnightly during 
the terms. ' It so pleased the Principal, Jonathan Tenney, that he re- 
served it as one of the examination exercises at the close of the term, 
when it was read by its author. Several copies were preserved by the 
students. This is ours : 


Being for once allowed to speak, I will relate a short history of my 
life, as I recall it from memory. I am quite a noted character, and a 
great favorite among the merchants and business men of the commu- 
nity. The pnncipal part of myself being my /ace, it is the only part 
by which my real worth and interest can be estimated, yet there is 
** value received " in my body, and when issued into the world by my 
maker so great is my public reception that I am generally received 
** on demand." My maker always sets his name upon me that my 
holder (for alas, I am a toncZman) may realize my real value. I am 
so unfortunate in this corporeal world as to possess nothing but a 
body, hack, and /ace. I sometimes have the good fortune to get into 
the hands of some person to whom I am of great interest, and to find 
my total worth, he does me the kindness in footing me up in addition 
to some other favors when beneficial to the holder of me. I am some- 
times sold, and often trans/erred from one person to another by the or- 
der of my backer. I have nothing to eat from the time I am made, 
until some owner of me places a date upon my hack, and this is my 
only food, but alas, it is not for my benefit, as it shortens my days as 
well as lessens my owner's interest in me. I recollect, once " on a 
time," in being in company with other noted fellow hondmen, and I, 
being good on 'change, got under the influence of a draft. For this act 
of recklessness I was taken into custody by Mr. Bill Book and placed 
under bonds. Afterwards I was put on file by my holder, and not be- 
ing a skilled soldier, I was withdrawn and expected to meet a setHe- 
Tnent, because I could not come under obligations and obey certain 
orders. Such is my nature that when I arrive at the '* age of maturity," 
I am allowed only '* three days grace " to prepare myself to be takm 
up. Therefore, you will observe that my nature and characteristics 
are desigped for the interests of those who hold me in their possession. 

My life is blended with troubles and trials, like those of the human 
family, both inhabiting the same world. Notus. 

. ( 164 ) 

Philosophy from the " Red Book. 

*' Nature's Unveiling," by J. M. Wade. 


I can see no beauty outside of Truth 

Knowledge is for use, and not for exhibition. 

The passions are life-giving; servants, but death-dealing masters. 

Thoughts, like the pollen of flowers, leave one brain, and fasten to 

Doing good, doing right, will ward off disease and lengthen life. 

So long as this macrocosmic earth destroys human life by its con- 
vulsions and tornadoes, so long will microcosmic men kill each other. 

There is a condition or principle in nature manifest in unity and re- 
pose, which gave rise to the myth known in the church as ** God." 

There is a principle in activity within nature, and comes from unity 
and repose, hence '* creation,' all returning to unity and repose. 

This principle shorn of its creative power gave rise to the church 
myth known as '* Devil." 

We see in plant life all the traits found in the human family, from 
the loving, carressing vine to the deadly upas tree. 

The fair- looking filbert nut, with a worm within, is a good symbol 
of hypocrasy. 

Christmas of New England has become a carnival of gluttony. 
Even the prohibitionists at that time became intemperate. 

There is perhaps no word in the English language that contains so 
much of the good as the word " reciprocity." It contains the Golden 
Rule in one word, also Christ's teachings. 

It is only the ignorant that will ever follow the leadership of an- 
other, whether in church, state, or war; hence, those conditions are 
for the ignorant only. Ignorance is slavery. 

In church literature we read a good deal of the " God-fearing xnsin'' ; 
what is he ? A devil-loving Christian. 

There is no " gate money " in teaching " tAe word" Those who 
Aave it, give it without money and without price, in the highways and 

Man is not " fearfully " and wonderfully made. The body is sim- 
ply an instrument created by the spirit for a special mission. That 
mission understood, and man becomes God. 

( 165 ) 

I have proved by years of actual life that every principle in life is 
possessed in common by my parrot and ray dog. Did I not know 
this spiritually, the evidence is overwhelming. 

When man becomes too wise to follow another, there can be no war, 
for he that makes the war in that ca$e must be the one to fight. 

When man is born he literally contains the principles of the entire 
animal Kingdom^ any one of which can be developed within him. 

When we have lived a thing it becomes part of us, and we no long- 
er require to think of it. 

Those who love manifested nature are on the path to spiritual life. 
while those who revel in amusements are, for the time, beyond reach 

Pleasure never produces happiness, but always brings a reaction 
followed by sadness. 

Those who learn what life is, and make good and proper use of it, 
are indeed wise. 

The soul of man cannot remain inactive. If we are not doing good 
we are doing evil ; hence the necessity of guarding every thought. 

The life of him who lives for self onfy is not worth preserving. 

Be generous ; give liberally of thy income, but select those with 
care to whom thou wouldst give. Giving is not all, we must give 

It is much better to be a just poor man than an unjust rich man. 
Money is not all there is to riches. 

He who does not " love money " will not be made unhappy nor 
burdened with great riches, should fortune favor (?) him. 

A man may be in active business, cheerful, active, and full of ener- 
gy, and yet remain a hermit living within the spirit. 

Laughing and crying are of the flesh. The spirit knows neither 
mirth nor sorrow. 

Money secured by any person otherwise than by the " sweat of the 
brow," will prove a curse to its possessor. 

Visciousness can only come from viscious people, hence we can 
readily judge of their mental condition and suffering. 

Magnetism receives its classifying from the substance in which it is 
found, such as animal, vegetable, etc. It tioes not exist in the atmos- 

( 166 ) 

My dog and my parrot have developed human traits as clearly and 
distinctly defined as in myself. In many things I am their inferior. 

I have never yet found a spiritual (?) person whose spirituality has 
lifted him or her above dollars and cents, in other words selfishness. 

'* All roads lead to Rome." There are many paths that lead to 
the mountain top, and many sided is the pyramid, but he who reaches 
the apex accomplishes the greatest human victory. 

It is not a ({uestion of whether one believes the Bible or not, but it 
is a question of understanding it, and being able to sift '* The Word " 
from the work of man. 

We cannot become wise until we have been punished for our 

If wisdom could be taught by one to another, all men would be 

Gluttony is an evidence of will ful weakness. An exhibition of in- 
temperate taste riding reason roughshod. 

Light and darkness are symbolical of all the virtues and vices. One 
is only apparent in the absence of the other. 

If a newly made friend is unusually gracious, look out for the hatchet. 
If they change and become retiring, rest assured they found the 
grindstone locked. 

We cannot gauge the selfish without paying for the knowledge the 
gauging brings. 

Where growth ceases, decay begins. Nothing stays at the apex^ 
everything must descend to earth from whence it 4:ame. 

The death agony of tyranny and injustice is the birth pains of hu- 
man liberty and love. 

I desire not to hear a man talk that wants to talk. It is the silent 
man that I want to hear. 

The drunkard and the glutton delight in degrading the " animal " 
in which they dwell.* 

Take yesterday and the past, but leave to me today and the future. 

We cannot even forgive our enemies until they seek to be forgiven. 

The devil still lives in many personalities. No people ever desired 
to crucify him. 

There can be nothing supernatural, neither can any act be unnat- 
urral. There exists nothing outside of nature. 

( 1«7 ) 

Our occult knowledge may be confirmed by another^ but we cannot 
learn it from others. 

People who are ^ converted " to anything are subjects for future 

A clear conscience is the best cosmetic, for the face is the index of 
the conscience. 

The finer the instrument the finer the work. 

My fifty-ninth year brought content. I then wanted nothing that 
man could give. 

We know nothing we have not lived as we ought to know it ; what 
we live is of the soul, wh at we learn is of the intellect. 

If we know a man to be a fool, there is no use telling him of it ; 
did we tell him we should cease to be wise. 

Man can rise above being made to suffer mentally by anything an- 
other might say or do. 

Before going to law, be sure you have the natural right on your side. 

Youth never misses its vitality until the surplus is exhausted. 

A '* good intention '* not carried out is a materialized lie. 

My soul in me was a gem concealed^ its rays of light did itself to 
me reveal. 

If it were possible for man to comprehend his divine possibilities, 
the pleasures of earth would be dropped one by one as if they were 
links to a contagious disease. 

We cannot enter heaven and take with us our animal propensities. 
In that condition ^ere is neither church nor theatre. 

A mystery is knowledge sent to one who cannot comprehend it. 

We make mistakes because we do not possess the knowledge of 

I am what I think I am^ for what I think I am I gradually grow to be. 

The very selfishness of a selfish man would make him unselfish, did 
he but understand the law which governs such things. 

Death teaches many lessons that life could never teach. Death is 
a discovery in the voyage of life. 

A man that is great in his own es timation is of little value to his 
fellow man. It is he who pulls the trigger, and did'nt know it was 

( 168 ) * 

Questions and Answers. 

Barbarians. (Vol VI, p. 316.) Did the inhabitants of Barbary 
in the north of Africa originally give the name barbarians to the 
northern hordes ? Logos. 

The word ** barbarian " is certainly not derived from the Latin 
barba^ a beard, as many suppose, because it is a Greek word, and has 
many analagous ones (the Chaldee barbar^ from bara, means abroad ; 
Irish, barba ; Russian, varvar). Gibbon says that barbar was the im- 
itation sound applied by the Greeks to the language of tribes whose 
speech was harsh and unintelligible. It was adopted by the Romans 
in the same sense Ovid says of himself when banished to Pontus, 
Barbarus hie ego sum quia non intelligor ulli, '* Here I am a barbar- 
ian, because I am understood by no one^ The Greeks and Romans 
called all foreigners barbarians (outsiders) ; the Jews called them 
Gentiles (other nations ); the Russians called them Ostiaks (foreigners). 

In reality the term barbarians seems, for many ages, to have im- 
plied nothing hostile or disrespectful, and by the word barbarian 
originally it is probable that no sort of reproach was intended, but 
simply the f<nct that the people so called, spoke a language not intel* 
ligible to Greeks. At this day, it is very probable that the Chinese 
mean nothing more by the seemingly offensive term outside barbarians. 
The reproachful meaning crept in from the natural egotism of man. 
It is not very long ago that an Englishman looked with disdainful 
pity on a foreigner, and the French still retain much of the same na- 
tional exclusiveness. Mrs. Allen Ransom. Chicago, 111. 

" I ONLY AM ESCAPED TO TELL THEE " (Job I, I4, 15, 17, 18). 

(Vol. VI, 532.) What is the explanation of the four different reports 
mentioned in the poem of Job (chapter I,), as having been brought 
to that patriarch by four different messengers, " I only am escaped to 
tell thee" ? X- 

Job, according to the Bible, was a perfect man in the eyes of God. 

One day Satan appeared before the Lord, 

*' And the Lord said unto Satan : Hast thou considered my servant 
Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright 
man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil } " (Job i, 8). 

" Then Satan answered the Lord and said : Put forth thine hand 
now, and touch all that he hath, and he will curse thee to thy face." (8). 

V. (169 ) 

The Lord then gave Satan power to destroy everything belong to 
Job, including his seven sons and three daughters. 

He had seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, five hundred 
she asses, and a very great household. 

The first messenger came to tell that the Sabeans had taken the 
oxen and asses, and killed all the servants who had the care of them, 
and he only had escaped. 

The second messenger came to tell that the fire of God. hath con- 
sumed all the sheep and the servants and he alone escaped. 

The third messenger came to tell how the Chaldeans carried off the 
camels and of all their attendants, he only had escaped. 

The fourth messenger came from his (Job*s) eldest son's house 
where all his children were eating and drinking, and a great wind 
smote the four corners of the house and killed all except thf messen- 
ger ; he only had escaped to tell Job. Although Job had lost every- 
thing and had become a poor man he still blessed the Lord. 

Mrs. Allen Ramsom, Chicago, HI. 

Mephistophilus. (Vol. VI, p. 348). The correct way of spelling 
the name in Faust is ^ Mephistopheles." The name was formerly 
M'ephostophilus ; the former spelling being that of Shakespeare (See 
Merry Wives of Windsor^ a. i, sc. i), and the later that adopted by 
Marlowe. The origin of the word is uncertain ; various derivations 
have been proposed. Widman calls it a Persian name. By some it 
is thought to be derived from the Semitic tongue (See Goethe's Bmf- 
Ttftchsel mit ZelUr^ v, 330). But that etymology which refers it to the 
Greek accords with the old orthography, and is the most plausible of 
any thus far proposed. Mrs. Allen Ransom, Chicago, 111. 

Buddha's Commandments. (Vol. VI, p. 300.) There are five 
great commandments csWed puncAa seel (or pancha sU)y that is, the 
*' five duties or ordinances," which are especially binding on all fol" 
lowers of Buddha, laymen as well as priests, as follows. : 

I. Do not kill. 2. Do not violate the law of chastity. 3. Do 
not steal. 4. Do not lie. 5. Do not drink intoxicating liquors. 

The transgressor of any one of these commandments is liable, un- 
less there be important extenuating circumstances, to suffer in Naraka 
(hell) for myriads of ages. It may be observed that the Buddhistic 
idea as to what constitutes a lie differs materially from that enter- 

( 170 ) 

tained by European nations ; according to the former, there must not 
only be an intentional misstatement with a purpose to deceive, but 
there must also be the discovery by the person deceived that what has 
been told him is untrue. (Hardy's " Manual of Buddhism," p. 469.) 

Mrs. Allen Randsom, Chicago, 111. 

Decimal Coinage. (Vol. V, p. 16.) Decimal coinage is not a 
" Yankee Notion.'* Before the revolution there was no uniformity in 
French weights and measures. On May 8, 1790, the constituent as- 
sembly charged the Academy of Sciences with the organization of a 
better system. The committee named for the purpose by the Acad- 
emy included the names of Borda, Berthollet, Delambre, Prony, La- 
grange, Laplace, and Mechain. Delambre and Mechain were charged 
with the measurement of an arc of the meridian between Dunkirk and 
Barcelona, and from their calculations the '* metre," which is equal to 
a ten millionth part of the distance between the poles and equator 
(3,2808 English feet), was made the unit of length and the base of 
the system by law, April 7, 1795. The system was completed in 1799 
and made by law the only legal one, November 2, 1801. A decree on 
February 12, accommodated the old measures to the new system, but 
on July 4, 1837, it was decreed that after January i, 1840, the metric 
and decimal system in its primitive symplicity should be used in all 
business transactions. The example of France has been followed in 
the greater part of Europe, and will probably in time be adopted in 
the British Empire. Mrs. Allen Ransom, Chicago, III. 

'• Three days of grace." (Vol. V, p. 16) In the reign of Henry 
II, the first day mentioned in each term was called Essoign-day, be- 
cause the court then took the essoigns, or excuses of those who did 
not appear according to the summons of the writs ; but as by a cus- 
tom, traced by blackstone to the Germans, of the age of Tacitus 
(Com., iii, 218), three days of grace were allowed to every defendant 
within which to appear ; the court did not sit for the dispatch of busi- 
ness until the fourth day after that time. On the other hand, they 
continued to sit until the fourth day after the last return. Thus, for 
example, Hilary Term was not considered to begin till the 23d of 
January, nor to end till the 12th of February, 

Mrs. Allen Ransom, Chicago, 111. 

( 171 ) 

Childethe Hunter. (Vol. VI, p. 252.) '^ Childe the Hunter, '>' 
also called Childe of Plymstock, whose christian name is not known ^ 
was the last representative of one of the oldest families of Plymstock. 
He is supposed to have lived during the reign of Edward III (1327- 
1377), but very little is known beyond the fact that he was a gentle- 
man, and possessed of vast estates. Being childless, and no heirs to 
inherit his wealth, he is said to have devised his lands to that church, 
wherever it might be, in which his body should find its last resting- 
place. One day while out hunting in the forests of Dartmoor, he 
strayed from his party and was unable to find his way back to the 
place where they had separated. While wandering about the forest 
trying to find a path, the snow began to fall so as to make it impossi- * 
ble to recognize the usual landmarks. He killed his horse, took out 
the entrails, and crawled into the warm carcass to wait for help 

The legend relates that, perceiving his last to be near, and wishing 
to confirm the terms of his .will, he took some of his horse's blood, 
and with it wrote the following : 


** He who finds, and brings me to the tomb, 
The land of Plymstock shall be his doom." 

That night he was frozen to death. The fathers of Tavistock Ab- 
bey hearing of his death, and knowing the import of his will, hastened 
to obtain possession of his body, that they might inter it in their own 
church and become his heirs. The inhabitants of Plymstock thinkings 
they were entitled to his lands (the lands being a part of the parish of 
Plymstock) than the fathers of Tavistock, assembled in a body at a 
certain bridge that spanned the Tay, over which they knewftheljfriars 
would bring the body from the forest of Tavistock. Their intention 
was to take the corpse even if it had to be by force. The friars per- 
ceiving the purpose of the Tavistock people, cast a slight bridge over 
the river at another place^ crossed over with the body of Childe, and 
intered it in their Abbey. The monks became the owners of the 
lands and we learn that in memory of this pious strategy, the extem- 
pore bridge was afterwards replaced by a permanent structure which 
bears the name of Gui/e-hndge (Guils-bridge), but now known as the 


Mrs. Allen Ransom, Chicago, 111. 

( 172 ) 

Remarkable Coincidences. 

(Vol. V, p. 212.) 

Shakespeare and Cervantes. It is a singular coincidence that these 
two great imaginative writers should have died the same day, April 23, 
1616. Shakespeare died at Stratford -on -Avon, at the age of 52 ; and 
Cervantes at Madrid, at the age of 69. 

Rienzi and the number 7. October 7, Rienzi's foes yielded to his 
power \ 7 months Rienzi reigned as tribune ; 7 years he was absent 
in exile ; 7 weeks of return saw him without an enemy (October 7) ; 
7 was the number of crowns the Roman convents and Roman council 
awarded him. 

Stuarts' fatal number 88. James III was killed m flight near Ban- 
nockburn, 1488. Mary Stuart was beheaded in 1588 (new style). 

James II of England was dethroned 1688. Charles Edward died 
1788. James Stuart, the "Old Pretender," was born 1688, the ver)' 
year that his father abdicated. 

James Stuart, the famous architect, died 1788. 

Some affirm that Robert II, the first Stuart king died 1388, the year 
of the battle of Otterburn ; but the death of this king is more 
usually fixed in the spring of 1390. 

Number 2 unlucky. In the English dynasties 2 has been an un- 
lucky number, thus : Ethelred II was forced to abdicate. Harold II 
was slain at Hastings. William II was shot in the New Forest. 
Henry II had to fight for his crown, which was usurped by Stephen. 
Edward II was murdered at Berkley Castle. Richard II was deposed. 
Charl(»s II was driven into e.xile. James II was obliged to abdicate. 
George II was worsted at Fontenoy, and Lawfeld was disgraced by 
General Hraddock and Admiral Bying, and was troubled by Charles 
Edward the *' Young Pretender." 

Kings of England. Since the conquest not more than three sue- 
cessive sovereigns have reigned without a crisis : 

William I, William II, Henry I. Stephen usurper. 

Henry II, Richard I, John. The Pope gives the crown to the 

Henry III, Edward I, Edward II. Edward II murdered. 
Edward III, Richard II. Richard II deposed. 

( 173) 

Henry IV, Henry V, Henry VI. Lancaster changed to York. 

Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III. Dynasty changed. 

Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI. Lady Jane Grey. 

Mary, Elizabeth. Dynasty changed. 

James I, Charles I. Charles I. beheaded. 

Charles II, James II. James II dethroned. 

William III, Anne. Dynasty changed. 

George I, George II, George III. Regency. 

George IV, William VI, Victoria. Indirect succession. 

There seems to be a kind of ruling number in the English sover- 
eigns. Besides the coincidences mentioned above connected with the 
number, there may be added the following : 

}. That of the four kings who married French princesses, three of 
them suffered violent deaths, viz. : Edward II, Richard II, and 
Charles I. 

2. The three longest reigns have been three threes, viz. : Henry 
III, Edward III, and George III. 

3. Three is no instance, as in* France, of three brothers succeeding 
each other. 

Kings of France. The succession of three brothers has been regu- 
larly fatal in French monarchism. 

The capetain dynasty terminated with three brothers, sons of 
Philppe le Bel {y\z., Louis X, Philippe V, and Charles IV). 

The Valois dynasty came to an end by the succession of the three 
brothers, son of Henri II (viz., Francis 1 1, Charles IX, and Henry III.) 

The next or Bourbon dynasty terminated in the same manner 
(Louis XVI, Louis XVIII, and Charles X). 

After Charles IV (the third brother of the capetain dynasty), came 
Philippe de Valois, a collateral descendant ; after Henri III (the third 
brother of the Valois dynasty), came Henry de Bourbon, a collateral 
descendant ; and after Charles X (the third brother of the Bourbon 
dynasty), came Louis Philippe, a collateral descendant. With the 
third the monarchy ended. 

Louis XIV. It is rather remarkable that the number 14 is ob- 
tained by adding together the figures of hijs age at death, the figures 
which make the date of his coronation, and the figures of the date of 
his death. For example : 

( 174 ) 

His age 77, which figures added together, . . . = 14 
Crowned 1643, " " ** « . . . = 14 

Died, 1715, " '' " " . . . . =14 

Louis XVIII, born 1755, added together, . . = 18 

Louis IX, born 12 15, added together, . , . . =r 9 

Louis Napoleon. 1870 was the year of his downfall and by adding 
the numerical values of the birth-date either of Napoleon or Eugenie 
to the date of the marriage, we get their fatal year of 1870. Thus, 
Napoleon was born in 1808, Eugenie in 1826, and they were married 
in 1853. 

'^53 (year of marriage) +1+8+0+8 (birth of Napoleon) = 1870 
1853 (year of marriage) +1+8+2+6 (birth of Eugenie) =- 1870 , 

Mrs. Allen Ransom, Chicago, III. 

The City that Perished through Silence. (Vol. V, p. 96.) 

In the famous poem entitle Pervigilium Veneris^ ** The Vigil of Venus," 

which is supposed to have been written in the decadence of Roman 

literature, these lines occur : 

Sic amyclaSy dum silebant, 
Perdidit silentium, 

' A recent translation in Macmillan^s Magazine anglicized the lines 

thus : 

** Even as of yore Amyclae's town 
Was lost for want of speech." 

Amyclae was an ancient town of Laconia, said to have been found- 
ed by the Lacedemonian king Amyclas. Long after the conquest of 
the Peloponesus by the Dorians it maintained its independence 
as an Achaean town ; but about 743 B. C. it was conquered by 
the Spartan king Zaleucus. The legend runs that the inhabitants had 
often been alarmed by false rumors of projected Spartan invasion 
until at last, weary of living in a state of terror, it was made a public 
offence to report the approach of an enemy. So when the Spartans at 
last came no one dared to sound a warning and the city fell with- 
out a struggle. Virgil, in the jEneid^ book x, line 564, says : 

Quifuit Ausonidam et iaciiis regnavit Atftyclis, 

But there has been a dispute whether Virgil alludes to the Laconian 
city, or to another Amyclae, situated on the coast of Campania, in 

( 175 ) 

Italy, whi h was said to have been founded by a band of emigrants 
from the earlier city. 

The inhabitants, according to Servius, were Pythagoreans, forbid- 
den to speak for five years, or to offer violence to serpents, and as the 
place swarmed with the latter reptiles they were eventually forced to 
•desert it. Mrs. Allen Ransom, Chicago, 111. 

Bonfire. (Vol. .V, p. 2.) The word bonfire is from the Scandina- 
vian bounfire, 3. beacon fire. The Athenaun, October 6, 1867, gives 
several quotations from the materials prepared for the Philological 
Society's English Dictionary, to show that the word means a fire 
made of bones ; one runs thus : 

" In the worship of St. John, the people * * * * made three man 
ner of fires : one was of clean bones and no "wood, and that is called 
a bonefire ; another of clean wood and no bones, and that was called 
a woodfire, ***** and the the third is made of wood and bones 
and is called * St. John's fire.' " — Quatour Sermones, i499« 

Another quotation is from Leland's " Collectanea," 1550 : 

** I have heard of a custom that is practised in some parts of Lin- 
-colnshir^, where on some peculiar nights, they make great fires in the 
public streets * * ♦ * with bones * * * * in memory of burning 
their dead." 

This was on May 2 2d, or Ascension Day. Bone is the more an- 

-cient way of spelling the first syllable of the word. 

Mrs. Allen Ransom, Chicago, III. 

Circumcision. (Vol. V, p. 212.) Circumcision was instituted 
1897 B. C, and was the seal of the covenant made by God with 
Abraham. It was practised by the ancient Egyptians, and is still by 
the Copts and some oriental nations. The festival of circumcision 
«(of Christ), originally the octave of Christmas, is mentioned about 
487. It was introduced from the Roman missal into the first English 
prayer-book, in 1549. Mrs. Allen Ransom, Chicago, 111. 

*' Evil communications corrupt good manners." (I Corinth- 
ians xv, 33.) (Vol. V, p. 180.) This quotation is f rom Meander, 
and may be found in Diibner's edition of his " Fragments,'' appended 
to Aristophanes, in Didot's Bihlioiheca Grceca, p. 102, line loi. 

Milton, in his Areopagitica, writes that Paul thought it no defilement 
to insert into the holy scriptures liqes of three Greek poets. 

C 176 ) 

Milton's preface to Samson Agonistes. — *' The apostle Paul himself 
thought it not unworthy to insert a verse of Euripides into the text of 
the holy scriptures." 

Hale, in notes on on the Areopagiiicay says : 

" That there should be any confusion is intelligible enough if it is 
remembered how Menander was in fact the dramatic offspring of 
Euripides and closely resembled him in style. The words were prob- 
ably from Menander's Thais, now lost. It is strange that so learned 
and exact a man as Milton should have made any error of allusion, 
but in a reasonably careful examination of all the plays of Euripides, 
now extant, I could not find anything akin to this sentiment. 1 was 
moved to make the examination as Milton and various writers have 
referred to Euripides, yet have given no citation, where in every other 
instance the similiar passage of the Greek poet has been cited." 

Conybears, Vol. II, p. 63, says the passage is from Menander's 
Thais ; likewise Lange's commentary on Corinthians (xv, 33), p. 331. 
Ramage's " Beautiful Thoughts from the Greek/' 321, gives it under 
Menander, citing the verse in Corinthians. Clarke's Commentaries, 
Vol. VI, says the passage is taken from Menander, but the sentiment 
is in ^schylus, 7 ; Thebans^ 605. 

• Mrs. Allen Ransom, Chicago, 111. 

Jesuits, Origin OF Name. (Vol. VI, p. 396.) When the little 
band of the first followers of Don Ignatius de Loyola, the founder of 
the " Great Order," were deliberating as to what answer they should 
return to those who were continually questioning them as to their call- 
ing and their institute, Ignatius (says Orlandinus), afraid that, in ini- 
tian of the Dominicans, the Benedictines, the Franciscans, and many 
other religious societies, thus attacked, his devoted companions would 
adopt their founder's name as their designation, begged tWfem to 
leave the decision with him. They complied, unaware, perhaps of 
the humility which dictated the request ; and Ignatius, ever full of 
military ideas, said : " As our general is no other than Jesus Christ : 
as His cross is our standard ; His law, even in its counsels, our rule ; 
His name our chief consolation and our only hope, — let us tell men 
the simple truth that we are the little battalion ol Jesus Christ." 

Such is the origin of the title " Society of Jesus," which has been 
vulgarized into the Shorter and xtioxt, portable name of "Jesuits." 

Few men are aware that a proportion of the illustrious characters of 

( 177 ) 

the last three hundred yea''s have been the pupils of the Jesuits. 

Buffon^ Bossuet, Cond^, and Massillan represent distinct classes of 

great men, and stand almost at the head of those classes. They were 

pupils of the Jesuits. Voltaire was a pupils of the Jesuits. His 

irreligon he certainly did not get among them, and his talents came 

from God ; but the most remarkabe feature of his literary character 

bears the impress of the Jesuit education, which the celebrated 

man enjoyed and abused, and turned at once the Jesuits and against 

his Maker. 

Mrs. Allen Ransom, 4203'Oakenwald Ave., Chicago, 111. 

The Iliad in a Nutshell. (Vol. XI, p. 152.) (" The White Cat.") 
The liiad in a nutshell was quite outdone by the web given to a 
prince by the White Cat. It was wrapped in a millet seed, and was 
400 yards long. What was still more wonderful was that there were 
painted on it all sorts of birds, beasts, and fishes ; fruits, trees, and 
plants ; rocks and sea shells ; the sun^ moon, stars, and planets ; the 
likenesses of the kings and princes of the world, with their wives, 
mistresses and children, all dressed in their proper costumes. The 
prince took out of a box, covered with rubies, a walnut, which he 
cracked, and saw inside it a small hazel nut, which he cracked also, 
and found inside a kernel of wax. He peeled tho kernel, aud discov 
ered a corn of wheat, and in the wheat-corn was a grain of millet, 
which contained a web 400 yards in length. — Comtesse D' Annoy, 1682. 

The Arjuna Society. Sunday, jfune 4, 1893. The Society met 
at four o'clock p. m. The subject for discussion was Prophecy. 
What is Prophecy in the Biblical sense of the word ? What is a Pre- 
diction in the religious sense of the word ? What is a Prognostication 
in the almanacical sense of the word ? What is a Prognosis in the 
medical sense of the word ? Hosv do thse words compare with each 
other ? What is Astrology I 

These question were discussed from each objective point, and ex- 
amples of their use cited. Webster's definitions are quite etymological 
and he makes them synonymous by interchanging them. The discus- 
sion developed much material for thought^ as to the word prophecy. 

The poem, '* The Answer of the Egyptian Mummy," by " Mummis,'' 
was read by Miss S. E. Whittemore. (Vol. XI, pp. 129, 152-153.) 

** I swear by myself because there is none higher'^ 
** There is no poem in a stlir apart from a soul,^^ 

( 178 ) 


1. From whom comes the quotation, " There is nought so much 
the spirit cheers as rum and true religion " ? C, B. S. 

2. What confederacy in the early centuries was known by the 
name of the " New Prophecy;'* and why? Cixjvis. 

3. Who wrote a book endeavoring to prove that the Christian's 
heaven was within the solar orb, taking for his basis the last clause of 
Psalm XIX, 4 : '* In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun ? Is 
the book obtainable ? Want It. 

4. What is meant by the word Ogdoad as applied to the figure 8 ? 


5. What were the festivals known to the early Christian as " Love 
Feasts," and are such in vogue at present by any sects ? O. 

6. Where is the original Massabesic in New England, and how 
came it applied to the lake in the city limits of Manchester, and 
when ? Resident. 

7. Where did the ** Ancient and Honorables " of Boston get their 
name, and when was the association organized ? Llewellyn. 

8. How many of the United States, and what ones, now practice 
having an " Election Sermon " preached before their legislatures an- 
nually or biennially? T. H. E. 

9. Why is the Chinese language composed almost wholly of mono- 
syllables ? H. H. 

10. What is the botanical flower called '* Solomon's Seal/' and has 
its history or name any connection witth symbolical double triangle 
known as SolomorCs Seal ? Philo. 

11. Dr. Arnott once published a paper on Fiora Virgiliana, What 
was the ** Flower of Virgil *' ? X. 

12. What is the difference, in Masonic Lodges, between the rites of 
" Strict Observance " and " Lax Observance *' ? Mason. 

13. Arnobius asks this question : " If a Sibyl, when she was utter- 
ing her prophecies and oracular responses, and was filled with Apollo's 
power, had been cut down and slain by impious robbers, would A*^*^'^^ 
have been slain in her ? " E. D. 

14. Has any modern divine ever formulated and publisher 
Apotheosis of the modern idea of heaven ? J. J. 

( 179 ) 



H. C. C}OUliI> Clclltor. 

" Thou and /, the one thing ; before me, thou ; that after thee, /." 

— Simon Magus. 

Vol. XL AUGUST. 1893. No. 8. 

The Tarot 


( Continued from page 1 6o. )• 

I will now describe carefully the symbolism of ^each of the hiero- 
'glyphical keys. 

1. The Juggler or Magician. Before a table covered with the ap- 
pliances of his arts, stands the figure of a juggler, one hand upraised 
holding a wand (in some packs, a cup), the other pointing downwards. 
He wears a cap of maintenance like that of the kings, whose wide 
brim forms a sort of aureole round his head. His body and arms 
form the shape of the Hebrew letter Aleph, to which this card corres- 
ponds. He symbolizes Will. 

2. The High Priestess, or Female Pope. A woman crowned with 
a high mitre or tiara (her head encircled by a veil), a stole (or a solar 
cross ^ upon her breast, and the Book of Science open in her hand. 
She represents Science, Wisdom, or Knowledge, 

3. The Empress. A winged and crowned woman seated ujJon a 
throne, having in one hand a scepter bearing a globe surmounted by 
a cross, while she rests the other upon a shield with an eagle embla- 
zoned therein, on whose breast is the cross. She is the symbol of 
Action, the result of the unio of Science and Will. 


4. The Emperor. He is crowned (and leaning against a throne, 
his legs form a cross, and beside him, beneath his left hand is a shield 
blazoned with an eagle). In his right hand he bears a scepter simi 

( 180 ) 

liar to that of the Empress. Ills body and arins form a triangle, ^ 
which his head is the apex, so that the whole figure represents a trian- 
gle above a cross. He represents Realization, 

5. The Hierophant, or Pope. He is crowned with the papal tiara, 
and seated between the two pillars of Hermes and of Solomon ; with 
the right hand he makes the sign or esoterism, and with his left he 
leans upon a staff surmounted by a triple cross. (Before him kneel 
two ministers.) He is the symbol of Mercy and Beneficence. 

6. The Lovers. This is usually described as representing Man 
between Vice and Virtue, while a winged genius threatens Vice with 
his dart. But I am rather inclined to the opinion that it representes 
the Qablistical Microprosopus between Binah and Malkuth, while the 
figure above shows the influence descending from Kether. It is usu- 
ally considered to mean Proof ox Trial ; but I am inclined to suggest 
Wise Disposition as its signification. 

7. The Chariot. This is the most complicated and important sym- 
bol, which has been restored by Eliphas L^vi. It represents a Con- 
queror crowned and bearing a scepter, riding in a cubical chariot, sur- 
mounted by four columns and a canopy, and drawn by two horses, one 
of which looks straight forward, while the other turns his head towards 
him. (Two wheels are shown in the complete single-headed figure.) 
It represents Triumph and Victory of Justice and Judgment. 

8. Justice. A woman crowned and seated on a throne (between 
two columns) holding in her right hand an upiight sword, and in her 
left the scales. She symbolizes Equilibrium and justice, 

9. The Hermit. An old and bearded man wrapped in a mantle, 
and with his head covered with a cowl, bearing in the right hand the 
lantern of occult science, while in his left he holds his magic wand 
half hidden beneath his cloak. He represents Prudence, 

10. The Wheel of Fortune. A wheel of seven spokes (the two 
halves of the double-headed cards make it eight spokes, which is in- 
correct) revolving (between two uprights). On the ascending side is 
an animal ascending, and on the descending side is a sort of monkey 
descending . both forms are bound to the wheel. Ab^ve it is the 
form of an angel (or a sphinx in some) holding a sword in one hand 
and a crown in the other. This very complicated figure is very much 
disfigured, and has been well restored by Eliphas L^vi. It symbol- 
izes Fortune^ good or bad. 

11. Strength or Fortitude. A woman crowned with crown and cap 
of maintenance, who calmly, and without effort, closes the jaws of a 
furious lion. She represents Strength, 

12. The hanged Man. This extraordinary symbol is almost unin' 
telligible in the double-headed cards. Proptriy, it represents a man 

( 181 ) 

bang head downwards from a sort of gibbet by one foot (his hands 
9re bound behind his back in such a manner that his body forms a 
triangle with the point downwards), and his legs a cross above it. 
(Two sacks or weights are attached to his armpits.) He symbolizes 

13. Death. A skeleton armed with a scythe (wherewith he mows 
down heads in a meadow like grass). He signifies Transformation or 

14. Temperance, An angel with the sign of the Sun on her brow 
pooring liquid from one vessel into another. She represents Combi- 
nation or Concentration. 

15. The Devil. A horned and winged demon with eagle's claws 
(standing on an altar to which two smaller devils are bound by a col- 
lar and a cord). In his left hand bears a flame-headed scepter. In 
He is the image of Fate or Fatality^ good or evil. 

16. The Lightning-Struck Tower. A Tower whose upper part is 
like a crown, struck by a lightning flash. (Two men fall headlong 
from it, one of them being in such an attitude as to form the Hebrew 
letter Ayin,) Sparks and dedris are falling. It illustrates Disruption 
aod Fldods, 

17. The Star. An angelic female figure pours water upon the earth 
from two vases. In the heavens above her shines the Blazing Star of 
the Magi (surrounded by seven others) ; trees and plants grow be- 
neath her magic influence (and on one the butterfly of Psyche alights). 
She is the Star of ffhpe. 

18. The Moon. The Moon shining in the heavens, drops of dew 
blling, a wolf and dog howling at the Moon^ and haltered at the foot 
of two towers, a path which loses itself in the horizon (and is sprinkled 
with drops of blood, a crayfish, emblematic of the sign cancer, ruled 
over by the Moon, crawls through water, in the foreground, towards 
the land). It symbolizes Twilight^ Deception and Error, 

18. The Sun. The Sun sending down his rays upon two children 
who suggest the Sign of the Zodiac, Gemini. (Behind them is a low 
wall.) It signifies Earthly Happiness. 

30. The Last Judgment. An Angel- in the heavens blows a trum- 
pet, to which a standard with a cross therein is attached. The dead 
rise from their tombs. It signifies Renewal and Result. 

21, The Universe. Within a flowery wreath is a female figure with 
a slight scarf over her. She represent Nature and the Divine 
Presence therein. In each hand she should bear a wand. At the 
four angles of the cards are the four cherubic animals of the Apoca- 
lypse (iv, 7 ). Above, the Eagle and the Man ; below, the Lion and 
the Bull. It represents Completion and Reward. 

( 182 ; 

o. The Foolish Man. A Man with a iooVs cap, dressed likel a 
jester, with a stick, and bundle over his shoulder. Before him is the 
butterfly of pleasure luring him on (while in some packs a tiger; ia 
others a dog, attacks him from behind). It signifies J^b/iy^ Expitition^ 

Thus the whole series of the 22 trumps will give a connected sen- 
tence which is capable of being read as follows : 

The Human Will, enlightened by Science^ and manifested by Aciicm, 
should find its Realization in deeds of Mercy and Beneficence ; The 
Wise Disposition of this will give him Victory, through Equilibrium and 
Prudence, over the fluctuations of Fortune, Fortitude santified by Sac- 
rifice of Self, will triumph over Death itself, and thus a wise Comiina- 
tian will enable him to defy Fate. In each Misfortune he will see the 
Star of Hope shine through the Twilight of Deception ; and ultimate 
Happiness will be the Result. - Folly on the other hand will bring 
about an evil Reward. 

The New Prophecy. (Vol. XI, p. 178.) A search for the place 

to which was applied the name of ** The New Prophecy " has thus far 

proved futile. We have been able to find only one reference to 

to such an appellation, and that is to Serapion, biflhop of Antioch. 

He has the following : 

" That ye may see also that the proceeding of this lying confeder- 
acy, to which is given the name of Nnv Prophecy, is abominated 
among the whole brotherhood throughout the world, I have sent you 
letters of the most blessed Claudius Apollinarius, who was made 
bishop of Hierapolis in Asia." 

Who can add any information to this extract for the benefit of ou' 

correspondent '^ Clovis " 1 


'* Ancient AND Honourable." (Vol. XI, p. i78.) From where 
the Ancients and Honorabks, of Boston, take their name we are cer- 
tain, but "Llewellyn" will find the words in the Old Testament 
(Isaiah ix, 15), where it reads : 

** The ancient and honourable, he is the head ; and the prophet 
that teacheth lies, he is the tail." 

The verse may serve for a starting point to trace out the early his- 
tory of the noted Boston Association. 

Flora ViRGiLiANA. (Vol. XI, p. 178.) The flower alluded toby 
Arnott, says Dr. Oliver, was the mistletoe^ the same was held by. the 
ancient Druids in great love. It served a purpose similar to the 
acacia of the Masons, the lotus of the Buddhists, etc. 


( 183 ) 

The Name " Homer.' Ephorus (Plutarch v. h) says he was 
called Homer i^Omoros) when he became blind, the lonians so styl- 
ing blind men because they "wtxQ followers of a guide COmerguon), 

Aristotle's (Plutarch v. h.) account is, that the Lydians being 
pressed by the ^olians, and resolving to abandon Smyrna, made a 
proclamation, that whoever wished to follow then* should go out of 
the city, and that thereupon Melesigenes said he would follow or 
accompany {^Omerein) them ; upon which he acquired the name of 

Paterculus says that he who thinks that Homer was born blind 

must be blind himself in all his senses. He made this remark on the 
observation that his name was derived from ^o me oron^ " one not 


Wolfe and Heyne favor the theory that the name comes from 
'omou eirein, " to speak together " ; or from 'omerein, ** to assemble 

The name Homer was said to have been derived from ^o meros 
(the thigh) because he had some mark or deformity one the thigh. 
The late Dr Edward V. Kenealy, of London, in his naronic works on 
the Messiahs, ardently supports this derivation. 

Proclus, in his " Life of Homer," gives the account that the poet 
was delivered up by the people of Smyrna to Chios as a pledge or 
hostage (^Omeros) on the conclusion of a truce. F. A. White, in his 
*' Life of Homer (p. 54), supports this theory, and furthermofe says 
he believes he was always called Homer, from I/o'meros (and never 
Melesigenes) ; that the Cymaeans pronounced it Home'ros in their 
ignorance, and that Homer called himself ITome^ros, ** Blind Man * 
ever afterwards. 

Godfrey Higginy, in his " Anacalypsis " ( Vol. I, p. 516), says that 
he believes with Bentley that probably the Iliad was written by a 
Solomon, though not the Solomon of Jerusalem, and that Homer or 
On-eer was a Solomon, and the epithet given to the poem means the 
poems of On-heri tht Saviour Om. Near Ajmere, in India, is a place 
called Ommergher, that is the walled city of Ummer, or Omer. 

A. Herbert, in '* Nimrod" (Vol. H, p. 514), says the name is in- 
dicative of early or beginning of time, whether it be the opening of a 
mundane cycle^ the spr ng of a year, or the morning of a day. 

( 184) 

Philosophy from- the ''Red Book.'' 

** Nature's Unveiiing," by J. M. Wade. 

( Continued from page 167.) 

'* Righteous Indi|;nation " is but an evidence of human weakness. 
The wise man is never indignant, is never surprised. 

We should avoid putting ourselves in a position to have to doubt 
any one. 

Perfection is tolerant in all things, and denies the rights of no one. 

Ignorance will admit the superiority of none, and offers itself as an 
example of perfection. 

When you have trouble with a fellow-being, put yourself in the 
witness box, with reason in the judge's chair. 

Foolishness is a lack of judgment. 

Selfishness will not expend a postal card to acknowledge the gift of 
a dollar from Generosity ; thus does selfishness close the door, 

He who accepts spiritual things through the intellect falls into a 
snare from which he must disentangle himself. 

The higher spirit of man is God; but few men have made this 

Divine truth is as impregnable as the sun. 

Wisdom and understanding are of God, and cannot be against him : 
only the ignorant revile. 

The borrower sells his independence and becomes the servant of 
the lender. 

Listen to the words of wisdom ; it is given without price to the 
wise ; love not money. 

Wisdom can only come from God, all is vanity that comes from 
mortal man. 

As we allow the spirit to manifest within us, so do we become wise. 

The drunkard is no more intemperate than the glutton or the pro- 

The most profitable investment, even of money, is in divine truth, 
when the investor can understand the value of the purchase. 

A man's divine strength is tested when the day of adversity comes. 

( 185 ) 

It is the weighing in the balance. If he falls, he is found wanting. 

The lies of a liar are as truths to a liar. 

Wealth makes many friends ( ?), but digs a gulf over which the 
worthy poor cannot pass. 

In no way can God reach man, except through the spirit within man. 

Outside the spirit, man carves his own destiny; and must not com- 
plain if he makes bad work of it, or even spoils the material. 

He in whom divine truth has manifested requires not to be merci- 
ful or charitable. 

We can only experience shame when we are guilty of something 
that will begin shame. 

Selfishness is unpardonable. It cannot be reached even by charity. 

Make no speed in getting rich, lest poverty trip thy footsteps. 

Selfishness destroys friendship as with a blight. 

To read is to reach out for the creations of other minds. To write 
is to create. 

He who seeks a friend to gratify selfish desires lives in darkless. 

To be merciful shows evidence of possible goodness. The truly 
good man laves^ hence does not descend to the condition of having to 
be merciful or charitable. 

Divine love does not pity, does not forgive, does not punish, but 
goes out in universal love that acts on saint and sinner alike. 

Man can tell about divine things, but God only through his chosen 
instruments can teach " the word'* 

Divine wisdom can only emanate iji words through a human condi- 
tion of divine love. 

" The laborer is worthy of his hire," but teaching the word of God 
is love, and not labor. 

The godly eat to live only, and dress for comfort only. Ornament 
in human clothing is a moral deception. 

Happy will be the man in whose heart the germ of love and charity 
has manifested. He has then entered •* the path." 

To amuse the animal man is to rob the soul of its possibilities. 

The human passions uncontrolled are the hot-bed of our miseries, 
and lead us to despair. 

( 18«) 

The pain that the hypocrite takes lo hide what he is, if properly ap- 
plied, would make him in fact what he would seem to be. 

It is not that I must, or that I will he good, but that I am good be- 
cause I have the knowledge of goodness. 

It is natural for me not to believe what I do not understand. I be- 
lieve nothing. 

The " love of money " is indeed the root of evil. It poisons the 
soul, and drives out virtue, honesty, and even affection. 

The avarious man finds miser}' in every attempt he makes to seek 

He that is given virtue is more blest than he that is given millions 
of dollars. 

To love is life ; to hate is death. 

Youth loves to dally with folly, counting lime wasted that is spent 
with wisdom. 

An occultist can only write from his own experience ; all else is 
speculation, even with him. 

Desire is a cruel task-master. It gets us into disagreeable scrapes, 
destroys our hopes, and takes our life. 

Deception is the rule between the sexes ; frankness is an unknown 

If we build ourselves up by pulling those about us down, we make 
an insecure foundation. 

If we would build ourselves up firmly, we must lift up those about 
us ; in this way our own standing is made secure. 

Every man develops his own god and his own devil, hence- the im- 
portance of one's giving his entire attention to this matter. 

In material things one must " read " to *' keep up." 

Any man that seeks his living otherwise than by " the sweat of his 
brow," does not obey the laws of nature. 

A bigot is one who is robbed of his wealth, and persecutes the one 
who points out the thief. 

Selfish, material people scae closely the age of woman, while spir- 
itual life knows no age. 

Every material being is but vanity, and does sorely vex the spirit. 


( 187 ) 


Land of .Kod.*^ 

(SILAS beach's home — GENESIS IV, l6 ) 

N O D 

Number Name Opened Opens Day. 

One seeking for the origin of letters and figures has unearthed a 
cipher which purports to reveal the secrets of all letters and figures, 
alphabets and hieroglyphics. The old tradition handed down and 
put on record by a descendant from Nebajoth (Gen. xxv, 13), the 
eldest son of Ishmael, is that there were two alphabets given by 
God to man. The first alphabet he gave to Adam, the second to Ish- 
mael. The record is that God spake before man was created (Gen. 
If 3)« ^nd that all the words, or letters and figures in forms, we call 
words came from God (John i, 1-2). 

The descendants of this Nebajoth settled in central Asia and kept 
up a distinct nationality similar to that of the Jews. They had a se- 
cret class of their people who were taught in the old traditions, but 
kept their knowledge strictly to themselves like all the priests of the 
old generations. They were " a royal priesthood," who for eleven 
months every year denied themselves all the comforts and luxuries 
of life,* and lived by themselves in a place set apart in strict seclusion, 
where they occupied their time in building up knowledge of the spirit 
world. All that had been handed down to them^ and all discovered, 
was taught only to their pupils, and it was contrary to the rules of the 
order to develope any secret outside " the royal priesthood." The re- 
maining month of the year was given up entirely to the world, its fes- 
tivities and enjoyments, with their families. These Nabatheans, as 
they were known and called in history, survived as a distinct race un- 
til some centuries after Christ appeared. 

This descendant of Ishmael wrote out all the knowledge he had 
that had been kept alive in this old family of Ishmael, and that writ- 
ing, thus perhaps secretly written, has survived the dust of ages and 
has come to light in these latter days. In this writing are collected to- 
gether all the then known alphabets of the world, and the hieroglyphic 
forms and more elaborate pictorial representations of spiritual things 
as drawn or painted upon the walls of the temples of the gods then in 
existence. The spirit was made to appear in three forms : The 
lowest, the hieroglyphic, which was the entering light ; this was the 
first form to be learned, the ring form. The * second form was 
the letter combined in words or hieroglyphics ; this was a higher 
form^ one form of which was the teaching of how to open the ring of let- 
ters combined in a word and bring out the spirit hidden in the word. 

( 188 ) 

The third form of teaching was the higher stage of letters and words 
combined in sentences, in pictures representing ideas,or several ideas 
in connection. Thus they made the word represent the Trinity. The 
one, the letter in which they all joined in the written or spoken word ; 
the two the letters joined in rings called words, and thus we have the 
two, in one, in one word ; the three, the letters, the words connected 
together in sentences, expressive of ideas, or in pictures ; the three in 
one idea, or sentence, or in pictures. 

In pursuing this entering wedge to the old, there emerged from the 
darkness a cipher which is the key to them all, and this cipher also 
claims to have come originally from God. This cipher-key is back of 
the letter, even. It starts with a perfected form, not a letter, but it is 
a spirit-born *' Word" called in spirit *' Number-Name," or as we call 
it, it is our letter N^ and back of that N is its spiritual name, " Num- 
ber-Name." This double word ** Number-Name," therefore, hides in 
spirit under the guise of the form N not only the letter, but the name 
of the letter, "Number-Name," the two in one, and also the idea of the 
sentence in the double idea of Number and Name. So here we find 
the Trinity again hidden in the one, the N ; in the two, its key 
** Number-Name " ; in the three, the births from the spirit in new 
words born from the hidings of the letters in differing forms and com- 
binations called languages ; the higher the languages, the sum of all 
the pictures ; next the word. The hieroglyphics of each language in 
different forms in which the same spirit is hidden under a different 
appearing form which makes it a hieroglyphic to the untaught, a hiero- 
glyphic word-form ; and lastly the letter, the foundation of each and 
all, starting from one and the same- source — God. 

There are in all the languages combined, when opened by the key, 
just twenty-six keys which will open every alphabet on earth in its 
spirit form. That is, it will open in every word in every language, 
that spirit idoa which God has caused to be hidden in the word by 
*^ working in us to will and to do of his good pleasure " (Phil, ii, 13). 
For it will be found that the keys will open the secret fully that man. 
coins a word to express an idea that he understands ; and that God 
unconsciously works in him so that he puts the word into such letter 
forms that when read by the aid of the spirit keys it will express the 
spirit hidden in that form that the word represents, in some form 
of the "moving spirit" (Gen. i, 2) ; how God intends the word 
coined to express the way, the spirit moves in that word. And thus 
frequently it will be found that the *^ moving spirit " in many cases 
discloses a secret of which the word as man-coined and understood, 
it gave no indication. The secret that the keys disclose is this : 
We will disclose in any language spoken on earth, past, present, or 
future, all spiritual knowledge hidden in the word. Knowledge of 
how God works ; by what means he works, and what he accomplishes 

( 189 ) 

by his work. The one, two, and three, again, summed up in the 
final result. It does not pretend to give earthly knowledge beyond 
this^ namely, that as God works in forms he creates ; he will cause 
that in every language used on earth that the names given to any part 
of " the house, this Temple of our body," shall declare by the aid of 
the spirit cipher-keys a way in which God works in spirit by the aid 
of the organ or element upon' which he acts to accomplish that which 
he intended his spirit to accomplish by "moving upon its face" 
(Gen. I, 2). 

In addition to these twenty-six keys there is a higher form, a double, 
a two-in-one, and one of the two a three-in-one, the whole figure mak- 
ing a threefold Trinity in letters, hieroglyphics, and pictorial repre- 
sentations such as the record declares, contains *' the sum of all 
wisdom." There in not time or space to describe this pictorial figure 
which combines in itself (when deciphered by the keys) all alphabets, 
all figures, all languages, either spoken or written ; for as all lan- 
guages as a whole combine all that all men know, or think they know, 
they certainly combine " the sum of all wisdom." This hierogliphic 
character is the last and highest stage of the knowledge of the " royal 
priesthood." It is the endeavor of each pupil to reach that ** sum of 
all knowledge," and the priests declare that whoever attains to that 
height will be filled with " all wisdom." 

•* Here is wisdom," ieam to count (Rev. xiii, 18). The keys will 
teach you how to count. The keys will teach you how the ears hear 
(Rev. II, II). The keys will teach you how the sound of the outer 
world becomes flesh within, a sense by the moving of God's spirit upon 
the air, the ear, and its organs, etc. (John i, 14). They will teach 
you that long before the circulation of the blood was discovered, that 
long before the life-giving tree of life, in the flesh, the nervous sys- 
tem of root, stalk, and branches within these " walking trees of life" 
(Mark viii, 24) were known, that every language that gave names to 
these organs of the flesh has in their spiritual light, lighted by the 
, spirit keys, a declaration of the purpose for which God made them as 
conduits for his spirit to move upon, to accomplish his purpose. 

Who hid that secret in the word before man had any knowledge in 
reference thereto ? Who hid the secret that the air announces the 
sound which enters into it in the spoken word of the spirit by 

A I R 

announcing in rings ; for, now it is a well-known fact, that the 
spirit of sound moves upon the air in exact rhythm with the vowel 
sound of the word, and that each vowel sound has a distinct and 
equal number of rhythms for each vowel sound. Who made the en- 
trance for these ring waves to enter into, and tell God's message 
from the outer to the soul within } and who gave it the name to desig- 
nate its purpose spiritually in carrying out God's purpose, " Let the 

( 190 ) 

tars hear " ? Hear what ? In tlie first letter, the e^ the entrance to the 
flesh, let the ears hear, the enterer from without the ring waves of air ; 
the two to act, in a by announcing, in ar announcing rings, ringing. 
The r of ear, the ring ; the r of air^ the ringer ringing. So we see 
the ear is as a 


noun^ an entrance announcing ring ; that the air announcing in rings, 


" entering, announces ringing." The air .then had a double duty both 
to form the rings and announce the form to its resultant, the ear : the 
Trinity again. In the air, we see three, , sound, air ; result, ring. 
In the ring, we see air wave ; result^ ringing. In the »^ar, we see 
ring, ringing ; result, drumming. In the drum, we see in d the sum 
of the rings of all the outer //day combined, in r the ring, in u united; 
and this outer day in u united in u unites the wave ring mark with the 
iHark'iorm. on the inner face of the drum on the flesh and on the 
nerve tree of life. 

This is sufficient to illustrate how knowledge is now hidden and has 
been hidden ever since the flrst alphabet was given to Adam ; but no 
man had been able to penetrate the secret until Christ opened it, and 
hid it in his words and teachings. It will be found by the diligent 
students in working out the knowledge hidden of which these cipher 
keys are the revealers and interpreters that which will change the 
teachings of the Bible as man now reads, and has heretofore read it ; 
for there is another reading going side by s^de, neck by neck, footstep by 
footstep, with the account as man now understands it. He as yet has 
read but the letter of the word. He cannot read the letter and the 
word combined — the air announcing in rings, nor the ear entrance 
announcing ringing, nor the funnel — 

F u N N E L 

** form uniting number-name, number-name exit lighting " of the ear 
where the air rings are connected in one bundle to form the vibrating 


drumstick : " day ring united mark spirit lighted in cut-of! knowledge." 
This drum-stick, in order to tap upon the drum-head, collects these 
day rings uniting marks " ; forming these wave rings into a solid col- 
umn in the outer court of the ear -^ its funnel. This column of air 
vibrates and taps on the drum in exact rhythm with each vowel sound 
communicated by the air and each tap makes a mark on the outer sur- 
face of the drum. Now it has reached the flesh and in st of drum< 
x/ick, spirit lights as a sensation on the flesh within, and (in the ear with- 
in, the I lights in, c cuts off k knowledge, and tells the flesh the message 
the air has brought from sound. Thus God makes the word flesh and 
it stills dwells among us (John i, 14) ; Christ in us, if we have heard 

( 191 ) 

and learned to count. If not, he still stands at the door knocking. 
The first questions the keys put are these : Can you light the 
Alpha and Omega of the words, look open book (Rev. v, 3)? In look 
can you light its first letter, the announcer, the /, and can you 
bring forth the knowledge hidden in the k^ the last letter ? In open 
can you open the ring Oy its first letter, and bring forth the «, the 
number-name hidden in its last letter ? Can you in book open the b^ 
blackness, and through two 0^0 open the rings, and bring forth k knowl- 
edge ? If you can, you have heard the knocks the k at each end, the k 
knowledge, the n number-name, the opening, the c cuttnig off, the k 
knowledge ; knowledge at each end. The A^ a of Alpha, the an- 
nouncer announcing, the O-0 of Omega, the opened announcer ; the 
C't of Christ, the cut-ofF light ; the J-s of Jesus, the joined spirit. 
If you can not you ' have neither heard nor opened (Rev. 111,20), 
and Christ has not supped with you, for his sup is in s spirit, in 


u uniting, unites two in one letter u uniting, unites in/ power \ to open, 
"open power exit number-name." 

LOO k 

To light opening open knowledge. Come to the fountain and drink, 
d'k day knowledge ; r-n ring number-name ; / in. The wheel of the 
first and last, the wheel within the wheel (Ezek. i, 16). Come to the 
tabernacle, the center of the host, and hear the oracle of God hid- 
den in the center of each word, declare fts message. You bring 
/ to the tabernacle to pass through the ring with \ you want the light 
opened. God takes them and in opening, in opens, in k knowledge, 
and the oracle says look, God works in the center of the host, so in 
open o\s brought and joined with/,/ in power, e in exits form from the 
tabernacle the n^ the number-name the spirit of God opened in spirit 
order, God opened power, the word the «. You bring the b book to 
the door of the tabernacle and ask God to open it ; he takes your b 
blackness, in opening, in the second opens the purpose, the k the 
knowledge ; the spirit rule that God scourgeth and chasteneth every 

s o N 

" spirit opener opening number - name," son whom he receiveth 
(Heb. XII, 6). He scourges to bring knowledge forth, Your whole 
Bible, until you can thus look into and open it, is a sealed book to 
you spiritually. 


The foregoing article is about one-half • of a paper prepared by its 
author for a Chicago publication. The author, in 1886, prepared two 
short papers for Notes and Queries, one giving what he claimed to 
be the " Origin of the Roman Numerals" (Vol. II, p. 124), and later, 
another, " The Mystery of the Holy-of-Holies " (Vol. Ill, p. 254). 

( 192 ) 

These two papers were published by advice of the late Prof. K T. 
Quimby, of Hanover, N. H., who had an acquaintance with the author, 
a Massachusetts resident. The Professor thought the papers might 
induce a discussion, or some criticism, but they failed to receive such. 

The author called on us in June last and desired a hearing as to a 
discovery which he claimed to have made and developed^ and we con- 
sented to read his paper and give him a hearing. He subsequently 
sent us his manuscript, and we have printed a sufficient portion to 
indicate the whole. It is not necessary to publish his key-words, till 
at least he shows in some article he can possibly ^pply bis scheme to 
the Latin, Greek, or Hebrew languages, to say nothing of the modern 
languages. Will the author give us his twenty-six Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew words as keys to these respective languages, that we may 
see an illustration of their application to the initials of words in those 
languages ? We cannot thus far see method in his chosen key-words. 

That there is a kabalistic reading to much of the Scriptures which 
does not show itself on the surface, we admit. There is a mine of 
wealth in the information derived from the philological and etymo- 
logical study of words of , the book. He makes assertions that the 
Great-First-Cause works in a peculiar way ^* his wonders to perforin." 

According to McCIintock & Strong, "Cyclopaedia," Vol, VI, p. 892, 
the remains of the literature of the Nabatheans consist of four works, 
one of them a fragment, namely : 

I. "The Book of Nabat Agriculture." 2. "The Book of Poisons." 
3. " The Book of Tenkeldsha the Babylonian. 4. " The Book of the 
Secrets of the Sun and Moon." 

These books purport to have been translated, in the year 904^ by a 
Chaldean of Kissin^ known as Ibn-Wahshi^yeh. This work is the one 
containing the records of the Nabatheans, while the Tenkeltisha has a 
similar record, of a later date. The contents of her two works are 
stated in the " Cyclopaedia," cited above. 

Will the author of this article on the " Land of Nod " give us the 
source from whence he derived his information of the " records of the 
descendants of Nebajoth," in reference to the two alphabets given by 
God to man. We know of no works on the Nabatheans, their liter- 
ature, and general history, except the works of M. Quatremfere, 1835 » 
M. Chwolson, 1859 ; M. R^nan, i860. Perhaps others have appeared* 


( 193) 

Questions and Answers. 

AoAPiE, OR Love Feasts. (Vol. XI, p. 178.) The Greek term for 

iave, used by ecclesiastical writers (most frequently in the plural), to 

signify the social meal of the primitive Christians, was agdph (plural 

agdpa), which generally accompanied the eucharist. There has been 

research to ascertain the origin of the cuscotn. Similar customs were 

in practice in Greece and Rome, the proceedings of which were not 

commended by the writers of those times. Chrysostom pronounced 

a eulogy upon the custom in these reflective words : 

'* A custom most beautiful and most beneficial ; for it was a sup- 
porter of love, a solace of poverty, a moderator of wealth, and a disci- 
pline of humility." 

The common meal and the eucharist formed together one whole 
feast, and they were conjointly denominated the *' Lord's Supper " 
and the " Feast of Love." They were also called by Neander and 
Mosheim the " breaking of bread." The term " agip^ " is em- 
ployed once in the New Testament, ** These are spots in your feasts 
of charity (Jude 12). The real reading in II Peter 11, 13, is " Spots 
and blemishes, living luxuriously in their Agipae." The common 
reading is " in their own deceivings.'* 

Prof. A. Kestner's, in his work, " The Agapae of the Secret World 
Society of the Primitive Christians," Jena, 1819, speaks of these 
'* Love Leasts as having a hierarchical constitution, and a ground 
work of Masonic Symbolism and Mysteries " ; and shows a direct 
connection between the old Agapse and the Table Lodges or Banquets 
of the Freemasons. Having, however, exiled from their suppers the 
'* holy kiss " and the women, the banquets of the latter are rather of 
the drinking habit. The early Agapse are claimed to have partaken 
of phallic ideas, and claimed to have been as pure as the love feasts 
of the early Christians. 

Ontology. What is the science of Ontology? Inquirer. 

The word ontology is formed from the Greek 6n and i6gos, that is 
" the science of being," and is, strictly speaking, synonymous with 
metaphysics, but neither of these words were used by Aristotle. He 
called the science now designated by them philosophia prima, and de- 

( 194 ) 

fined it as the science of the essence of things ; the science of the at- 
tributes and conditions of being in general, not of being in any given 
circumstance, not as physical or mathematical, but as being. 

Watts defines ontology in similar words and includes not only what 
actually is, but what can yet be. The word was first made current in 
philosophy by Wolf. He divided ontology into four parts : Ontology, 
psychology, rational cosmology, and theology. Kant denied that we 
have any knowledge of substance or cause as really existing. Saint 
Augustine, Anselm, and Boethius inferred the existence of God from 
the existence of general ideas. The absolute truth which is necessa- 
rily demanded by the human is God himself. The sum total of all 
absolute law is called truth or wisdom (veritas, sapientia). The abso- 
lute is, threefore, equal to truth itself. God is truth.* 

Socrates, ScHOLASTicus. Why was the term ** Scholasticus *' ap- 
plied to Socrates 1 * Reader. 

We infer from the question that " Reader " thinks this is Socrates 
who was styled the " Father of Philosophy," of Athens, born 469 
B. C, of whom it is said, 

'* Socrates died like a philosopher, but Jesus Christ like a God." 

Socrates, Scholasticus, was an ecclesiastical historian, born at Con- 
stantinople towards the end of the fifth century. He studied gram- 
mer and rhetoric under Ammonius and Halladius, and afterwards 
followed the profession of advocate or scholastic^ hence his name. He 
abandoned, however, this profession in order wholly to devote himself 
to the study of church history. He wrote a history of the church in 
seven books, commencing at 309, where Eusebius ends, and continued 
it down to 440. He is considered rather more accurate in his state- 
ments than Sozomen and Theodoret both of whom were continuators 
of Eusebius. 

The christian's Heaven Within the Solar Orb. (Vol. XI, 
p. 178.; There was published in New York, in 1869, a book, which 
has the following title-page : 

'* The Spirit of God as Fire ; The Globe within the Sun Our 
Heaven. Reasons for such Hypothesis founded upon God's own 
revelations and recent developments through the lights of Astronomy." 
By D. Mortimore, M. D. i2mo. pp. 240; cloth. 
. The front cover is stamped with the outline of the sun haloed. 

( 195 ) 

Within this is the globe at about the same angle of elipiticity as our 
«arth. On the globe is the legend " The Globe within the Sun our 
Heaven/' " The glory of God doth lighten it." Between the globe 
and the sun surrounding it is the " non-lumiuous void. The great 
gulf fixed." In the expanse without there is the new nioon, and 
seventeen stars of the first magnitude. 

Zoroaster Mentioned in the Scriptures. Is Zoroaster men- 
tioned or referred to in the Bible ? Zoe. 

In answer to this question we will say that he is not in what is now 

known as the Bible proper. Yet Zoroaster is spoken of by name in 

the Apocryphal New Testament, in the ** Gospel of the Infancy," as 

follows : 

'* And it came to pass, when the Lord Jesus was born at Bethle- 
hem, a city of Judaea, in the time of Herod the King ; the wise men 
came from the East to Jerusalem, according to the prophecy of 
Zoradascht [Zoroaster], and brought with them offerings : namely, 
gold, frankincense, and myrrh, and worshipped him, and offered to 
him their gifts " (I Infancy in, i). 

We would advise " Zoe " to read the following four pamphlets for a 

good exposition of Zoroaster's doctrine : 

" The Religion of Zoroaster," by Robert Brown, Jr. London. 
** The Spirit of the Zoroastrian Religion," by Henry S. Olcott. 

The Age of the Avesta and Zoroaster," by Geiger and Spiegel. 

A Hymn of Zoroaster," Yasna 31, translated by A. V. Jackson. 


NiMROD. Who was Nimrod ? and what are the books, often cited 
in Notes and Queries ? Logos. 

We cannot here go into a long dissertation in reference to Nimrod. 
We are informed that *' Cush begat Nimrod ; he began to be a 
mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord ; 
wherefore it is said : ' Even as IsTimrod the mighty hunter before the 
Lord ' *' (Genesis x, 8-9). 

He is the same person as Orion of the Greeks, canonized in the 
celestial vault as the most splendid constellation of the heavens. His 
name is spelled slightly different by several writers. Josephus gives 
it as Nebrodes : the Septuagint gives it Nebrod ; Moses made him the 
founder of the Babylonian monarchy, but other writers do not think 
he was the architect of Babel. It is not certain among sacred and 
profane writers just what is meant by " the land of Nimrod " (Micah 

( 196 ; 

V, 6) ; a similar expression for the country of " the land of Nod ' 
(Gen. IV, i6). There is much speculation as to the derivation of the 
name Nimrod from a Hebrew root meaning "^ to rebel " ; the argu- 
ment mainly depending on this that makes him the founder of Babel. 
The marginal reading, in Genesis x, ii, in King James' version, says 
he " went forth into Assyria," a far more preferable reading. Other 
historical sources make Belus the founder of Babylon. The names 
Nebrod and Nebrodes are easily identified with Nipru, BilNipru^ 
Bel-Nimrody signifying " the lord," " the hunter." Much depends in 
ancient history on the derivation and etymology of names : Nimrodt 
Nebiod, Nebrodes, Nebroud, Nebuchadnezzar. Birs, Bel, Belus, Baal, 
Beltshazzar, etc. Some identify Nimrod son of Cush with Bacchus, 
Bar-chus, Orion is celebrated by Homer in the Odyssey (xi, 571-574) 
as " a mighty hnuter." (See McClintock & Strong, " Cyclopaedia," 
Vol. Vn, p. 180 ; Kitto, " Cyclopaedia," Vol. H, p. 419.) 

The work entitled " Nimrod," enquired for, was written by the 
Hon. and Rev. Algernon Herbert (1792-1855), in four octavo vol- 
umes, and published in London, 1828. It is a most learned and pro- 
found research into the history, mythology, traditions, legends, in- 
scriptions, and lore of the past. The work is out of print, and good 
copies when obtainable command about $40. The contents of the 
four volumes are as follows : 

Vol. I. I. Orion. 2. Nimrod. 3. Castes. 4. Babel. 5. Regi- 
fugium. 6. Decennial War. 7. Ilion. Pp. 524. \ 

Vol. II. I. Ilias or the Pelasgi. 2. Troica. 3. Semiramis, .^lEneas, 
and the ^neadae. 4. Populifugia. 5. Merope. 6. Homer. Pp. 676. 

Vol. III. I. Roma. 2. Antichrist. Pp. 580. 

IV. Part First, i. Apocrypha. 2. Cosmogonia. Part Second. 
3. Paradise ; (Note upon Origen ; Note upon Sin). 4. Cain. 
5. The Deluge ; (Iris, a poem). 6. Ammon ; (Note on Polygamy). 
7. Monarchy of the Sol Ipse. 8. Alchymus ; (Note on Fracastorius). 
Pp. 618. Total pp. 2398. 

Another volume full of information concerning Nimrod is the fol- 
lowing work : 

The Two Babylons ; or, the Papal Worship proved to be the Wor- 
ship of Nimrod and his Wife. With 61 woodcut illustrations from 
Nineveh, Babylon, Egypt, Pompeii, &c. By the Rev. Alexander 
Hislop, of East Free Church, Arbroath. Edinburgh, 1862. Pp. 472. 

C 197 ) 

Why Circles Please the Eye. In a course of lectures in Berlin^ 
Professor Miiller offered, says the Mechanics Magazine^ a simple ex- 
planation of the admiration bestowed on these curves. The eye is 
moved in its socket by six muscles, of which four are employed re- 
spectively to raise, depress, turn to the right, and to the left. The 
. other two have an action contrary to one another, and roll the eye on 
its axes, or from the outside downward, and inside upward. When 
an object is presented for inspection, the first act is that of circum- 
vision, or going round the boundary lines, so as to bring consecu- 
tively every individual portion of the circumference upon the most 
delicate and sensitive portjion of the retina. Now, if figures bounded 
by straight lines be presented for inspection, it is obvious but two or 
three msucles can be called into action ; and it is equally evident that 
in curves of a circle or ellipse all must alternately be brought into ac- 
tion. The effect then is, that if two only be employed, as in recti- 
linear figures, those two have an undue share of labor ; and, by re- 
peating the experiment frequently, as we do in childhood, the notion 
of tedium is instilled, and we form gradually a distaste for straight 
lines, and are led to apply those curves which supply a more gen- 
eral and equitable share of work. 

Size of Our Great Lakes. The latest measurements of our fresh 

water seas are given as follows : 

Lake Superior. The greatest length is 335 miles ; greatest breath, 
160 miles ; mean depth 688 feet / elevation, 627 feet ; area 82,000 
square mile. 

Lake Michigan, The greatest length is 300 miles ; greatest breadth, 

168 miles ; mean depth, 690 feet ; elevation^ 606 feet ; area, 23,000 
square miles. 

Lake Huron, The greatest length is 100 miles ; greatest breadth 

169 miles ; mean depth, 600 feet ; elevation, 274 feet ; area, 20^000 
square miles. 

Lake Erie, The greatest length is 250 miles ; greatest breadth, 80 
miles ; mean depth, 84 feet ; elevation, 555 feet ; area, 6,000 square, 

Lake Ontario, The greatest length is 80 miles ; greatest breadth, 
65 miles; mean depth, 500 feet; elevation, 261 feet; area, 6,000 

The length of all five is 1,165 n^i^^s ; covering an area of more than 
135,000 square miles. 

( 198) 

The Original Version of '' Thanatopsis." 

The following is the original version of William Cullen Bryant's 
'* Thanatopsis," as it appeared in the JVbriA American Beview for 
September, 1817. For the convenience of our readers who may wish ^ 
to compare the earliest with the latest form of the poem, we reprint it- 
Four rhymed stanzas of inferior merit preceded the blank verse, when 
first published ; but, according to Mr. Bryant, this was owing to the 
mistake of another. 

**. Yet a few days, .and thee 
The all-beholding sun shall see no more, 
In all his course ; nor yet in the cold ground, 
Where thy pale form was laid, with many tears, 
Nor in Ih' embrace of ocean shall exist 
Thy image. Earth, that nourished thee, shall claim 
Thy growth, to be resolvd to earth again ; 
And, lost each human trace, surrendering up 
Thine individual being, shalt thou go 
To mix forever with the elements, 

V To be a brother to th' insensible rock 

And to the sluggish clod, which the rude swain 
Turns with his share, and treads upon. The oak 
Shall send his roots abroad, and pierce thy mould. 
Yet not to thy eternal resting place 
Shelt thou retire alone — nor couldst thou wish 
Couch more magnificent. Thou shalt lie down 
With patriarchs of the infant world— with kings 
The powerful of the earth — the wise, the good, 

^ Fair forms, and hoary seers of ages past, 
All in one mighty sepulcher. The hills, 
Rock-ribb*d and ancient as the sun — the vales 
Stretching in pensive quietness between ; 
The venerable woods — the floods that move 
In majesty, — and the complaining brooks, 
That wind among the meads, and make them green, 
• Are but the solemn decorations all 
Of the great tomb of man. The golden sur, 
The planets, all the infinite host of heaven 
Are glowing in the sad abode of death. 
Through the still lapse of ages. All that tread 
The globe are but a handful to the tribes 
That slumber in its bosom. Take the wings 

( 199 ) 


Of morning— and the Borean desert pierce—* 
Or lose thyself in the continuous woods 
That veil Oregon, where he hears no sound 
Save his own dashings — yet — the dead are there-^ 
And millions in those solitudes, since first 
The flight of years began, have laid them down 
In their last sleep — the dead reign there alone — 
So shalt thou rest — and what if thou shalt fall 
Unnoticed by the living-^^and no friend 
Talce note of thy departure ? Thousands more 
Will share thy destiny. The tittering .world 
Dance to the grave. The busy brood of care 
Plod on, and each one chases as before 
His favorite phantom. Yet all these «shall leave 
There mirth and their employments, and shall come 
And make their bed with thee." — Scribnet's, Monthly, 


Roma^ tibi subfia mdtibus ibit amor, 
Rome upon thee suddenly love with its commotions shall come." % 

The Bible and Shakespeare. The following are some curious 
parallel passages in the Bible and Shakespeare : 


But though I be rude in speech" (11 Cor. xi, 6). *' Rude am I 
in speech " (^Othello\ 

^ Consume thine eyes, and to grieve thine heart " (I Sam. ii, 33). 
Show his eyes and grieve his heart " {Macbeth), 


" Thou hast brought me into the dust of death " (Psalm xxii, 15). 
" Lighted fools the way to dusty death " . Macbeth), 

" Look not upon me because I am black, because the sun hBs 
looked upon me '* (Solomon's Songs i» 6). '* Mistake me not for my 
complexion ; the shadowy livery of the burning sun " {Merchant of 

" I caught him by his beard, and smote him^. and slew him " 
(I Sam. XVII, 35). " I took him by the throat, the circumcised dog, 
and smote him " {Othello), 

** Opened Job his mouth and cursed his flay. * * Let it not b 
joined unto the days of the years; let it no.t conxe into the number oe. 

( 200 ) 

the months " (Job i, i, 6). " May this accursed hour stand, aye, ac 
cursed in the calendar '' {Macbeth). 

" What is man, that thou art mindful of him ? and the son of man 
that thou visitest him ? For thou has made him a little lower than 
the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honor. Thou madest 
him to have dominion over the works of thy hands ; thou hast put all 
things under his feet " (Psalm viii, 4-6). " What a piece of work is 
man I How noble in reason, how infinite in faculties ! In form, and 
moving, how express and amiable ! In action, how like an angel 1 
In apprehension how like a God ! the beauty of the world, the para- 
gon of animals" {Folio 0/ May). 

Origin of Symbolic Masonry. I trace Masonry in its symbolism 
and its mysteries as far. back as possible ; first, in the primitive Cyclo- 
pean architecture of the Cabiri ; next, in the Aryan system of the 
level bricks ; the great pyramid, for instance, is an Aryan system in 
which the interior structure symbolizes the heavenly temple of Osiris. 
Hellenic Greek architecture was Aryan (aided by Egyptian mysteries 
and civilization) in opposition to Turanian, Cyclopean, and Cabiric, 
or Pelasgic art. The Roman Colleges were Pelasgic, aided by the 
more refined style of the Dionysian artificers, who were Aryans, as 
were the Osirian and Dionysian Mysteries. 

The Arcane Discipline sprung out of the eclectic Serapian Mys- 
teries of the Ptolemies temp Euclid ; and the Culdees of York were of 
this kind of religion, as was nearly all of the north, and also Ireland 
until nearly Norman times. 

Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry, Here I stick to the text of the oldest 
Masonic MS., that it was of Egypto-Roman origin, a branch of the 
Osirian Mysteries, which was changed to orthodox Christianity, 

The present system I place in the Oriental descent, brought hither 
by the Norman French during the Crusades. Probably the earliest 
Masonic seal in France, in the time of Charles Martel, was the^ Sara- 
cen city of Neumes, Niomes, Nimes, in South France ; altered in our 
MSS. of the sixteenth century to Marcus Graecus, who is mentioned 
in early ninth century, by the Arabian physician Mesne, and from 
whose MSS. Friar Bacon obtained the secret of gunpowder. 

Of course, in all times and all countries. Mason's Marks afford a 
good ars;ument and illustration. 

John Yarker, Manchester, Eng. 


(201 ) 

The Nile and the Euphrates. In the published fragments of 

the Phaethon of Euripides, we find that the city of Aurora was 

situated on the plains through which the river Oceanus flowed, and 

the Egyptian account of the Nile is more particularly given by Pausa- 

nias, namely, that the Nile actually was the river Euphrates, which, 

after discharging into a lake or inland sea, reappeared under that 

name in Upper Ethiopia. The fable had not ceased to obtain, even 

unto the thirteenth century, when Sir John Mandeville was informed : 

** This ryvere cometh rennynge f^:ora Paradys Terrestre, between 
the deserts of Ynde, and aftre, it smytt into londe and rennethe longe 
tyme many grete contrees undre erthe. And aftre, it gothe out undre 
an highe hille, that men clepen Alothe, that is between Ynde and 
Ethiope, the distance of five moneths journeyes fro the centree of 

Aaron's Rod that Budded. A correspondent asks if the account 
of " Aaron's rod that budded " is mentioned in any work outside the 
Bible. We hardly divine just what he desires to know by his ques- 
tion. The last half of the verse referred to (Numbers xvii, 8) reads : 

'* The rod of Aaron for the house of Levi was budded, and brought 
forth buds, and bloomed blossoms, and yielded almonds." 

Just at this time we recall what Achilles said when he uttered his 

great oath in the presence of Agamemnon : 

' " I claim no supremacy^ I dispute that of no man ; I bear a subor- 
dinate and barren sceptre, not the budding rod of sovereignty. Yet 
by that sceptre I swear."— Herbert, in " Nimrod," Vol. I. p. 112. 

'* I will tell thee, and I will further swear, yea, by this sceptte, 
which will never bear leaves and branches nor will bud again, after 
it has left its trunk on the mountain, for the axe has lopped it all 
around of its leaves and branches." — Buckley's trans. Iltad i, 1. 240. 

Whether Achilles had Aaron's rod in mind when he uttered his 
oath, or not, we cannot say, though some think so. 

Albigenses. (Vol. XI, p. 92). This is the name of a romance by 
Charles Robert Maturin (1783-1824J, published in 1814, in three vol- 
umes; a second edition in 1824. It was in great demand some fifty 
years ago. Second edition is bound three volume in one ; pp. 735, 

Maturin also was the author of Bertram^ a tragedy, produced at 
Drury Lane in 1816, described by Sir Walter Scott as *^ powerful." 

( 202 ) 


1. Who was the person that wrote the following stanza to an in- 
quirer for the best proof of consubstantiution ? 

" Christ was the word that spake it, 
He took the bread and brake it, 
And what his word did make it, 
That I believe and take it" L, 

2. Why are the moon's nodes in the almanacs called the Dragon's^ 
Head 2ind the Dragon^ s Tailf Farmer's Son. 

3. What is the English of the following quoted from Southey's 
** The Doctor *' (page 27) : 

*' Vema whehaha yohu almad otemba iwanbri athancod.^^ 

4. What is the real meaning of the Hebrew word z^^^^:^/ translated 
'* scapegoat " in Leviticus xvi, 8, lo, 26 ? P. H. D. 

5. We have read somewhere that some classical professor wrote 
and published a book claiming that the Grecian siege of Ilium was a 
war between the Medes and Persians ; Persia was figured as Troy, 
Media as Europe, and Assyria as Asia. Can some reader give the 
author's name or title of his book ? T. H. S. 

6. Who were the Solymcs mentioned in the Iliad (vi, 227) ? Also, 
who were the Soiipses mentioned in various histories as cotemporary 
with Abraham, Lot, etc. ? Logos. 

7. Some geometrician, a few years ago, announced an essay on 
the subject '* Hypothesis " ; stating also that it would show the rela- 
tion of the word etymologically to the word hypothmuse. Can any one' 
give any information whether such essay has been published in any 
form ? Theon. 

8. The letter M is said to have been formed from its resemblance 
to waves of water. Is there a recondite reason why that letter is the 
initial of so many words in Hebrew, Indian (Aryan), and some other 
languages ? R. D. K, 

9. Who is considered the firist A^^-Platonist ? Andrew. 

10. To which of the Napoleons does the word Napoleonic more 
especially apply as generally used ? Andrew. 

11. Is a native and inhabitant of British, Central, or South Amer 
ica, considered an American f DeWolfe. 

12. How does the " Day of Brahma," the "Great Year of t 
Egyptians," and the " Platonic Year " compare ? O. 




H. C. e^UlLn, Editor. 

" The human soul is infinitely richer than it is itself aware q/". "-Leibnitz. 

Vol. XI. SEPTEMBER. 1893. No. 9. 

Tlie Stellar System— The Sun and the Earth. 

The following astronomical theory of the sun and the earth was 

printed for the author in 1868, and circulated anonymously at the time 

to induce thought. \\ is now twenty-five years since its appearance ; 

and we reprint now, to put it on record : 

It is acknowledged in the learned world that man is a microcosm, 
that in him are united all the faculties of the lower types of creation ; 
that there are connecting links between him and every other creation 
thing; that in short, he is a miniature picture of the universe and the 
image of God. 

Now man has four periods of existence : his boydood, his manhood, 
and old age. His infancy resembles the Winter, in this, that all his 
faculties lie dormant ; he only lives the life of an animal. Next 
comes his boyhood ; then there begins to crop out the green grass, 
flowering shrubs, and the young trees ; this is the Spring of his life. 
Next comes his manhood, when all the grass, and shrubs, and trees 
attain maturity ; this is his Summer. And lastly comes old age, 
when the fruits of the earth are gathered, and this is his Autumn. 
Thus man has four seasons as well as the earth, his Winter. Spring, 
Summer, and Autumn, and so he resembles the earth. Now our earth, 
as is well known, has its four regular seasons, which return in suc- 
cession every year. What shall we say then of the grand system of 
the universe ? 

It has been discovered by astronomers that our Sun, with its attend- 
ing planets^ revolves about a point, situated somewhere in the constel- 
lation Hercules. May we not then reasonably suppose that our solar 

(204 ) 

system is a picture of the grand system ; in other words, that the 
grand system has its season also, its Winter, Spring, Summer, and 
Autumn ? Let any one cast his eye to the heavens, and he will ob- 
serve there the Milky Way, a broad silver belt that girdles the entire 
sky, and if he has a telescope let him turn it upon it, and he will find 
the milky whiteness resolved into stars, so thickly sprinkled in that 
broad band that, to use the words of Sir John Herschel, **• they look 
like diamond dust thickly sprinkled on a dark ground *' ; and yet all 
these stars are so many suns, and they too have their planets, and 
these suns are revolving about the great central Sun, carrying with 
them their multitude of planets, with all their satellites. And well 
may Ezekiel the prophet have exclaimed, that he saw " a wheel in the 
middle of a wheel " (I, i6), and ** full of eyes round about ihem "(i8). 

But let us return to the earth and our own Sun. It has been shown 
conclusively by astronomers, as I said before, that our Sun revolves 
about the great central Sun. Then ,if this is the case, there must 
necessarily be a regular return of the grand seasons, each not to last 
a few months or days, but more probably millions of years. Now, 
geology shows that at one time the whole earth was covered with 
water^ after which came the glacial period when the whole earth was 
frozen up, and became one mass of ice. In this dread winter, lasting 
probably millions of years, there was no living thing on the 'face of 
the earth or in the waters thereof. It was one dismal dreary waste of 
ice and snow. But, as our Sun advanced in its grand revolution, it 
carried the earth along with it, and the end of the grand winter drew 
near. The grand vernal equinox was ac had, and as this period is 
always ushered in with violent storms, so we might expect the same 
in the grand system. Had we lived in those days we might have seen 
the heavy clouds rolling up their dark masses, and gathering for the 
storm. The air, the earth, the sea of ice is all charged with electricity. 
At length the period of the grand vernal equinox is reached, the tem- 
pest bursts with all its fury, the rain pours in torrents, the lightnings 
flash, the thunder rolls. The whole heavens are black ; there is no 
Sun, nor Moon, nor Stars ; in the meantime the internal fires begin 
to shake and toss the crusts of the earth, huge billows rebound to 
and fro, whilst innumerable volcanoes burst forth in the great sea. 
The great sea boils like a pot ; dense vapors arise and still more ob* 
scure the skies, and all is one dark dismal night, or in the language 
of Genesis, *' Darkness was on the face of the deep " ( i, 2) ; and then 
God said, " Let there be light, and there was light ** (i, 3). The 
storm ceased as the sun carried the earth on and on out of the great 

and a faint glimmer of light appeared ; this was the dawn of the 
great day which universal Spring of which we see so many wonders to- 
day. In the meanwhile the great icebergs went drifting and plough- 
ing the earth's surface as they went, and dropping the great holders 

( 205 ) 

from the mountains of New Hampshire in the valleys of Virginia, 
Kentucky, and Mississippi ; and dropping those taken from the Ural 
mountains, in France, in Italy and Spain. 

Then God separated the waters under the firmament from those 
above the firmament. This would seem to mean that God caused the 
rain to cease. Then God caused the waters to subside, and dry land 
to appear, and it was so ; and he caused the earth to bring forth grass, 
and the herb yielding seed, and the tree yielding fruit, and it was so. 
And these plants began to absorb the poisonous vapors from the air, 
and hence at that period geology shows that there were immense ferns 
resembling trees, tremendous grasses, and gigantic trees and immense 
forests. Then the sun began to appear, and the Moon and Stars 
also, and this was the forth grand day of creation. 

Then God caused the waters to bring forth abundantly ; and he 
created great whales and every Hving thing that moveth, which the 
waters brought forth abundantly after their kind ; and every winged 
fowl after his kind ; and God saw that it was good. And the evening 
and the morning were the fifth day, or the end of the Spring ; and 
next is ushered in the grand universal Summer, as the sun carried our 
earth to the grand Summer solstice, when God created all the beasts 
of the earth. It has been shown by geology that at that period there 
existed' enormous serpents, huge lizards, flying crocodiles, the mam- 
moth, the mastodon, the meglatheron, the plereosaurus, gigantic 
skarks^ and birds of such enormous size as to rival in magnitude the 
fabulous roc of the the " Arabian Nights." Geology shows that all 
these troptical animals existed, and the remains of many of these are 
even now found in the neighborhood of the North Pole. Hence there 
was a universal Summer over the whole earth ; its surface teemed 
with living, moving , and breathing animals. And as the sun flies on 
and on, and ever onward in its grand evolution, the end of the grand 
Summer approaches. The air is filled with vapours from the sea, un- 
til the grand Autumnal equinox is reached. Then comes another 
terrific tempest ; the land is again submerged ; new continents are 
thrown up ; old ones are sunk ; and then we see the consummation 
of the age. The great womb of the earth brought forth, and man 
was produced, an image of God — a microcosm — a little universe in 
himself. And this was the beginning of the sixth day, the beginning 
of the grand Autumnal season. 

As the earth was being carried on and on a second electric storm 
was encountered ; this was the Noachian deluge, when the founda- 
tions of the great deep were broken up ; and then men began to 
gather together in rational communities, and then it was the consum- 
mation of the age, for men had been gathering the fruits of the earth, 
the goods and the truths, when Jesus Christ made his appearance. 
He was the consummation of the age. At this time was gathered as 

t 206 ) 

in a storehouse the goods and the truths of the earth, as in a true 
man, the image of God himself, the grand man. And no one need to 
be surprised at this ascertion, that Jesus Christ appeared at the grand 
Autumnal equinox, for we must not consider that epoch as a single 
moment of time, but may have been comprised, for aught we know, of 
months, years, or even thousands of years, For we read in Genesis 
that " He rested on the seventh day " (ii, 2). In other words, the 
Christian religion was established, and man began to gather the Au- 
tumnal fruits, and store them up for the coming grand Winter. For 
as we are carried on and on, we are approaching the grand Winter 
solstice, when we may expect another glacial period. . When this be- 
gins men will gather in closer communities around their Winter fire- 
sides, and to consume the fruits of the earth. As we are carried on- 
ward into the depths of the stellar Winter, then there may set in an- 
other great glacial period ; the intense cold destroying all animal and 
vegetable life, and the seas again be frozen up until the fishes will be 
all exterminated ; and this state of things will continue until the new 
grand Vernal equinox , which will be ushered in .as before with a tre- 
mendous electric hurricane. Then a new heaven and a new earth will 
be created, and man again will make his appearance on the earth, at 
the regular Autumnal season of the universe. 

But will these men be the same as we are ? Will they not be infi- 
nitely superior ? Will they not be more beautiful, and more rational ? 
Will not they, when digging in the bowels of the earth, discover the 
remains of the previous man, and wonder, as we do, what they were? 
Will they not speculate on the queer and uncouth forms of ourselves, 
and of our animals ? Such is conceived to be the rational and truthful 
representation of the phenomena of the grand steller system. 

That the advent bf Jesus Christ took place at the grand Autumnal 
equinox, we think that there is irrefragable proof in the constellations 
of the heavens. For at that point of the heavens, namely, the Au- 
tumnal equinox, is placed the Virgin ; she has a child in her arms, 
and is fleeing into the wilderness from the great Solstitial dragon, the 
dragon of the Summer time. The fossil remains are found today em- 
bedded in rocks of that period. And this was, and is the sixth sign 
of the Zodiac, or the end of the sixth day. These signs were placed 
there by the prophets of old to signify these very facts. In fact, we 
repeat, with confidence, that the whole history of the creation, the fall 
and the redemption of man, is pictured in the heavens. Let those 
read who can. 

JVo/e. It may happen at the beginning of the grand stellar Winter, 
that the spots on the sun will be wonderfully increased in magnitude ; 
and the sun plunging deeper and deeper into that universal Winter, 
its heat and light will grow fainter and fainter ; and then the Moon, 
which shines by reflected light, will disappear from the heavens, and 

( 207 ) 

the sun robbed^ more and more of its luminosity, will at length be- 
come a black pondrous mass, invisible to the eye or telescope. And 
then, to use the language of Genesis again, ** Darkness will be on the 
face of the great deep " (i, 2). Then there will be again another long, 
cold, dismal, dreary night ; and this will continue till the dawn of the 
new day ; the beginning of the grand Vernal equinox ; the ushering in 
of the new Spring ; the beginning of a new creation. That these con- 
clusions may not appear strange, many facts of astronomy might be 
cited which go to sustain them, such as the appearance of new stars, 
and the disappearance of ethers. We will, however, only cite two of 
the most remarkable : One is the appearance of one of the stars of the 
Pleiades ; the other was the extraordinary appearance of a new star 
in the constellation of Cassiopeia, in the year 1572 ; which grew to be 
a star of the first magnitude, and finally faded away, and disappeared 
from the heavens. May not these stars have entered into their grand 
stellar Winter ? — Anonymous. 

How Much Can a Person Read ? The longest single poem now 
extant is said to be the Italian poem, Adone of Marini, who lived in 
the time of James I. It contains 45,000 lines. As for Spain, one 
Lopez de Vega, wrote 1,800 plays ;• his works altogether fill 47 quarto 
volumes. Alonzo Tostado, a Spanish Bishop of the 15th century, 
wrote nearly 40 folios, having covered with print nearly three times 
as many leaves as he had lived days. William Prynne, of England, 
wrote 200 different works. ChaJmer's collected edition of the Eng- 
lish poets only comes down to Cowper, who died in 1800, and it fills 
2 1 volumes, royal octavos, double columns, small type. The volumes 
average 700 pages. This gives a total of 14,700 pages, or 29,400 
columns. Now it takes about five minutes to read a column with fair 
attention. Here is a good year's work in reading over, only once, a 
selection from the English poets. 

The amount of reading which a student can get through in a given 
time hardly admits of being measured by the ell. The rate of read- 
ing varies with the subject-matter and the intelligence of the reader ; 
also the rapid glance with which to skim the lines is an important ele- 
ment to be considered. There is a great difference, also whether we 
are reading a newspaper article, or pages in some book, say, Kant's 
" Critique of Pure Reason.'* Just to get a basis to work upon, let us 
make a calculation in this way : Suppose one reads eight hours a day. 
Thirty pages is an average hour's reading ; this will be. 240 pages a 
day, 1,680 a week, 87,360 a year. Call the average volume 400 pages. 
This would be about 220 volumes a year. This is only a mechanical 
calculation. We cannot pretend to guage the mental capacity. 

( 208 ) 

Ohservatioris on the Iliad and the Odyssey. 

1. The Iliad contains 15,693 lines ; the ^^xx^ contains 12, no 
lines. Each poem is divided into 24 books according to the number 
of letters in the Greek alphabet ; this division has been ascribed to 
Aristarchus (who certainly used it in his recension), and sometimes 
to Aristophanes, and also Zenodotus. 

Some modern writers think the liiad should have received the name 
Achilleid^ and the Odyssey the Odysseid^ the former dealing with the 
** Wrath of Achilles," and the latter with the " Wanderings of Odys- 
seus." Mr. Grote says that books I, VIII, XI-XXII inclusive seems 
to form an AchUltis, and books II-VII, IX-X, XXIII-XXIV a Nan- 
Achillds (Vol II, p. 235). The primary cantos of the Ilicul have been 
called Dibs Boylt (" The Will of Jove "), which is considered the ker- 
nel of the poem. 

2. There was a literary sect anciently headed by Xenon and Hal- 
lanicus, who were called Chorizontes (" Separatists ") ; these critics be- 
lieved the Iliad was composed by Homer and that the Odyssey was 
entirely the work of another person. The Wolfians were followers of 
Friedrich August Wolfe (i 759-1824), who wrote and published^ in 
1795, a work entitled Prolegomena^ in which he endeavored to show 
that the Iliad was a collection of poems by many Homers. 

3. The earliest person now known to make a quotation from Ho- 
mer was Simonides of Ceos, born 556 b. c, who quotes the Iliad yi^ 
148^ as an utterance of '' the man from Chios," as follows : 

" Even as are the generations of leaves, tvxh are those likewise of men." 

4. Many of the persons mentioned in Homer's epics had double 
names ; some were changed on account of exploits, events, etc. : 

Achilles' first name was Ligyron^ afterwards he was called Pyrisous 
(" saved from the fire "). Chiron is said to have given him the name 
Achilles^ because his food was unlike that of others (a not, chilky or 
'^fructus quibus vescuntur homines "). 

.Achilles' son Pyrrhus ("yellow hair "), on his arrival at Ilium was 
called Neoptolemos ( '* new soldier "j. 

Ulysses was formerly Hodysseus (" the evil-good-one *') he was also 
called Nanus (" the dwarf ") ; also called Cometes (** long-haired "), 
he having sworn not to cut his hair till Helen was restored to Greece. 

The prize of Agamemnon Chrysets was also named Astynome ; the 
prize of Achilles Brisiis, Hippodameia ; the prize of Ajax (Telamon) 
Tecmessa^ Teuthras. 

( 209 ) 

Priam (** ransomed '') was first named Podarces ; Paris' s first name 
was Akxandcr ; Astyanax was also called Scamandris, 

5. Godfrey Higgins says it was claimed that Dr. Richard Bentley 
wrote a treatise to prove that the Iliad and Odyssey were written by 
Solomon, king of Israel, But to guard himself from persecution, for 
so singular an opinion, he added, that they were written after the 
apostacy of the Wise Man. 

Lempriere said that the manuscript of Bentley was in the British 
Museum, the book never having been published. A writer in the 
London Times of April 30^ 1829, says that such a manuscript is not 
there. In it he endeavored to prove that Homer was of the tribe of 

6. Richard Bentley was the first modern scholar who recognized 
the presence of the digamma in Homeric meter. The earliest hint of 
his discovery occurs in a note written by him, in 17 13, on a blank leaf 
in his copy of the '* Discourse of Free-Thinking," by Anthony Col- 
lins (in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge) ; the note is as 
follows : 

'* Homer's digamma Aeolicum to be added ; oKnos^ FoUnos^ vinii : 
a demonstration of this, because Fo'inos has always preceding it a 
vowel : so oinopotdzon.^^ 

The digamma was first printed in a quotation from Homer in Ben- 
ley's edition of Paradise Lost^ in 1732, a capital F being used; thus 
Pope's lines in the Dunciad (iv, 217-218) : 

^ While towering o'er our alphabet, like Saul, 
Stands our digamma, and overtops them aU»** 

7 The semeia were certain marks for references, and were six in 
number used by Aristarchus : 

(i) The* obeloSy or " spit " ( — ), prefixed to a verse to indicate 
that it was regarded as spurious {aiheiesis). This sign had been pre- 
viously used by Aristophanes and Zenodotus. 

(II) The dipU (8-, also -g ; and > , also <), a general mark of 
reference to the commentaries of Aristarchus, placed against a verse 
containing antyhing notable, either in language or in matter. 

(III) The doited diplS (:— ), prefixed to a verse in which the read- 
ing of Aristarchus differed from that of Zenodotus. 

(iv) The asterisk (♦),'when used alone, merely drew attention to 
a repeated verse. Thus it was prefixed to liiad 11, 180, because that 
verse iis the same as 164. But if a repeated verse seemed to be spu- 
rious in one of the two places where it occurred, the asterisk with the 
obelus (* — ) was prefixed to that place. 


(v) The antisigma (3), and the stignik^ or dot ( * ), were used in 
conjunction. Aristarchus thought that Uiad u^ 1^2 should be im- 
mediately followed by Iliad u, 203-205. He prefixed the 3 to 192, 
and dots to 203-205. Again, liiad viii, 535-537 had the antisigma^ 
and 538-541 the stigmb, because the latter verses seem to repeat the 
sense of the former. The stigm^ was also used alone as a mark of 
suspected spuriousness. Aristophanes used the keraunion (T)^ as a 
collective obelus, when several collective verses were adjudged as 
spurious. The dotted antisigma (0-) ^^^ used by some to mark tau- 
tology. But these two signs were not Aristarchean. 

8. The Diaskeuasts were those over-critical persons who corrupted 
the genuine text. They inserted fictitious lines which they supposed 
were required for a clearer statement. 

9. It is stated that there was a Troy, or Ilion, in Phrygia, in Asia 
Minor ; another in Epirus ; another in Latium ; another in Egypt ; 
and yet another near Venice. Almost every every nation desired to 
be believed that they came from conquered Troy. 

10. Pope says that Plutarch relates in his Symposiacs a memorable 
event concerning Memmius, the Roman general ; when he had sacked 
the city of Corinth, and made slaves of those who survived the ruin of 
it, he commanded one of the youths of a liberal education to write 
down some sentence in his persence, according to his own inclinations. 
The youth immediately wrote this passage from the Odyssey (a, 593) : 

" Happy ! thrice happy, who in battle slain, 
Pressed, in Atrides'' cause, the Trojan plain,** 

Memmius burst into tears, and gave the youth and all his relations 
their liberty. 

11. The game of Penelope is thus described in the " Classical Man- 
ual (p. 271) : 

" There are great disputes what this game was at which the suitors 
played. Athenaeus relates, from Apian the grammarian, who had it 
from Cteson, a native of Ithaca, that the sport was in this manner: 

The number of suitors being 108, tedy equally divided their men 
or balls ; that is to say, 54 on each side ; these were placed on the 
board opposite to each other. Between the two sides was a vacant 
space, in the midst of which was the main mark or queen, the point at 
which all were to aim. They took their turns by lots ; he who took 
or displaced that of any of the others, got his own place ; and if by a 
second man he again took it, without touching any of the others^ he 
won the game ; and this passed as an omen for obtaining his mistress. 


( 211 ) 

This principal mark, or quem^ was called by whatever name the game- 
sters pleased ; and the suitors gave it the name of Penelope. It is said 
that this game was invented by Palamedes during the siege of Troy." 

12. Homer mentions -^gypt in the Odyssey (xvi, 315). Much re- 
search has been made as to the origin of the name. Some derive it 
from Mgyptus^ one of the first kings of the country ; from the junc- 
tion of the two words Air and J^copios, {Aia signifying a country), 
or from the blackness of its soil, of the mud of its rivers, and of its 
inhabitants, such dark color being called by the Greeks cegyptos^ from 
agypsy a vulture. The names Aeria and Melambolus, also assigned to 
it by the Greeks, are of the same import. In the Bible it is called 
Misraim, the land of Ifam^ and the field of Zoan, 

13. Thersites was the names of a Greek at the Trojan war. Ho- 
mer describes him {/Had 11, 255), as deformed in person and mind. 
Such was his propensity to indulge in contumelious language, that he 
could not abstain from directing it against the chiefs of the army. 
He ultimately fell by the hand of Achilles, while he was ridiculing the 
tears which that hero shed over the body of the slain Penthesilea. 

The ancients have ascribed to Homer the first shetch of satyric or 
€Ofnic poetry, of which kind was his poem called Margites, as Aristotle 
reports. Though that piece is now lost, this episode of Thersites 
may gives us a taste of his vein in that kind of poetry. But whether 
ludicrous description ought to have a place in the epic poem, has been 
justly questioned. Neither Virgil nor any of the ancient poets have 
admitted into their composition the comic of this nature. Nor has this 
been done by the moderns, except Milton, whose fondness for Homer 
might be the reason of it. However, this is in it kind a very masterly 
part^ and Homer has shown great judgment in the particulars he has 
chosen to picture, of a pernicious person of wit ; the chief of which 
are a desire of promoting laughter at any rate, and a contempt of his 
superiors ; and he sums up the whole very strongly, that Thersites 
hated Achilles and Ulysses ; in this matter, as Plutarch has remarked 
in his treatise on envy and hatred, he makes it the utmost completion 
of an ill character to bear a hatred to the best of men. What is far- 
ther observable is, that Thersites is never heard of after this his first 
appearance ; such a scandalous character is to be taken no more no- 
tice of than just to show that it is despised. Homer has observed 
the same conduct in regard to the most deformed, and most beautiful 
person of his poem j for Nerius is thus mentioned once, and no more 
throughout the //lA//. He places a worthless beauty and an ill-na- 
tured wit on the same foot^ and shows that the gifts of the body, with- 
out those of the mind, are not more to be hated, than those of the 
mind itself without virtue. 

( 212 ) 

Master Eckhart^s Sermon. 


Recently, an old gentleman of eighty-five years, since passed away, 
during a social call, recited to me, most eloquently, the following lines: 

** Hear Doctor Eckhart, hear him," he began — 

There was in days of old a learned man. 

Who, longing for the truth, eight long years did pray 

That God would show him some one^ who the way 

Thereto would show. And on a time when he 

Was in great longing and perplexity, 

He heard a voice from Heaven, or in his mind : — 
" Go to the front of the church, where you will find 

One that the way to blessedness will show." 

Thither he went as fast as he could go, 

And found a man whose clothes to rags were worn, 

Whos^ bare and dusty feet were bruised and torn ; 

Who looked like one acquainted long with sorrow. 

He greeted him with " God give thee good morrow." 
" I never had ill morrow." Then said he, 

Wondering at what he leard, " God prosper thee." 
" I never had aught but prosperity." 
** Heaven save thee," said the sch lar. He again — 
" Other than saved I never was.'' " Explain, 

I understand not." " Willingly," said the man. 

Whose thoughts upon their conversation ran — 
" Thou wishest me good morrow ; I reply, 

I never had ill morrow ; for am I 

Hungry or thirsty, I praise God ; or say 

That I am shivering, as I am today — 

Fair or foul weather, hail, or snow, or rain. 

As I praised God before, I do again. 

Thence comes it that I never had ill morrow, 

And thou didst say, as if I was in sorrow, 

God prosper thee, poor man ! I answer thus : — 

Sir, I have never been unprosperous. 

For I know how to live with God, and know 

That what he does is best and makes it so ; 

Pleasure or pain, whatever may befall, 

I take it cheerfully, as best of all ; 

And so I never had adversity. 

God bless thee, then saidst thou ; and I do thee, 

I never was unblessed. I long to be 

( 213 ) 

Only of God's will ; to the will Divine, 

I have so given what once was will of mine. 

That what God wills I will, and all is well I " 
" But if God were to cast thee into hell, 

What wouldst thou then ? " the scholar asked. 

And he — 
" God cast into hell } It could not be ; 

His goodness holds Him back ; but if not so, 

I have two arms that would not let him go ; 

One is humanity^ and therewith I 

Would straight take hold of his humanity ; 

And with the other, that lifts me above 

Up to his Godhea'd, the right arm of love, 

I would embrace Him till He came to me, 

And happier there with Him my soul would be 

Than in the Heavens witfiout Him I " Thereupon 

The scholar mused, and understood anon, 

That not the high and learned path he trod, 

But one much lower, nearer was to God. 
" Whence camest thou } " he asked '* From God.'* 

" And where 

Hast thou found God ? " " Where 1 abandoned care, 

Where I abandoned all. I am a King j 

My kingdom is my soul, and everything. 

Within, without, of which I have control. 

All that I am does homage to my soul ! 

No kingdom on the earth so great as ihis." 
" And what has brought thee to such perfect bliss ? *' 
''Silence and thought ; a mind with God possessed ; 

Resolved in nothing else than God to rest. 

I have found God, what more the Seraphim ? 

And everlasting rest and joy in Him ? " 

So Master Eckhart spake and went his way. 

And many wondered as they do today. 
Sir as burg, 1320. 

We are now beyond such self abnegation as Father Eckhart's ; we 

need, rather, self denial and self sacrifice for the good of others, less 

selfishness and higher aims. 

These lines so charmed me that I requested a copy of them, and 
have printed them for friends, and others, for the good they may do. 

I do not know what disciple of Father Eckhart wrote them, or 
when ; but I find in a biographical dictionary that " Meister Eck- 
hart was one of the greatest German mystics," and was born 1250. 

( 2U. ) 

He was a Dominican and professor of theology in Paris, and was 
called to Rome in 1302. He afterwards filled various positions in Eu- 
rope under the church. He preached and taught in Rome, Naples, 
Paris, Cologne, and Strasburg. It is said he taught " a profound, 
logical, consistent, Christian Pantheism." It was too liberal and thus 
disorganizing for the Church, so he was called before the Inquisition, 
in 1327, and compelled to "conditionally recant certain alleged errors 
in his theology." How strangely this reads now. He died about 1328. 


Coincidences. (Vol. XI, p. 172.) In the royal family of Belgium* 
January has always been looked upon as an unlucky month : January 
I, 1S90, the palace of Laeken, with alliits treasures, was destroyed by 
fire, when the Queen of Belgium exclaimed, ** All our disasters come 
in January." In January her sister-in-law, Carlotta of Mexico, lost 
her reason ; in January^ 1869, her son died leaving heirship to her 
nephew, Prince Baldwin, who also died in January, 189 1 ; in January, 
1881, the palace of the Empress Carlotta was destroyed by fire ; in 
January, 1889, ^^^ sonin law, the archduke Randolph, committed 

The number 3 has played an important part in Bismarck's life. 
The family coat-of-arms bears the motto, ** In Trinitate Robur** — 
three clover, and three oak leaves. He has three children, and three 
estates ; he fought in three wars, and signed three treaties of peace ; 
he arranged the meeting of the three Emperors, and originated the 
triple alliance ; he had under him three great political parties of Ger- 
many, Conservatives, National Liberals, and Ultramontanes ; he also 
served under three German Emperors. 

Richard Wagner the composer and the number 13 is worthy of note. 
It takes 13 letters to spell his name ; he was born in 1813 ; these fig- 
ures added (i, 8, i, 3) make 13 ; hence the letters in his name and 
.the sum of the figures of his birth-date make twice 13 ; he composed 
exactly 13 great works ; " Tanhauser " was completed April 13, 1845 ; 
it was first performed March 13, 1861 ; he left Buyrenth September 13, 
1861 ; September is the ninth month, and hence 9 added to the fig- 
ures I, 3, make 13 ; finally he died February 13, 1883. 

David M. Drurv, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

( 215) 

Ancient and Honorables. (Vol. XI, p. 178, 182.) In 1637, 
in Boston^ certain men formed themselves into a company which con- 
tinues to this day, the oldest band of citizen soldiery in America. 
The organization was informal at first. John Winthrop says in his 
journal : 

" Divers gentlemen and others being joined in a military company 
desired to be made a corporation, but the council, considering from 
the example of the Praetoriaen Band among the Romans^ and the 
Templars in Europe, how dangerous it might be to exact a standing 
authority of military men, which might easily in time overtop the civil 
power thought fit to stop it betimes ; yet they were allowed to be a 
company, but subordinate to all authority." 

I Accordingly, the " Military Company of Massachusetts " was 

formed, and Robert • Keayne was Captain ; he had been connected 

with the ** Honorable Artillery Company " of London ; in course of 

time the organization was called the " Honorable Artillery Company ;■' 

since then it has been known as the ** Ancient and Honorable Artil- 

lery Company," which name has been confirmed by the Legislature. 

For further information see Zachariah G. Whitman's " History of the 

Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company," Boston, 1842. 

David M. Drury, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

CoNSUBSTANTiATiON. (Vol. XI, p. 202.) When Queen Elizabeth 

was questioned of her faith in the Sacrament, she ingeniously avoided 

giving offence, and doing away with discussion, by replying with the 

stanza quoted by ^ L." 

** Christ was the word that spake it, | He took the bread and brake it. 
And what his word did make it, | That I believe, and take it." 

Scarcely less ingenious was the reply of Bishop Halifax, when Re- 
gius Professor of Civil Law at Cambridge, upon Dr. Parr and the Rev. 
Joseph Smith (both residents at Stanmore) applying to him for his 
judgment on a literary dispute between them. His response was in 
the, following official language, by which he avoided the imputation of 

partiality : 

" Nolo interponere judicium meum,** 

Religion and Rum — Quotation. (Vol. XI, p. 178.) The quota- 
tion, '* There's naught, no doubt, so much the spirit calms, as rum 
and true religion,*' is from Byron's Don yuan, canto II, v. xxxiv. 

J. G. Gholson, Broughton, 111. 



First NeoPlatonist. (Vol. XI, p. 202.) Plotinns, a philosopher 
born at T,ycopolis, in Egypt, A. D. 205, is generally regarded as the 
first expounder of the Neo-Platonic doctrine. Nature had endowed 
him with superior parts, particularly witha an extraordinary depth of 
understanding, and a bold and vigorous imagination. He early man- 
ifested these traits in the school at Alexandria taught by Ammonius. 
He traveled East and studied the Oriental Philosophy, the systems of 
thought on their native soil. He was an enthusiast, and never re- 
duced his knowledge into systematic form. His scattered writings were 
collected by Porphyry in six books. He died A. D. 270, at Cam- 
pania, having excited the almost superstitious veneration of his dis- 
ciples. He taught Neo-Platonism at Rome and " Romano- Alexan-* 
drian ** was applied to it. 

BoREAN OR Barcan ? (Vol. XI, p. 199.) 1 note in the reprint of 
Bryant's Thanatopsis from the North American Review^ 1817, that the 
word " Borean " appears in place of " Barcan," as in our later books 
containing the poem. When was the change, or was it an error ? 


We cannot answer this question futher than to say that the word 
is " Borean " as originally published in the Review, Also, the word 
" Oregon " is spelled * Oregan " in the Review, 

The Nameless Bard. (Vol. XI, p. 116.) This is the name given 
to Thomas James Mathias, by Canning in his poem New Morality, 
Mathias was the author of *' The Pursuits of Literature." 

The " Gerenian Knight." (Vol. XI, p. 116.) Nestor is called 
" The Gerenian " by Homer in the Iliad (11, 183), an epithet sup- 
posed to have been derived from the Messenian town of Gerenia^ in 
it he is said to have been educated. Some other refer the epithet to 
him on account of his age. He is also* called the " Pylian Sage," 
from his native city. 

The Ogdoad f 8). (Vol. XI, p. 178.) The Ogdoad is considered 
to be the reflection of the tetrad, or quaternary (□), on itself (□□) ; 
This is the explanation of the Marcosian Gnostics. Their eight great 
gods are called the Sacred Ogdoad. There was much symbolism con- 
nected with the forms of the figures, and also the forms of the letters 
of nearly all ancient alphabets. 

( 217 ) 

Printing in America. Printing was introduced into America at 
Mexico by the Viceroy Mendoza, in 1536. The first book printed 
was the " Escala espiritual de San JuaD Climaco/' of which no copy 
is now known to be extant ; but the oldest American book now known 
to be in existence is the '* Manual de Adultus,*' dated 1640, of which 
only the last four leaves are to be found in the library of the Cathe- 
dral of Toledo. The name of the earliest printer is an open question. 

Cambridge^ Mass., is entitled to the distinction of having the first 
printing-p ess in North America (Mexico then being considered as in 
South America). This printing-press was under the charge of Stephen 
Daye. For this press the colony was mainly indebted to the Rev. 
Jesse Glover, a non conformist minister, having considerable estate, 
who had left England to settle among his friends in Massachusetts. 
Some gentlemen of Amsterdam also gave toward furnishing of a print- 
ing-press with letters, " forty-nine pounds and something more." This 
was about 1638. The first book printed on this press in America was 
the " Bay Psalm-Book," in 1 640. 

The first book issued in the Middle Colonies was an Almanac, 
printed by William Bradford^ in 1685, near Philadelphia. Bradford 
was brought over from England, in 1682, by William Penn. As the 
government of Pennsylvania became very restrictive in regard to the 
press, Bradford, in 1693, removed to New York, was appointed printer 
to that colony, where he established in 1725 the the New York Gazette % 
the first newspaper published there. He died May 23, 1752, after an 
active and useful life of 89 years. 

The first newsper in America was the Boston News Letter^ which 
was first published by John Campbell, on Monday, April 24, 1704. 
It was regularly published for 72 years. The secpnd was the Boston 
Gazette^ began December 21, 17 19. The third was the American 
Weekly Mercury^ published in Philadelphia, by Andrew Bradford, on 
December 22, 1719. James Franklin, an elder brother of Benjamin, 
established the New England Courant, August 17, 172 1. 

The oldest living newspaper in the United States is the New Hamp- 
shire Gazette^ established in Portsmouth, N. H., in 1756 ; hence it is 
now in its 137th year. (First issued in October 7, 1756.) 

The North American and United States Gazette leads the exist- 
ing daily press of this country in point of being the first. It is 

( 218 ) 

the successor of the Pennsylvania Packet^ (begun in 1771, becoming a 
daily paper in 1784), and is still the chief commercial journal in Phil- 

The first paper-mill in America was established near Germantown, 
Penn., in 1690, by William Rittenhouse. 

Two copies of Bradford's Almanac are known to be in existence. 

The Solipses. (Vol. XI. p. 202.) The Solipses are mentioned by 
Herbert, in his work "Nimrod," Vol. IV, p. 481. They boast of their 
odgin in the following account : 

" The raven, which was sent out of Noah's ark, picked up an eagle's 
egg, but dropped it again, being allured by the scent of carrion. The 
egg fell upon dry land, and the rays of the sun carried it up to the 
rainbow. Out of that egg were hatched the mighty men who built the 
Tower of Babel. After the confusion of tongues they went to Sodom 
and were so hospitably received by Lot, that they undertook to take 
care of his family ; but having neglected their charge, in suffering • 
Lot's wife to look backwards, they and she together were turned 
into one statue of salt. The magicians of Pharaoh broke off a frag- 
ment of that statue for certain magic uses. And that fragment con- 
tained the ancestors of the Solipses. Pharaoh took it with him when 
he was pursuing Moses, and dropped it in the Red Sea. The sea 
melted it, and it again produced the Solipses, who have been multi- 
plying ever since, and they have never ceased to illuminate the earth, 
as the sun does, and to be like the rainbow, a token of peace between 
God and man." 

Lucius says the doctrine of the Solipses was drawn from the Penta- 
teuch which they had corrupted, with their commentaries. The work 
says that the word \% not from solus ipse, but from Sol ipse, " Every 
Sol-ipse is a Sun sufRcient to light one world, and their monarch to 
light a thousand." The whole of that is signified in the name Solipse. 
They admit the resurrection of the dead, but only of themselves and 
their monarch. 

They have another meaning for their name, which is confined to a 
secret or universal language. The name in the Magogian tongue sig. 
nifies " the providence of all the gods.*' The say that all the gods 
respect their monarch. The nobles of the realm salute one another, 
whenever they meet. The Solispes have been claimed by several se- 
cret institutions as their origin. 

( 219 ) 

AzAZEL — Scapegoat. (Vol. XI, p. 202.) According to biblical 
interpreters the word Azazel^ translated '* scapegoat *' in Leviticus xvi, 
8, 10, and 26, is a word of doubtful meaning. Some contend that it 
is the name of the goat itself sent into the desert. Some have taken 
the name to be the place to which the goat was sent. While many 
others say that the word is the name of the personal being to whom 
the goat was sent. 

Aben-£zra quotes the words of an anonymous writer referring it to 
a hill near Mount Sinai. Vatablus adopts this opinion. 

Le Clerc, with some of the Jewish writers, considers that it denotes 
the cliff to which the goat was to be thrown down. So Pseudo-Jona- 
than, Saadias, Erpenii,Jand Jarchi interpret it to be a hard or difficult 

Gesenius gives to Azazel the same meaning as the Septuagint has 
assigned to it, if Apopompaios is to be taken in its usual sense ; but 
the being so designated he supposes to be a false deity who is to be 
appeased by such a sacrifice as that of a goat. He derives the word 
unused in Hebrew, but founb in Arabic, meaning '* to remove or take 
away." Ewald agrees with Gesenius, and speaks of Azazel as a de- 
mon belonging to the pre-Mosaic religion. 

Others, with scarcely less superstition, have regarded him as an 
evil spirit, or the so-called Devil himself. So among the Rabbins, 
Menahem mentions four arch-demons, Azael, Azazel, Machazael and 
Sammael. In the Book of Enoch liii, 5, Azazel is named among the 
chiefs of the spirits whose doctrine and influence had corrupted the 
earth. He is not to be confounded with Azazyel (Enoch x, 12) who 
had also corrupted the earth. 

Among the Gnostics Azazel was regarded as Satan, on which ac- 
count Origen did not hesitate to say that the Devil was meant in the 
several passages cited in Leviticus. From the Jews and Christians the 
word passed over to the Arabians j and so in the later magical works 
Azael and Azazel are reckoned among the genii]that preside over the 

Hengstenberg affirms with great confidence that Azezel cannot pos- 
sibly be anything but another name for Satan. He considers that the 
origin of the rite was Egyptian, and the Jews substituted Azazel, or 
Satan, for Typhon, whose dwelling was the desert. 

( 220 ) 

Religions in the New Testament. How many kinds of religumt 
are mentioned in the New Testament ? Selwyn. 

We observe this can be answered from two standpoints. We will an. 
swer from one. Cruden's "^ Concordance " readily refers to four sta- 
ted kinds of religions : 

Our religion, ** Which knew me from the beginning, if they would 
testify, that after the most straitest sect of our religion^ I lived a 
Pharisee " fActs xxvi, 5). 

yews* religion. " For ye have heard of my conversion in time past 
in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the 
church of God, and wasted it " (Galatians i, 13). 

Vain religion, *' If any man among you seem to be religious, and 
bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart, this man's 
religion is vain " (James i, 26). 

Pure religion, " Pure religion, and undefiled before God and the 
Father, is this : To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, 
and to keep himself unspotted from the world " (James i, 27). 

Possibly " Selwyn ' ' wants a list of the sects, such as Sadducees, 
Pharisees, Nicolaitans, etc. If so, let some one furnish such a list. 

Degree of Latitude. Why are not degrees of latitude all of the 
same length ? L. 

B. F. Burleson, o fOneida Castle, N. Y., answers this question in a 
contemporary^ which is so plain and concise that we reprint it. 

*• By very accurate measurements of meridian arcs in many European 
countries, and elsewhere, a degree of latitude at the equator has been 
ascertained to be 68.702 miles in length, and from thence, as far to 
the north as measurements have been made, they have been found to 
increase in such a manner, that a degree at the pole is computed to 
be 69,396 miles in length. If the earth was a perfect sphere, a de- 
gree of latitude would be everywhere the same. From observations 
made in all parts of the earth, the apparent phenomena of the irreg- 
ular increase of the distances between the parallels of latitude, is 
comparatively harmonized by supposing the meridian to be an ellipse 
of which the polar diameter is the minor axis. The major axis, or 
equitorial diameter of this ellipse is 7926.708 miles ; the polar diame- 
ter is 7899.755 miles. From measurements that have been made at 
right angles with meridians, the equator and the parallels of latitude, 
have been found to be nearly, if not quite, circles. Hence the shape 
of the earth', which is a solid, generated by the revolution of the semi- 
ellipse, ibout its minor axis." 

(221 ) 

Words that end in " cion." The New York Tribune^ published 

an extract on the difficulty of finding three English words of two or 

more syllables ending with '* cion." Eugene Field, the Chicago poet 

and humorist, printed in the Chicago News a list of five words ending 

with " cion.'* Thomas Mason, of New York, has found eight such 

which is declared to be a complete list. Here is his list : 

Cestracion, Internecion, Scion, 

Coercion, Ostracion, Suspicion. 

Epenicion, Pernicion, 

Mason says these are all in Webster excepting ^* cestracion," which 
he also says is in Worcester. We do not find " epenicion " in Webster, 
but " cestracion " is found in the definition of '* cestrationt," a genus 
of fish. 

As this is a good exercise for word -hunters, here are some that our 
readers may add to : 

Names ending in " ology *' : Assyriology, Egyptology, Homorology. 

Names ending in "ryon," "tyon," " tion" : Amphictryon, Sam- 
batyon, Harpocration. 

Words ending '* onymous " : Anonymous, Hieronymous, Crypt- 
onymous^ Eponymous, Pseudonymous, Synonymous. 

A name found in Webster's " Greek and Latin Proper Names " : 
He au'ton ti'mo ru'me nos. 

The Alphabet. Morgan Kavanagh, in a work on the " Science 
of Language," in two octavo volumes, London, 1844, (Vol. L p. 271), 
says the English alphabet in its regular order, ABCDEFGH 
IJKLMNOPQRSTUTWXYZ will give the follow- 
ing words : ea ib ic id ef guis ; ik ii im en op eque er is fhew, eke is 
wysed. He says these words mean : 

" This first book is had of the Jews ; it opens the mind, and it is 
good breeding and wisdom." 

He says further : " In these few words we have the history of the 
alphabet as a whole, since we are told whence it comes ; and we 
have also its eulogy, since it is said to open the mind, and be good 
breeding and wisdom ; and, in this enumeration of the advantages 
inseparable from an acquaintance with the first. book, which is the key 
to every other knowledge, we read a forcible exhortation, calling upon 
all men to make letters a study. It were difficult to say more in so 
short a space." 

( 222 ) 

Epitaph in Norfolk, England. The following epitaph is said to 
be on a tonnbstone in Norfolk, Eng., upon a maid-of-all-work, copied 
by the New York Sun from a Toronto paper : 

There lies a poor woman who always was tired, 

For she lived in a place where help wasn't hired. 

Her last words on earth were : " Dear friends, I am going 

Where washing ain't done, nor sweeping, nor sewing : 

And everything there is exact to my wishes, 

For where they don't eat, there's no washing of dishes. 

ril be where loud anthems will ever be ringing, 

But having no voice Til be clear of the singing. 

Don't weep for me now, don't weep for me never 

For I'm going to do nothing for ever and ever 1 " 

Bourn. A limit or boundary ; a word familiar to the Mason in the 
monitorial work of the Fellow Craft's degree, where he is directed 
to remember that we are travelling upon the level of time to that un- 
discovered country from whose bourn no traveller returns ; and to the 
reader of Shakespeare, from whom the expression is borrowed, in the 
beautiful soliloquy of Hamlet : 

" Who would fardels bear. 
To grunt and sweat under a weary life ; 
But that the dread of something after death — 
The undiscovered country, from whose bourn 
No traveller returns — puzzles the will. " — Act in, Sc. i. 

A Difficult Riddle. The following riddle appeared in the press 
a quarter of a century ago, and a contemporary says it yet remains 
unanswered. Will our readers give it a thought ? 

I sit stern on the rock while I'm raising the wind, 
But the storm once abated I'm gentle and kind. 
Kings sit at my feet who wait at my nod 
To kneel in the dust on the ground I have trod. 
I'm seen by the world and known but by few. 
The Gentile detests me, I am pork to the Jew. 
My weight is three pounds, my length is a mile, 
And when once discovered you'll say with a smile 
That the first and the last are the pride of our isle. 

It is probably an English riddle. It is also said to be a word of 
one syllable. 

Quotation on Berkeley. Where can this couplet be found ? T. 

" When Bishop Berkeley said ' there was no matter;' 
And proved it — *t was no matter what he .said.' " 

( 228 ) 

The Freshman's Puzzle. I knew a Trinity man of absent habits, 
who actually, after residing two years in college^ having occasion to 
call upon an old school fellow, a scholar of Bene't before it was re- 
builty was so little acquainted with the localities of the university, that 
he was obliged to inquire his way, though not two hundred yards 
from Trinity. Such a man could scarcely be expected to know, what 
most Cantabs do, that Qui Church, which is situated about four mileb 
from Cambridge, " lears its head *' in rural simplicity in the midst of 
the open ficla^ seemingly without the " bills of mortality ; " for not so 
much as a cottage keeps it in countenance. This gave occasion for a 
Cambridge wag to invent the following puzzle : 

"Templum Qui stat in agris, " 

Which has caused many a freshman a sleepless night, who, ignorant 
of the status Qui^ has racked his brains to translate the above, minus 
a Qvoi> pro Qui. 

Days Primitive Length. The following, relative to the length o 
the days ages ago, appeared in GooJ Words : 

As the evidence of the earth's crust proves that our globe has lasted 
for incalculable ages, it becomes of interest to think how far the grad- 
ual elongation of the day may have attained significant proportions 
since very early times. It may be that even in a thousand years the 
effect of the tides is not sufficient to alter the length of the day by so 
much as a single second. But the effect may be very appreciable or 
even large in 1,000,000 years, or 10,000,000 years or 1,000,000,000 
years. We have the best reasons for knowing that in intervals of time 
comparable with those I have mentioned the change in the length of 
the day may have amounted not merely to seconds or minutes, but 
even to hours. 

Looking into the remote past, there was a time at which this globe 
spun around in twenty three hours instead of twenty four ; at a still 
earlier period the rate must have been twenty hours, and the futher we 
look back the more and more rapidly does the earth appear to be spin- 
ning. At last, as we strain our gaze to some epoch so excessively re- 
mote that it appears to have been anterior to those changes which ge- 
ology recognizes, we see that our globe was spinning round in a peri- 
od of six hours, or five hours, or possibly even less. 

Here then is a lesson which the tides have taught, us ; they have 
shown that if the causes at present in operation have subsisted with- 
out interruption for a sufficiently long period m the past, the day 
must have gradually grown to its present length from an initial con-* 
dition in which the earth seems to have spun around four times as 
quickly as it does at present. 

( 224 ) 


1. It is said that Louis XI, for the instruction of his son, reduced 
the whole Latin language to these words only : 

*' Qttt nescii dissimulare neBcit regnare," 

What is the plain English of this ? Llewellyn. 

2. What is the meaning of the words Ahiman Re%an^ the name of 
a work held in high esteem by Freemasons ? Initiate. 

3. Some logical writer has formulated theology into a Pentad^ as 
follows : 

1. Thesis, The Scriptures. 3. Mesothesis^ The Spirit. 

2. Prothesisy The Word=Christ. 4. Synthesis^ The Preacher. 

5. Antithesis, The Church. 

This sounds like Stephen Pearl Andrews, but I do not find it in his . 
works. Can any reader enlighten me ? Herbert. 

4. What is the subject of is in this quotation from Romans vi, 23? 
** The wages of sin is death.*' Can " wages " be the subject ? or is 
" death " the subject ? Observer. 

5. Will some one give us an account of a remarkable character 
known as Stephen Burroughs ? He hailed from some New England 
State, as I recall the name. Hoosier. 

6. Where can the old song be found kn >wn as " Perry's Victory ? " 
I think it begins, 

'* It was the tenth of September, as you all remember." 

H. K. R.. 

7. Who was the real person who wrote poems under the name of 
*' Ruth Rathborne " some thirty years ago, and published the same 
in the Manchester (N. H.) Union Democrat f Resident. 

8. What other words besides focus and /oci, magus and magi, have 
a change in sound of c and g from singular to plural ? X. 

9. What is the Mcuroprosopus and the Microprosopus t X. 

10. Give us the different meaning of regeneration, transmigration^ 
reincarnation, and metempsychosis, X. 

11. Were the inhabitants of HeliopoUs (On, Genesis xli, 45) or 
Beth-shemesh (Jeremiah xliii, 13) Zorosatrians ? Leon. 

( 224i ) 

Certain Common Superstitions. The following superstitions are 
given, not as altogether unrecorded, but as examples of beliefs gener- 
ally diffused : 

If a caty while sitting beside a door, is seen to wash its face, expect 

If two spoons, knives, forks, or a double allowance of food be given 
at meals, some one may be expected who will arrive hungry. 

Dogs howling at night indicate death. 

If a child, before it is a year old, obtain a glimpse of its own face 
in the mirror, it will not live. 

Breaking a mirror is certain death to the person in less than a 
year's time. . 

To see one's shadow while looking in a mirror is a sign of death. 

Spilling salt is an indication of a quarrel ; to avert this throw a 
pinch over the left shoulder into the fire. 

Whether going on business or pleasure, iti s an unlucky omen to 
meet a funeral procession. 

When one hears an evil wish or prophecy, in order to avert it, it is 
necessary to quickly cross the first fingers of each hand. 

Always pick up pins ; if the head is toward you, it is good luck ; if 
the point is towards you, bad. 

Look at the new moon over the right shoulder and wish. If you 
see it inadvertently over the left shoulder, bad luck will attend you 
until the next new nfK)on. 

A dream of a wedding indicates a funeral ; of white flowers, sick- 
ness, and probably death ; of white horses, trouble. 

If one chances to pass an axe or a hatchet, lyinging upon the 
ground with the edge turned towards him, expect misfortune. 

Dropping a dish towell is a sign of company. 

When soot burns on the bottom of pots and kettles^ a storm is soon 

If a clock strikes out of time, it betokens a calamity in the house- 
hold, and probably a death. 

If the palm of the right hand itches, it indicates that one will shake 
hands with a friend from a distance ; if the left hand itches, it means 

A stem from a tea leaf, floating upon a cup of tea, means a visitor. 
There is also a charm to insure the arrival of a guest : 

Bite off his, throw him under the table^ 
And he will come if he is able. 

( 224f ) 

If the right ear burns, some one is speaking good of us ; if the left 
ear burns, he is speaking evil. 

In speaking^ if one bites one,s tongue, it is more than likely that 
the statement would have been a falsehood. 

A sore on the tip of the tongue, shows that it has uttered a falsehood. 
Always avoid meeting a cripple face to face ; it brings bad luck- 
Always wish vt;hen you see a shooting star ; if the wish is uttered be 
fore the star is out of sight, it will come to pass. 

To find a horseshoe is good luck ; always place it over an outside 
door and nothing but good luck will enter. 

When knives, forks, and scissors, in fallings stick upright io the 
floor, prepare for guests. 

Never watch a departing friend out of sight, for if you do he will 
never return. 

If swallows fiy lower than usual, expect rain, if roosters crow more 
than usual, look for rain or news. 

If land-birds fly towards water, and sea-birds towards land, rain is 

The first article carried into a new house detennines the future of 
its occupants ; never begin with taking in knives or sharp-edged tools. 

Remember the dream you have when sleeping for the first time in 
a strange room ; it is sent for a warning.* 

If one chance to see a spider suspended from its web directly in 
front of the face, and utter a wish, if the spider ascends, the wish will 
come true; if it descends, it is true.-Afary E, Chamberlain, Muskegon. 
Mich,, in American Folk-Lore jfournal, April- jfune, 1893, 

Waste Basket of Words. Pernickety — This word is given in 
StOT mouth's Dictionary as is use in Scotcland, and as coming from 
French /<7r niquei^ a trifle, indicating a precise, over-careful person. 
Angularity would thus seem to be a derivative sense, especially as 
applied to objects. — Louise Kennedy, 

Ferrydiddle, a chickaree or red squirrel, Sciurus hudsonius. This 
is a common name in the mountains of Virginia. The word is not 
found in the " Century Dictionary.*' 

Keil^ a kind of red chalk used by railroad engineers, and to be had 
of country drug-stores in the Southern United States. This word is 
in very common use, but does not occur in the '* Century Dictionary." 

Skin the Cat. — An expression used by boys to describe an athletic 
sport ; a boy hangs by the hands from a trapeze, and passes his If*« 
though the circle formed by the wooden rod and the upper part of 
body. Boys commonly " skin the cat " both forwords and backwa 
— H. Carrington Bolton, New York, N. V. 

* I 




* ••»» 

H. C. C^OUUD, Editor. 

' Number f weighty and nuosure, are the foundations of all exact science,*' 

— Sir John Herschel. 

Vol. XL OCTOBER. 1893. No. 10. 

Theory of the Gulf Stream. 


They are produced by the tidal wave and the land with its peculiar 

It the earth was a true sphere and evenly covered with a layer of 
water^ the tides would follow the moon around the earth like a broad 
but gentle swell, and not exceed five feet in height directly under the 
moon, and there would be no gulf stream or any other ocean currents. 
If there was a narrow belt of land reaching from pole to pole it would 
act on the principle of a dam and would stop the natural course of 
the tide and would raise it from five to twenty five feet at least. 

To cause a very high tide, form a bay one hundred miles long 
and fifty miles wide at the mouth and gradually coming to a point at 
the extreme end ; locate it in this belt of land, that reaching from pole 
to pole it would act on the principle of a dam and would stop the nat- 
ural course of the tide, and would raise it from five to twenty feet at 
least To cause a very high tide, form a bay loo miles long and 50 
miles wide at the mouth, and gradually coming to a point at the ex- 
treme end ; locate it in this belt of land, that reaches from pole to 
pole, directly under the moon. The tide would rise at the extreme 
end of the bay 100 feet at least. This formation gives the tide a very 
good opportunity to enter the bay and force the water upward. To 
make this better understood, I call your attention to the Bay of 
Fundy ^ it is this principle that causes the tide to rise 60 feet or 
more at the head of that bay ; it is the form of the bay that causes the 

( 226 ) 

tide to rise so high. Now let us change ends of this bay and see 
what the effect will be, the location being the same^ and the mouth of 
the bay only 50 feet wide, and 100 miles long, and 50 miles wide at 
the extreme end or head, there would be no tide at the extreme end, 
the opening being so small at the mouth and the demand for 
the water so large as it made it way up the bay that it would lose its 
force long before it reached the head. But every tide would fall into 
the bay and every ebb tide fall into the ocean. There would be no 
possible chance for a sufficient quanitity of water to get into this bay 
to make a tide to the extreme end. The gulf of Mexico is a repre- 
sentation in part, of this formation, so much so, that the tide is quite 
small on the west shore. 

To produce a mill privilege or an ocean current, cut a channel at 
the head of the bay first described, into the ocean on the other side of 
this belt reaching from pole to pole. This is the reservoir, or the 

Cut a channel across the Isthmus of Panama large enough to let 
the water through that makes the Gulf stream and it will turn its course 
into the Pacific ocean and cease to cross the Atlantic ocean to warm 
the shores of Europe as it now does. The ocean currents are all 
equalizers of water. If the water remained equal there would be no 
ocean currents. The land with its peculiar formation and the tide 
are continually making the water unequal ; the tide and the winds are 
the two great forces that move and stir the water in the ocean. The 
moon and sun attract the water from the poles to the center directly 
under the moon at the tropics, and it is brought by the tide waves 
from the east to the west shore and is held there by the attraction of 
the moon and the sun and is forced along the shores north aud south. 
The islands on our eastern coast act on the principle of a breakwater ; 
they change the course of the water and force it into the Gulf of Mex- 
ico which becomes the reservoir or fountain head. It is the peculiar 
formation of the land that forms this marvelous stream ; it runs out 
of the gulf like a large river out of a lake. It also runs on the princi- 
ple taht all other streams do. As it is a great equalizer of water as 
well as heat, so it makes it course in the direction where the water is 
the most deficient and lowest. 

It is the surplus water brought there and forced out of the tropics 
by the tide wave ; it acts somewhat on the principle of an eddy , it 
forces the cold water from the poles ; it is the cause of the cold cur- 
rents and the warm ; it is the great moving force of all the ocean 

At the Isthmus of Panama, if the water is not higher on the east 
shore than on the west shore, then this theory is not correct, but will 
stand or fall when a true survey accross the Isthmus is fully made 
known. The continent of America is the great dam in the ocean and 

( 227 ) 

changes the course of the tides^ and causes tides to change into 
currents. Turn the continent of America so it will be lie east and 
west and it will change the ocean currents, destroying some and mak- 
ing others. If there was no other land on the globe than America, 
there would be no ocean currents, only those connected with America. 
But such is not the case, for Africa has a point of land irt the way ; 
also, Australia and New Zealand are in the way ; and Asia also inter- 
feres and assists in stopping the tides and making ocean cui rents run 
up the Pacific ocean ; so when we find large bodies of land directly 
in the way of the tidal wave we find ocean currents also. All large 
oceans have their counter currents or eddies ; the water that has been 
carried west by the tide has to come back m the form of currents to 
supply the deficiency, ad this stirs the water into the eddy motion. 
The tide with the land and its formation will produce every circum- 
stance connected with the ocean currents. 

Some of the trade winds are caused by the rotary motion of the 
earthy ; the sun is continually warming the air at the surface of the 
earth, which makes it lighter, and the night cools it and makes it 
heavier, so the cool air follows the sun around the earth, and that is 
the cause of its keeping in one direction. The tide opposite from the 
moon on the other side of the earth is cause by the reacting force. 
Every child that has learned to swing by a suspended rope or other- 
wise, has learned the force of this law, and every one that moves 
water in very wide vessels will have to attend to this force, or they 
will be likely to let some of it slop over and out of the vessel 

The sun is continually expanding the side of the earth nearest it, 
making it lighter ; night condenses and makes the opposite side 
heavier, and its motion around the sun causes it to rotate. If the 
earth should change its course and take the opposite direction round 
the sun, its rotation would qe in the opposite direction also. 

2. Who was Taxo? Chapter IX of the book, ^* The Assumption 
of Moses," contains the following verse. Who was this Taxo? Was 
he known by some other name in the Old Testament ? O. 

'* In that day, at his command a man shall arise from the tribe of 
Levi, whose name shall be Taxo. And he shall call his seven sons 
unto him, and thus address them : ' Behold, my sons, a second time 
has vengeance fallen upon this people, a cruel, punishment, and piti- 
less captivity. What nation or people has suffered for their iniquities 
as we have suffered ? Ye see and know that we have never tempted 
God, neither our fathers nor ancestors, so as to transgress His com- 
mandments. And herein lies our strength. Let us then do this : let 
us fast for three davs ; and on the fourth day let us go into a cave 
which is in the fiela, and rather die than break the commandments of 
our God. For if we do this and die, the Lord will avenge our blood.' " 

( 228 ) 

Odd American Bibles. Mistakes and peculiarities in the different 
editions of the English Bibles has served as the theme of many an 
amusing chapter ; but a rich gleaning dwaits the person who will 
search with patience the field of the American issues. 

Many an edition contains the blunder in II Corinthians xii, 2, of 
" about fourteen years ago," for " above fourteen years ago/' More 
than one edition has in Acts xii, 4, " four quarternions/' for ** four 
quaternions." The American Bible Society's forty-cent •Bible went 
through perhaps a hundred editions where in Acts viii, 11, was " be- 
twitched, " for " bewitched," before the error was discovered at the 
Bible Pavilion at the Centennial Exposition, in Philadelphia, in 1876.' 

Perhaps the worst specimen of an English Bible that was ever 
printed, is " The English Version of the Polyglot Bible," as stereo- 
typed by Christman & Co., Philadelphia, and sold throughout the world, 
imprinted of various firms. The plates were corrected about 1850, and 
purged of many errors ; but yet there are various errors in it. The 
early editions contain many amusing errors when read side by side of 
the late editions. We might endure in Luke xxii, 64, a superfluous 
h in " phrophesy " ; or in Acts xv, 39, an extra s on " Cypruss " ; 
or in Colossians iv, 16, a superfluous s in '* espistle " ; but when in 
John IV, 23, we read that " the true whorshipper shall worship the 
Father in spirit and in truth," it becomes too flagrant. We may not 
notice the bad grammar, in xv, 30, in the loss of a t from one word, 
" thoii has killed for him the fatted calf," but it becomes troublesome 
in I Thessalonians v, 23, when we read " And the very God of peace 
sanctify you holy " (for wholly "). The change of an e for a t in Gen- 
esis IV, 6, in " Why are thou wroth } " is noticible, but it is vexatious 
in Revelation, xi, 18, when we read "And the nations wery angry " 
for " were angry." Like errors only confuse a little in Matthew xxv, 
21, for " the loss of an e in " thee," in •* I will make the ruler over 
many things " In Mark v, 6, we have " he run and worshipped 
him," for " he ran and worshipped him." In Acts viii, 3, we have 
*^ hailing men and women," for " haling men and women." In Luke 
VI, 4, we have, in this edition, '* snow-bread," for " shew-bread." Even 
the change of a capital to a lower case letter is not without its unfort- 
unate crazy result : the Moabite city " Madmen " becomes the plural 
of simple lunatics ; for in Jeremiah XLviii, 2, is seen " Also thou shalt 
be cut down, O madmen/' for " O Madmen." 

Certain mistakes are so characteristic of the editions of certain soci- 
eties and publishing houses that often the imprint of a given Bible 
can be told when the title-page is gone. It would be well for one 
publishing house at least, in Philadelphia, to scrutinize the Bibles it 
has published for scores of years past. The English-speeking world 
hardly knows its debt to the authorized English publishers and to 

( 229 ) 

the American Bible society fpr the accuracy of the Bibles which they 
publish. Mistakes, however, are not all. Many of the Bibles carry a 
fraud on their title-pages. The first American Greek Testament pur- 
ported to be a reprint of Mill, while it was more nearly the Elzevir or 
Beza text. Wilson's Diaglott professed to be an accurate reprint of 
Stephens', while it was not. The Greek-Latin New Testament was 
printed in New York in 1824, and re-published in 1858. It was con- 
sidered the most popular Greek Testament printed in America, and 
professed to be a reprint of John Lensdens ; but recent years has 
proved it is not, and it has been shown that it makes other pretenses 
on the title-page, which it is considered very strange that the claims 
were not before detected. 

A Curious Bequest. Among the professors of the University of 
Basel, Switzerland^, none occupied a higher place than Ignaz Hoppe, 
who died a few months ago leaving a large fortune and a will which 
are destined to play an important part in the history of the town. 

Among the various bequests made by the man was one of $200,000 
for the investigation of the nature of the soul. 

The interest of the money is to be used in paying the salaries and 
expenses of a certain number of scholars who are to live in the house 
occupied by the professor, and study and reflect upon the properties 
and nature of the soul. 

From time to time they are to publish the results of their investiga- 
tions, that the world may be the judge of their efforts to follow out 
the provisions of the will. • 

The men who undertake the work, according to the testament, 
must live frugally and devote all of their time to the problem before 

They must be Christians, but may be either Catholics or Protest- 
ants. Their writings must be free from all foreign words phrases. 
"Subjective," ** objective," " rational," " transcendental," and such 
similar words are also to find no place in their prospective works. 

With these exceptions Professor Hoppe placed no restrictions 
upon the duties and privileges of the men who are to carry out his 
strange wishes. 

Pulitzer's Lucky Number. The New York World moved into its 
new building on Nov. lo. It is a curious fact in connection with the 
date of removal. Mr. Pulitzer was born on the loth of April ; he had 
hb first good fortune in St. Louis on the loth ; he established his St. 
Louis paper on the loth, and removed twice into new quarters on the 
loth; he established the Evening World on the loth ; the corner- 
stone of the new building was laid on the loth, and Mr. Pulitzer 
lives in a house numbered 10. 

( 230 ) 

The Moon and the Shield. Somewhere I have read of a man 
who claimed the moon was not broader than a shield, but cannot tell 
who. Can any one give the information ? Iona. 

We do not know of any one who claimed this, but we do recall the 
expression as occurring in Robert Polluck's Course of Time (Book iv), 
where the strange contrast is made between ignorance and knowledge. 
We quote the same : 

'* But stranger still the distribution seemed 
Of intellect ; though fewer here complained ; 
Each with his share, upon the whole, content. 
One man there was, — and many such you might 
Have met — who never had a dozen thoughts 
In all his life, and never changed their course ; 
But told them o'er, each in its 'customed place. 
From morn till night, fron youth till hoary age. 
Little above the ox which grazed the field 
His reason rose ; so weak his memory^ 
His name his mother called him by, he scarce 
Remembered, ; and his judgment so untaught^ 
That what at evening played along the swamp, 
Fantastic, clad in robe of fiery hue, 
He thought the devil in disguise, and fled 
With quivering heart, and winged footsteps home. 
• The word philosophy he never heard, 

Or science ; never heard of liberty, 
Necessity : or laws of gravitation ; 
And never had an unbelieving doubt 
Beyond his native vale he never looked ; 
And thought the visual line, that girt him round. 
The world's extreme ; and thought the silver moon, 
That nightly o'er him led her virgin host 
No broader than his father's shield. He lived — 
Lived happy, died happy, and was saved. 
Be not surprised. He loved, and served his God. 

^ There was another, large of understanding, 
Of memory infinite, of judgment deep ; 
Who knew all learning, and all science knew ; 
And all phenomena in heaven and earth. 
Traced to their causes ; traced the labyrinths 
Of thought, association, passion, will ; 
And all the subtle, nice affinities 
Of matter, traced ; its virtues, motions^ laws \ 

( 231 ) 

And most familiarly and deeply talked 

Of mental, moral, natural, divine. 

Leaving the earth at will, he soared to heaven. 

And read the glorious visions of the skies ; 

And to the music of the spheres 

Intelligently listened ; and gazed far back. 

Into the awful depths or Deity. 

Did all that mind assisted most could do ; 

And yet in misery lived, in misery died, 

Because he wanted holiness of heart." 

Hebrew Names. John Lamb, D. D., gives some peculiar informa- 
tion about the antediluvian Hebrew names in his work on ^* Hebrew 
Characters derived from Hieroglyphics, " London, 1835. He * says : 

" We have have only 31 names of men and women mentioned be- 
fore the flood, and of these five appear twice with little or no altera- 
tion, so that in reality we have only 26 names. These names as will 
appear from their etymology, as we must naturally expect, were given 
by their parents. A trifling error I suspect, has taken place respect- 
ing some of them, probably through the ignorance of early tran- 
scribers ; the two names of twin children have been united together, 
as the name of one child : 

(Genesis iv, 18.) Mechujael should be Mech and Jael. 

^Genesis iv, 18.) Methushael should be Meth and Shael. 

(Genesis v, 13.) Mahalulael should be Mahal and Lael. 

(Genesis v, 21.) Methushala should be Meth and Shala. 

In each of these passages we have the birth of twins recorded, and 
both names are given. As in ancient writing there was no separation 
made between words, some transcriber took the two names for one ; 
and afterwards, where he only met with the first syllable, considered 
it an abbreviation, and carefully supplied the part he thought wanting. 
There is something particularly curious respecting these names. In 
each case, one, probably the elder, is named from the letter Mem (M). 
Meth (MTh) occurs twice; Mech (MCh). and Mahal (MHL) once 
each. Now M implying number^ many, is the root of the word T5m, 
twin : Tomim, fwms. Again, in each case each child is in an especial 
manner dedicated to God ; we have Jael, ' the man of God ' ; Shael, 
* lifted up or dedicated to God ' ; Lael, * the creature of God ' ; Shala, 
the same as Shael, ' dedicated to God ' ; in each case £1 being an ab- 
breviation of Elohim." 

( 232 ) 

Long Names. The industrious persons who have contributed so 
many instances of bizarre nomenclature to the papers, remarks an 
English journal, have overlooked one that is to be found in the some 
what prosaic pages of the Peerage. 

Among the collaterals of the Earl of Dysart is a certain Rev. Ralph 
William Lyonel Tollemache, rector of South Wytham, near Gantham,. 
who has himself assumed the surname of Tollemache-Tollemache with 
out the formality of royal license, and who has distributed among his 
thirteen children upward of a hundred front names, for which -he has 
apparently raniacked mythology, fiction, and history. 

To the five children of his first marriage he was merciful, for he only 
divided twenty-four names, most of them cognomens, among them^ 
but vhen, " en secondes noces," he espoused Dora Cleopatra Maria 
Lorenza, daughter of the late Col. Ignacio Antonio de Orellana-y- Revest 
of the Spanish Army, he proceeded to endow his offspring with a plen- 
titude of appellation for which one hardly expects them to be gratetul 
as they reach maturity. 

The first, a boy, he called Lyulph Ydwallo Odin Nestor Egbert 
Lyonel Toedmag Hugh Erchenwyne Saxon Esa Cromwell Orma 
Nevill Dysart Plantagenet ; while the next, a girl, is Mabel Heming- 
ham Ethel Huntingtower Beatrice Blazonberrie Evangeline Vise de 
Lon de Orellana Plantagenet Toedmag Saxon, and among the names 
enjoyed by others are Lyonesse, Decima, Veronica, Esyth, Undine, 
Cissa, Rowena, Quintus, Lelias, Ysabel, Saxonia, and Leo. 

On those occasions when these children have to use their full 
names, either orally or in writing, they will certainly not rise to call 
their father blessed. 

Masonry in the Middle Ages. The following, in reference to 
Speculative Freemasonry, is found in Fabian's " Concordance to His- 
tory." The author is supposed to be Matthew Cooke. 

" And I like the Prentyse that hewyth the rougth stone. 

And bringeth it to square with hard strokes and many 

That the Mayster may it oeur gone 

And prynte therein his figure and his story ; 

And so to worke after his propornary 

That it may appear to all that shall it see 

A thynge right parfyte and well in eche degre. 

So have I now sette out this rude worke. 

As rough as the stone not comen to the square, 

That the lernede and the studyed clerk 

May it oure polysshe and clene do it pare 

Flowrysshe it with eloquence,, whereof it is bare, 

And frame it in ordre that yt is out of joynt, 

That it with old authors may gree in every poynL 


( 233 ) 


*.* # « « « « 




The cluster of stars called the Pleiades is one of the most familiar 
groups in the heavens. It is situated in the neck of Taunis\ the third 
constellation of the Zodiac, which, some 4,000 years ago, was the 
leader of the celestial host, beginning at the vernal equinox. Hence, 
the Latin name of the group is Vergilia^ " the Virgins of Spring." 
The name Pleiades is said to be derived from the Greek work pltein^ 
" to sail," because the ancient Greeks considered the season f navi- 
gation open. Another derivation, by Ideler, is that the name Pleiades 
comes from the Greek pleonas, " the abundance " ; the word is trans- 
lated "abound" in Romans vi, i. The Arabians call these stars 
Al Thuraiya^ " the abundance " j they also call them Wasaf, which 
means " the center," Wasat is also the the name of the star exactly 
in the center of the constellation Gemini, and on the ecliptic The 
Sanscrit name of the cluster is Cartiguey (the daughters of Carteek), 
"circling " ; Carteek was said to be the general of the celestial armies. 

Ordinary eyes can easily distinguish six stars ; by some, more are 
discerned. The most ancient authors, such as Homer, Attains, an 
astronomer of Rhodes, and Geminus, a mathematician of Rhodes, dis- 
tinguished but six in the Pleiades ; but Simonides, Varro, Pliny, Aratus 
Hipparchus, Ptolemy, and several others counted seven in number. 
The Pleiades in Greek mythology were seven of the daughters of Atlas 
and Pleione ; the name Pleione being from the Greek word pleonas, 
meaning** abundance." Pleiades is the patronymic of Pleione. She 

( 234 ) 

was one of the Oceanides, the daughters of Oceanus and the goddess 
Tethys ; Oceanus was the first born of the Titans, the offspring of 
Coelus (Heaven) and Terra (Earth). 

The Oceanides were sea-nymphs, and, according to Apollodonis, 
3,000 in number ; Apollodorus, Hesiod, Homer, have together pre- 
served the names of 52, which are here given as several of them ap- 
pear as the names of stars, asteroids, etc. 
















• Rhaea, 






Galaxy re. 































Atlas and Pleione had twelve daughters and one son (Hyas) ; while 
another account says fourteen daughters. Five of these daughters 
were made into the constellation, or V-formed cluster in the face of 
Taurus, and called Hyadcs^ from Hyas the brother ; others say from 
the Greek //>•<?, " to rain." Some grammarians, again, sought to de- 
rive the name Hyades from the Greek letter Upsilon (V) on account 
of the resemblance which this cluster of stars bears to that letter 


The names of the Hyades are, according to Hesiod : 

Coronis, Cleae, Eudora, Phaola, Phaesula. 

Three of these names are given different by Pherecydes who gives 
six names : 

^sjla, Ambrosia, Coronis, Dione, Eudora, Polyxo. 

While others add the names of Prodice and Thione to make up the 
seven Hyades. 

The seven stars named the Pleiades received the following names : 

1 y^/ry^/i^, "the center," 5 J/irr^/^ ** the wea|^ened," 

2 Ceiano, " the collected," 6 Sterope^ " the shining," 

3 Electra, *^ the abundance," 7 Taygeta^ ** the gathered." 

4 MaiHy " the multitude," 

( 235 ) 

Alcyone bore to Neptune, Hyrieus ; Caeleno bore to Neptune, Lycus ; 
Electra bore to Jupiter, Dardanus ; Maia bore to Jupiter, Mercury ; 
Merope married Sisyphus ; Sterope bore to Mars, GBnomaiis , Tay- 
geta bore to Jupiter, Lacedemon. Merope was the only one who mar- 
ried a mortal* (Sisyphus), hence mythic lore says that was the cause of 
the dimness of her star among her sisters who shone with lustre , 
Ovid says of the Pleiades, 

" Qucs septem dici^ sex tamen esse solenfj* 

There are other mythologic explanations for the discernment of the 
seventh star.* Theon of Alexandria states that one star was struck 
by lightning. The Scholiast on the Phenomena of Aratus says that 
" The Lost Pleiad " was Electra, and that she withdrew her light in 
sorrow at the fall of Ilium, and the misfortunes of her descendants, 
Dardanus having been the son of Electra and Jupiter : 

'* Electra Trojce spectare ruinas non iultiJ* 

Another account is, one star moved away from the Pleiades like a 
comet and stopped and became the third star in the tail of the Ursa 
Major, where it received the name Alopex, " the wolf (Banetnasch). 

Euripides {^Orestes v. 999) speaks of the inversion of the Pleiades, 
which is explained to be that time when the sun rose in the west and 
set in the east. Greek tradition savs that was the time when Electra 
disappeared and took its flight like a comet toward the north pole, 
passing it and stopping in the constellation Ursa Major. Now it is 
calculated that that misnomer, the precession of the equinoxes, retro- 
grades about one degree in less than 71-| years, or one sign in 2,140 
years. Edward G. King, in his "Akkadian Genesis " (p. 1 6), says 
that 2,450 B. c. the sun entered Aries, and about 4,450 b. c, the sun 
entered Taurus at the vernal equinox. But this does not fix the time 
when the Pleiades were in close proximity to the equinox ; because 
the Pleiades are assigned in the celestial sphere to a position in the 
rear of Taurus, by Hyginus ; they are placed on the back of Taurus, 
by Geminus and Proclus \ while ihey are placed in the foot of Perseus, 
by Hipparchus. On the modern sphere they are placed in the neck. 

The metrical form of the word is Peleiddes and Peleiddes and hence 
so * e have claimed that the name of this asterism was derived from 
pHeia^ " a pigeon." or " a dove," in allusion to the fancied appearance 

( 236 ) 

of this group of stars ; that it received the name from the ark-dove 
at the universal cataclysm which took place when the sun was in the 
26th degree of Pisces, 5,050 s. c. according to P. E. Trastour, in his 
work, *^ The New Astronomy " (p. 43), 1875. 

The earliest known record in which the Pleiades are mentioned is 
thought to be in the Book of Job, but there is a difference of opinion 
as to the date of this poem. Arcturus, Orion, the Pleiades^ and Maz- 
zaroth (the twelve signs) are spoken of by name in this book (Job 
IX, 9, XXXVIII, 31-32). 

Jobab (Genesis x, 29), third in descent from Eber, and last of the 

sons of Joktan, is supposed to be the author of the poem, called the 

" Book of Job." In the Greek translation of the Septuagint a note 

is appended to the Book of Job, which seems to refer to Genesis 

xxxvr, 33, and stating that Job was the king Jobab of Edom. We 

quote it here as showing the time of this patriarch : 

" This is translated out of a Syrian book : And it is written that 
he will rise again with those whom the Lord will raise up, He dwelt 
indeed in the land Ausitis, on the confines of Idumaea and Arabia. 
His first name was Jobab ; and having married an Arabian woman, 
he had by her a son whose name was Ennon. He was himself a son 
of Zare, one of the sons of Esau, and his mother's name was Bosorra; 
so that he was the fifth in descent from Abraham. And these were 
the kings who reigned in Edom, over which country he also bore rule. 
The first was Balak, the son of Beor, and the name of his city was 
Dennaba. And after Balak, Jobab, who is called Job ; and after \\m 
Asom who was governor from the region of Thaimanitis ; and after 
him Adad, son of Barad, who smote Madian in the plain of Moab; 
and the name of his city was Gethaim. And the friends who came to 
him, Eliphaz of the sons of Ksau, the king of the Thaimanites ; Bal- 
dad, the sovereign of the Sauchaeans \ and Sophar, the king of the 

From this account of Job, from some " Syrian Book," it would ap- 
pear that this Jobab or Job was a later Jobab than the son of Joktan. 

The Book of Job speaks of Ash^ " the assembled," still to be traced 
in the name of the last star of the tail of Ursa Major called Benet- 
xiasch^ 30 degrees north of Arcturus in the constellation Bootes, or 
Arctophylax^ ** the bear-driver." Chitna^ *' the accumulated " ; and 
Chesii, " the bound," which seems to be identified with I^igel^ "kingly," 
in the foot of Orion. Mazzaroth is given in the margin of the author- 
ized version as " the twelve signs * (Job xxxviii, 32). 

( 287 ) 

The following will show the translations of these words, and the 
uncertainty of the knowledge of the translators : 

(job IX, 9.) 

Septuagint, Vulgate. 

Pleiades, Arcturus, 

Hesperus, Orion, 

Arcturus, Hyades, 

(job XXXVIII, 31-32.) 

Hesperus, Vesperus, 

Pleiades, Pleiades, 

Orion, Arcturus, 

Mazzaroih^ Mazzaroth, Lucifer, 


Mazzaloth^ Mazouroth, Twelve Signs, 


Chesilim, Orions, Splendor, 

(amos V, 8.) 

E threw. 







Au, Version, 








Metaskeuazon, Orion, 

Seven Stars, 

" Arcturus with his sons " (Job xxxviii, 32). Arcturus is thought 
by most interpreters to denote the constellation of C/rsa Major, the 
Great Bear, but not with unanimity, (i) Aben-Ezra and Saadias say 
the Great Bear, or the seven stars of the Wain {Septemtriones) was in- 
tended. (2) The Septuagint and the Targum in first passage only 
give Pleiades. (3) The Septuagint and the Vulgate ^^2:^ the evening 
j/^ir (Hesperus;, or Venus, in the second passage of Job. (4) The 
Talmudists say the tail of Aries, or the head of Taurus ^ apparently re- 
ferring to the bright star Aldebaran, near the tail of Aries. (5) The 
Syriac renders the word Ash by lyutha, which word is defined as the 
" she-goat," referring to the bright star Capella in the constellation 
Auriga. The general conclusions reached are that Ash was intended 
for the Great Bear. The Hebrew word for " sons " agrees with the 
Arabic word for '' Daughters of Neesh,'* these being the three stars 
in the tail of the Great Bear. The third one is called Banetnasch, 
This star is common to the constellation Ursa Major and also 
Bootes, it being near the right hand of the latter. The ancient Greeks 

( 238 ) 

called Bootes also Zycaon, a name derived from LykoSy " a wolf." 
The Hebrews called it Caleb Anubach, " the barking dog," while the 
Latins sometimes called \\ Cants, The words ** Arcturus with his 
sons (Job XXXVIII, 32)," are supposed by Burritt, to refer to the two 
grey hounds, Asterion and Chara f " Star " and " Joy "), which seem 
to be pursuing the Great Bear around the north pole. 

" Th« bands of Orion." This name occurs three times in the author- 
ized version, and twice in both the Vulgate and Septuagint, once in the 
latter in the plural form (Isaiah xiii, 10.). Kesil appears by several 
renderings, and hence there is some uncertainty. The bands of KtsU 
are thought to be " the belt of Orion," the three stars, Alniiaky 
Anilam^ and Miniaka which point out the Pleiades. Some Jewish 
writers identify the Hebrew Kesil^ or Chesil^ with the Arabic Sohail by 
which was understood either Canopus^ in Argo Navis, or Procyon in 
Canis Minor. Homer mentions this constellation {Iliad xviii, 486). 

" The sweet influence of the Pleiades." The Pleiades are thus 
mentioned twice, and once as " the seven stars." The Vulgate has in 
each of the three places a different rendering, Hyades, Pleiades, and 
Arcturus ; while in Amos v, 8, there is no trace of the word in the 
original. Aben-Ezra says that the ancients said Kimdh was the seven 
stars^ at the end of the constellation Aries ; but he himself wrote that 
he thought Kitnah was a single and large star called Aldebaran, and 
by some the " eye of the Bull " ; that Kesil is a large star in Scorpio 
called Aniares, and by some ** the heart of the Scopion." These two 
stars are exactly twelve hours apart in right ascension, and of the 
same declination. Here, Rabbi Kimchi says : *" \ Kimah \i2iih. grea 
cold and bindeth up the fruits, and Kesil hath great heat and ripeneth 
the fruits; therefore, to Moose the bands of KesiV was to open the 
fruits and bring them forth." Hence, the Rabbins give the inter- 
pretation below to this verse : 

" Canst thou bind the sweet influences of the Pleiades, or loose the 
bands of Orion ? (Job xxxviii, 31 )." 

** Wilt thou bind the fruits which the constellation Kimah ripeneth 
and openeth ; or wilt thou open the fruits which the constellation 
Kesil contracteth and bindeth up ? " 

The full Arabic name that is given by Gesenius is " the knot of the 
Pleiades "•; and in accordance with this, most modern commentators 
render this verse : 

( 289 ) 

" Is it thou that bindest the knots of the Pleiades, or looseneth the 
bands of Orion ? " 

Simon quotes the Greenland name for this cluster of stars, namely, 
KUlukiurset, that is, Stellas coligatus^ as an instance of the existence of 
the same idea in a widely different language. The rendering, *' sweet 
influences," in the authorized version, is a relic of the lingering belief 
in the power which the stars exerted over human destiny. We find 
the same lingering belief embeded edin the words disa^/^r, /i/natic, etc- 

The marginal note on the word Pleiades^ in the Geneva Version, is : 
** Which starres arise when the sunne is in Taurus, and bring flowers." 

The Syrian name of the Pleiades is Succoih-Benoih, which name is 
found in ii Kings xvii, 30 : ** The men of Babylon made S.uccoth- 
Benoth," that is, worship " the seven stars." Kimchi and Jarchi say 
that it was a goddess under the form a hm and chickens^ which Kir- 
cher regarded as !he astronomical emblem of the Babylonians. This 
is also the view of Hyde who compares the Arabic Al Thuraiya and 
French Fulsini^re^ " the hen and seven chickens." Sir William Drum, 
mond says the Arabians call this cluster Benai Alnash, Hence^ the 
name Benatnasch^ the star at the end of the tail of the Great Bear, is 
probably from the same root- word Ash, 

Bailly says the Persians in their books assert that in very remote 
times the four bright stars, Aldebaran in Taurus and Antares in Scor- 
pio, were in the equinoctial colures ; and Regulus in Leo, and Form- 
alhaut in Piscis Australis, were in the solstitial colures. 

Homer mentions the Pleiades twice [Iliad xviii, 482 ; Odyssey v, 
272), once as being represented on the Shield of Achilles, and once, 
as being observed by the wandering Ulysses after leaving the goddess 
Calypso. Hesiod also speaks of them {Opera et Dies^ 383, 615). 

" Mazzaroth in his season," and ** the chambers of the south." 

This word appears but once in the authorized version, and then in the 

plural j but twice in the Septuagint. The marginal reading is '' the 

twelve signs." There is also a diversity here. The Peshito-Syriac 

renders it iogalto, the Wain, or Ursa Major. Michaelis and Ewald 
apply the word to Corona Borealis, and Ewald includes the Corona 

Australis. Fiirst understands the planet Jupiter, the same as Chuin, 

" the star of your god." Gesenius himself is in favor of regarding 

Mazzaroth as older than the form Mazzaloth, and signifying strictly 

( 240) 

" premonitions," and in the concrete sense " stars that give warnings 
or presages," from the Arabic root nazar. He claims to have de- 
ciphered the same words on some Cilician coins in an inscription 
which he renders as a prayer : "May thy pure star (shine) over us." 
Sir William Drummond, in his work ** Origines ; Remarks on the 
Origin of Empires, States, and Cities," London, 1824, says : 

" The fact is certain, that at some remote period there were mathe- 
maticians and astronomers who knew that the sun is the center of our 
system, and that the earth, itself a planet, revolves around it." 

The name of the largest star in the Pleiades is Alcyone^ or as it is 
divided when separated Al Cyone, " the base," or " the center." The 
Arabic name IVasat, transmitted to us by the astronomer Ulugh Beigh, 
was early applied to this asterism, or its largest star, the meaning of 
which is " the center." It strongly intimates that the ancients from 
whom Aben-Ezra so often quotes, may have had an intimation of per- 
haps the long-lost but lately recovered fact, that in the Pleiades is the 
grand central sun of the universe, around which our sun revolves. 
The A/ Cyoruy '* the center," certainly anticipated one of the grandest 
achievements of modern astronomy, that around this point, this cen- 
ter, gravitates the whole magnificent universe of stars callfed Galaxy. 

Miss Frances Rolleston, of Keswick, England, author of two works 
entitled '* Mazzaroth, or the Constellation," and " Mizraim, or Aslron. 
omy in Egypt," believes the ancients anticipated that in the Pleiades 
was located the grand center of the universe, and named the group 
accordingly, Wasat^ " l he center " ; Alcyane^ '* the center," (Maz. p. 28). 

To measure some of the enormous distances in space, Science has 
stepped in and invented a new unit of measurement, because the 
little miles which may serve in our solar system are useless when she 
comes to deal with the interstellar space. Miles in millions, billions, 
trillions convey no intelligible conception ; one million, or two billions 
merely means to us a vast and inconceivable distance,and our imagi- 
nation can think no difference between their relative values. So light 
has been taken, and the distance it travels in a second has been made 
the unit of measurement. Light travels 192,000 miles. in a second, 
and thus takes but an eighth of a second to travel around the globe. 
The distance of the earth to the sun is 92,000,000 miles, approximately ; 
light passes from the sun to the earth in nearly 8^ minutes ; the solar 
system has a diameter of 53,000,000,000 of miles, and this is traveled 

( 241 ) 

by light in nearly 7J hours. Hence, space can be measured by light- 
years, ihe computation being made as follows : 

192,000 miles per second. 

1 1,520,000 miles per minute. 

691,200.000 miles per hour. 

16,588,80*0,000 miles per day. 

6,054,912,000,000 miles per year. 

Hence, a light-year means upwards of six trillions of miles, words 
which convey no meaning whatever to our minds. The astronomer 
speaks of thousands of light-years as separating us from some of the 
stars. The bare face of these figures are still without meaning. 

Dr. Herschel says the distance of Sirius, the largest of the fixed 
stars, is 19,007,788,800,000 miles from the earth ; this is about equal to 
three light-years ; or were the star Sirius to be annihilated from the 
universe, the inhabitants of this earth would not know of the fact till 
three light-years afterwards 

Struve estimates that the average mean distance of stars of the first 
magnitude are 886,000 times the radius of the earth's orbit, or so re- 
mote that their light reaches the earth only after a journey of some 
sixteen and a half years, Stars of the second magnitude send us their 
light in twenty-eight years, and those of the third magnitude in forty- 
six years. 

Alcyone is sometimes called " the light of the Pleiades " ; it is a 
star of the third magnitude, and hence it would require quite fifteen 
light-years for light to reach the earth from Alcyone. 

The revolution of the stars, the organization of the grand cluster 
with which our sun is associated, the demonstration of the sun's ab- 
solute translation through space, its direction, velocity, and period, 
are problems that have engaged the minds of our most eminent mod- 
ern astronomers. The appearance of new stars, and the disappear- 
ance of others, the increasing brilliancy and diminution of the same 
periodically in others ; binary, triple, and quadruple systems, groups, 
and nebulse, all have been investigated by analogy, comparison, obser- 
vation, until astronomers have gathered sufficient data for a founda- 

( 242 ) 

tion to work upon. The Pleiades only reveals six or seven to the 
naked eye ; Dr. Hook says he counted 78 with a twelve-foot telescope, 
while some astronomers have counted more than 200 in this cluster 
with powerful glasses. 

Dr. Herschel undertook the resolution of the grand problem of 
the sun's movement through space. The investigation of such a 
problem, at the first glance, seems almost visionary. Man is located 
on a planet infinitely larger than himself. This planet rotating on its 
own axis, and also revolving around the sun ; the sun rotating on its 
. own axis, and revolving around a grand central sun I Where in this 
universe is the center 1 What is the time of revolution ? What is the 
rate of motion ? Stupendous problems ! 

Herschel commenced the examination of these great problems by 
first forming a catalogue of stars in all parts of the heavens, in which 
any appreciable amount of any proper motion had been detected and 
measured. A close scrutiny of the direction in which these stars ap- 
peared to move would indicate the direction in which the observer, 
carried along with the sun, was passsing through space. 

After an examination, as extended as the data which he then 
was in possession of, had been made, he announced his belief that a 
part of the proper motion of the fixed stars must be attributed to 
the effect of systematic parallax, and that the solar system was mov- 
ing through space towards a point in the constellation Hercules. 

The announcement of this astonishing result was received with 
considerable hesitation and doubt by the best living astronomers, and 
Herschel died (1822) before any conformation of the theory had been 
obtained. After his death, for nearly quarter of a century, no one ap- 
peared willing to renew the investigaton. The theory fell into disre- 
pute, and was only regarded as a bold and sublime speculation, but 
not founded on well-determined observations. After some thirty or 
forty years the problem was taken up by the Russian astronomer 
Argelander, and by a train of reasoning based on extensive and accu- 
rate observations, he has sustained and verified in the most undeni- 
able manner, not only the general truth of Herschers theory, but has 
confirmed the direction in which Dr. Herschel believed the solar sys- 
tem to be moving. Argelander selected 500 stars in all regions of 
the heavens, whose places had been well determined by preceding as- 

( -^48 } 

tronomers. Having determined the new places of all these stars, 
a full comparison of his own with the previous obesrvation and 
positions, determined the direction in which these stars appeared 
to be moving, and their rate of motion. The angles with the meri- 
dian, formed by the lines along which each star is progressing, then 
became known from observation, ^ad these angles became the ob- 
served angles of direction. The 500 stars selected being divided into 
three groups according to their amount of proper motion, the problem 
was then placed in a stated form. The first problem was : To what 
point in the heavens is the solar system moving ? A point was as- 
sumed as a hypothesis, and all angles made by the motions of the 
stars determined. The comparison of these being made and discrep- 
ances being noted ^ by a shifting of the hypothetical point, the errors 
could be reduced to their minimum value. The point that gave the 
smallest differences between the observed and computed angles 
would be the one toward which the solar system was progressing. 
Having determined the point as far as possible from the first group, 
he proceeded in a similar manner with the second group which was 
composed of stars of a larger proper motion, and the result still 
agreed in a remarkable manner with the first result. The third group 
was computed in like manner and confirmed the previous results. 
This point, determined from the three groups, resulted in the fact that 
the sun, with- its retinue of planets and comets, is sweeping through 
space to a point whose place must fall somewhere within the circum- 
ference of a circle, the diameter of which is ab<)ut four times that of 
the moon. This solar motion once determined, astronomers at once 
commenced a verification of the data and the results obtained. The 
results have been confirmed by the investigations of Orlho Struve, son 
of the Director of the Observatory of Pulkova. The point in the 
heavens was determined to be very near the star marked with the 
Greek letter r. on the atlas of the heavens, in the constellation Hercules. 
The star is in the thigh. (Burritt's "Atlas of the Heavens," 1840.) 

Having obtained the direction, the next problem presented to 
the astronomer was : How swiftly does the sun, with his attendant 
system, sweep onward through space ? Two other questions are in- 
volved. The determination of the angular motion of the sun as it 
would be seen by a spectator situated at an distance equal to that of 

( 244 ) 

the stars of the first magnitude. This being obtained, the angular 
motion can readily be converted into linear velocity, in case the mean 
distance of the stars of the first magnitude can be satisfactorily ob- 
tained. Ortho Struve has resolved the first of these two questions. 
The result has been obtained from data entirely different and in no way 
dependent on each other. If the sun be supposed to be revolving 
about some grand central point, at a distance equal to the mean dis- 
tance of stars of the first magnitude, the period necessary to accom- 
plish such a revolution would require 3,811,000 years ! 

Vast as this period appears, we shall see further on that we can 
hardly expect that the centre about which the solar system is revolv- 
ing^ can be located at a distance nearly so small as the mean distance 
of the largest stars. But what is the actual velocity ? How many 
miles a year does our sun travel in its orbit ? This is the next ques- 
tion, and this has not escaped a solution^ The discovery of thtfiar- 
allax of several of the fixed stars has been made, which furnishes the 
key to the solution of this momentous question. Even the apostle 
James speaks of /tfrfl//«jc (i, 17) : " the Father of Lights" who is 
" without parallax (Greek text).*' The paraphrase is as follows : 

" Peradventure, that in traveling millions and millions of miles 
through the regions of immensity, there may be a sensible parallax to 
some of the fixed stars ; yet, as to the Fathers of Lights, view Him 
from whatever point of his empire we may, he is without parallax or 
even a shadow of change ! " 

Struve, by a most ingenious and powerful train of investigation 
and reasoning, obtained a series representing the relative mean dis- 
tances of the stars of all magnitudes, up to the most minute star visi- 
ble through Herschers twenty-foot reflector. From the sun as a cen- 
ter, he sweeps successive concentric spheres, between whose surfaces 
he conceives the stars of the several magnitudes to be included. The 
radius of the first sphere reaches to the nearest stars of the first mag- 
nitude, that of the second sphere extends to the farthest stars of the 
same magnitude, and the mean of these two radii will be the mean 
distance of the stars of the first magnitude. The same is true with 
reference to the concentric spheres embracing within their surfaces 
the stars of the second, third, etc., magnitudes. Having, from this 
data, computed tables exhibiting the relative distances of the stars of 
the different magnitudes, an examination of these figures revealed 

( 245 ) 

the singular fact that they constituted a regular geometrical progres- 
sion ; then having assumed the distance of the 6th magnitude as the 
unit, the distance of the stars of the 4th magnitude will be ^ ; while 
those of the 2d magnitude will be \ ; and so proceeding with the even 
numbers expressing magnitude ; while the distance of the stars of the 
5th magnitude is obtained by dividing unity by the square root of the 
number 2, and from this the distances of the odd magnitudes come by 
dividing by 2. Or in mathematical formula, the distances of the 
stars of the several magnitudes form a geometrical progression whose 
ratio is equal to unity divided by the square root of 2. Having thus 
obtained the relative mean distances of the stars, the absolute mean 
distances of the stars of every class will be revealed. As early as 
1808, Siruve, then of Dorpat Observatory, commenced the determina- 
tion of the parallax of a large number of stars. Combining results, 
another astronomer, Peters, found the parallax of 35 stars either ab- 
solute i'T relative, which parallax warrants the employment of results 
in the solution of this great problem. It must be borne in mind these 
results are not conjectures, but are the first approximations to the 
truth, and are reliable to within the tenth part of their value, and are 
thus far certain. 

As already stated, Otho Struve determined the yearly angular mo- 
tion of the sun as seen from the most distant of the stars of the first 
magnitude. The knowledge of the absolute mean distance of the 
stars of the fi st magnitude must be obtained in order to convert the 
angular motion into miles. This has been . accomplished by Peters 
and now combining the researches of Argelander, Struve, and Peters, 
the solution of the latter question, involved in the problem of the 
velocity of sun through space, has yielded the wonderful result ! 

The 5UW, attended hy all its planets, sitellites, and comets, is sweeping 
through space towards the star marked n in the constellation Hercules, ^vith 
a velocity which causes it to pass over a distance equal to thirty-three 
millions three hundred and fifty thousand miles in every year. 

Now one will ask what reliance can' be placed on this bewildering 
announcement ? In answer, as to the reality of the solar motion, it 
is stated that there is only one chance out of four hundred that the 
astronomers have been deceived. 

Now comes up the question : Whither is our system tending ? If 

( 2-16 ) 

moving onward in a direct line, where are we going, or if the sun is 
traveling in an orbit, around what center is the solar orb moving? 
One question follows afiei a former question is solved. The star 
marked «■ in Hercules is of the third magnitude, and we have already 
ascertained that it takes light fony-sis years to pass over the inter- 
space ; or three light-years. Now executing the calculation, we find 
that in case the solar system should continue to progress towards th-^ 
star, it cannot pass the enormous intervale, even at 33,550,000 miles 
per annum, in less than 1,800,000 years ! 

Mfedler, successor to Siruve, at the Dorpat Observatory, has spent 
much time in the investigation of the theory of thr grand central 
sua. The great theory propounded by him was only given to the 
world after a long and patient examination of seven years. 

The law of universal gravitation when extended to the fixed stars^ 
is absolutely demonstrated in the revolution of binary systems ; and 
the same law must govern the association of stars composing our 
cluster, or the whole astral system. There must be a emter of gravity 
as certainly as there is a solar system. Extending the law of analogy, 
as well as gravitation, then to the whole astral system, there must be 
a grand central sun. There now remains the means of not only detect- 
ing, but also of discovering its position in space. In case such a 
body does exists, the stars located nearest to it will be most com- 
pleiely subjected to its influence, and would show their proiimity by 
the swiftness of their motion. The question now is, where is that cen- 
ter of gravity, and how to find it V Mfedier's sagacity detected various 
guides which at once limited his iuvestigation to a comparatively 
small portion of the heavens ; that the center of gravity must be loca- 
ted very near if not within the Milky Way, when seen by the eye of 
an observer located near the center of the astral system. The re- 
search for the cenier of gravity must be confined to the small half of 
the Milky Way, since the smaller half is the farthest away, and the sun 
ipy the exact center of the layer or stratum which our 
m takes the form of, because the Milky Way does not divide 
into two hemispheres One more approximation can be 
owing the direction of the sun to be towards the star v in 
'hich is quite opposite to the heavens occupied by Taurus ; 
ration, together with other astronomical and geometrical 

( 247 ) 

propositions which fulfilled the conditions of the question limited the 
field to the constellation Taurus. Here the problem took a more defi- 
nite form. The proper motion of the stars in this vicinity were all in 
accordance with the theory ; the center of gravity would be in some 
cluster ; all stars within 20** or 30^, as well as those of such cluster, 
would move in the same direction ; the stars in such space, and the 
cluster collectively, would appear to move through space without part- 
ing company. A rigid examination was made of the star Aldebaran^ 
which seemed in the outset to fullfil some of the conditions of a cen- 
tral sun, but further details of the conditions showed that it could not 
be the center of gravity desired, all contingencies considered. Then 
the group of the Pleiades was duly considered ; the proper motion of 
each star was minutely examined and noted ; they were all in the same 
direction and nearly equal to each other ; the mean of their proper 
motion differs from that of the central star, Ahyone^ by only one- 
thousanth of a second of an arc in right ascension, and twothousanths 
of a second in declination. Here then are a group of suns, either 
actually allied together, or else they compose a cluster so situated as 
to be affected by the same apparent motion produced by the sun's 
progressive motion through the celestial regions. But an extension 
of the research around the star Alcyone exhibits the wonderful truth, 
that out of no stars which are within 15° of this center, there are 60 
moving south, or in accordance with this hypothesis that Alcyone is 
the center, 49 exhibiting no well defined motion, and only one single 
individual star which appears to move contrary to the anticipated 

It is impossible in a brief paper Kere to do justice to the profound 
and elaborate investigations of the learned astronomer and author of 
this great speculation and plausible theory of the grand central sun. 

Assuming Alcyone as the grand center of the millions of stars com- 
posing our astral system, and the direction of the sun*s motion, as de- 
termined by Argelander and Struve, he investigated the copsequent 
movements of the stars in every quarter of the heavens. Just where 
the swiftest motions should be found, there they exactly existed, either 
demonstrating the truth of the profound theory, or exhibiting the 
most remarkable and substantiating coincidences. After thoroughly 
verifying his researches, computations, and all evidence, he reached 

< 248 ) 

the conclusion, and published to the world the following solution : 

Alcyone, the principle star in the group of the Pleiades, now occupies the 
center of gravity, and is at present the central 3un about which the universe 
of stars coffiprising our astral system are all revolving. 

We are apt to turn aside from the first efforts to resolve these great 
problems. How were the theories of Copernicus, and Newton re- 
ceived ? How much regard was given to Herschel's grand theory of 
the solar motion ? And yet how triumphantly have these great theo- 
ries been established. But some one may inquire if there is any pos- 
sibility of proving or disproving this grand theory of Maedler ? 

Should the time ever come when the direction of the solar motion 
shall be sensibly changed, in consequence of its curvilinear character, 
then will the plane in which this movement lies be revealed, and then 
the center about which the revolution is performed must be made 
known, at least in direction. Should the line reaching towards this 
grand center pass through Alcyone, this added to all other evidences, 
will fix forever the question of its central position. We know not 
when this great question may be settled, but judging from the tri- 
umphs which have marked the career of human genius hitherto, we 
cannot doubt of the final result. 

The potent factors in mathematical and astronomical science that 
have been discovered and used in the solution of the great problems 
of astronomy, are such that the laws of the universe must yield their 
secrets to inquiring man. The method of least squares for the elimi- 
nation of errors, and such processes, reduce results almost to a fact. 

Admitting the truth of Maedler's theory, we are led to some of the 
most astonishing results. The known parallax of certain fixed stars 
gives to us an approximate valuta of the parallax of Alcyone, and re 
veals to us the distance of the grand center of the universe. Such is 
the enormous intervale separating the sun from the central star about 
which it performs it mighty revolution, that the light from Alcyone 
requires a period of 537 years to travel the distance. Now if we are 
to rely on the angular motion of the sun and system, as already de- 
termined, at the end of 18,200,000 years, this great luminary, our r*"* 
with all it planets, satellites, and comets, will have completed one 
olution around its grand center alcvone, " the Light of the Pleiade 

( .249 ) 

M I S'e^^^^^S^ O U S 


H. C. CMITEi]^, Kditor. 

" Mathematics is the science which draws necessary conclusions J* -^'B,irc&, 

^^^— ■ r ■■ ' ■■■ ■■■■»■■■— ■--.■.^■■- I ■■■■ ■i^. ^ m »■ .. ■ .^ . ■ w ^^^»^^^^^^ 

Vol. XL NOVEMBER. 1893. No. 11. 

The Number of the Magi. The number of the Magi has long 
been fixed at three. Leo supposes it in several places, and Csesarius 
affirms it. The same is said in two sermons formerly credited to St. 
Austin, but one of which has since been found to be written by Leo, 
and XYit other is found under the name of Eusebius Emesius. Bede, 
Ruport, and several other ecclesiastical historians also give the num- 
ber as three. Some think^ however, that this number is founded on 
the three kinds of presents, mentioned by Matthew (ii, 1 1), gold, 
frankincense, and myrrh. Their names are generally given as Caspar, 
Melchior, and Balthasar. But these names were unknown to those 
times^ says Calmet, as well as other names given to them in some 
writings, though they are modern enough. Some of the other names 
given to them are the Greek names, Apellius, Amerus, and Damascus. 
Others still give the Hebrew names, Magalet, Galgalet, and Saraim ; 
while others say they were Ator, Sato, and Paratoras. Another writer, 
says Calmet, believes that the three Magi were Enoch, Melchisedek, 
and Ellas. The Magi have been a subject of study for many. The 
word is rendered " sorcerer," in Acts xiii, 8 ; while it is the name 
of a " sorcerer," in Acts viii 9, " Simon Magus." But in Matthew 11, 
I, 7, and 16, it is* rendered " wise men." Zoroaster is said to have 
foretold their visit (N. and Q., Vol XI, p. igs'i ; also Balaam (Num. 
XXIV, 17). This substantially answers the first question proposed by 
•' Teacher." The second question requires too long an article at 
this -time. In the meantime, read the books, " The Wise Men of the 
East," by Francis G. Upham, 1873 ; "^ The Star of the Wise Men," by 
R. C. Trench, 1850 ; ** The Star of the East," by Theo. Appel, 1878. 

( 250 ) 

The Pentad of Theology. (Vol. XI^ p. 224.) It was Samuel T. 
Coleridge who formulatied the Theological Pentcul, It will be found in 
his " Literary Remains," p. 396. 

1. Pro thesis— The Word==Christ. 3. Mesothesis — The Spirit. 

2. Thesis— ^The Scripture. 4. Antithesis — The Church. 

5. Synthesis — The Preacher. 

In his " Table-Talk " (Vol. I, p. 64), he give his Grammatical 

Heptaa, as follows : 

'* There are seven parts of speech, and they agree with the five 
grand and universal divisions into which all things finite, by which I 
mean to exclude the idea of God, will be found to fall ; that is, as 
you will often see it stated in my writings, especially in the '' Aids to 
Reflection (p. 170, 2d ed) : " 

I. Prothesis. 2. Thesis. 3. Antithesis. 4« Mesothesis. 5. Synthesis. 

Conceive it thus : 

1. Prothesis, the Noun- Verb, or Substantive^ / am, which is the 
previous form, and implies identities of being and act. 

2. Thesis, the Noun. 

3. Antithesis, the Verb. Note : each of these may be converted; 
that is, they are only opposed to each other. 

4. Mesothesis, the Infinitive Mood, or the indifference of the Verb 
and the Noun, it being either the one or the other^ or both at the 
same time, in difEerent relations. 

5. Synthesis, the Participle^ or the Community of the Verb and 
Noun, being and acting at once. 

6. Modify the Noun by the Verb, that is, by an act, and you have 
the Adnoun, or Adjective. 

7. Modify the Verb by the Noun, that is, by being, and you have 
the Adverb. 

** In the Trinity there is : i. Ipseity. 2. Alterity. 3. Commo- 
nity. You may express the formulas thus : 

I. The Spirit=Synthesis. 

2. The Father=:Thesis. 3. The Son=Antithesis. 

4. God, the Absolute Will or Identity=:Prothesis. 

Stephen Pearl Andrews takes up these formulas in his " Univer- 
sology,'' p. 271, quoted from Coleridge, and compares them with his 
own formulations, but reverses their order. . He puts it : The Spirit= 
Mesothet, and the Triune Godhead=Syn thesis (Mesothesis and Syn- 
thet). All aspects are Pantothet. 

( 251 ) 

Ahiman Rezon. (Vol^ XI, p. 224.) The words Ahtptan Rezon is 
the title given to the Book of Constitutions by that schism from the 
Grand Lodge of England which took place about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, and which was known as the " Ancient Masons," 
according to Mackey. This was claimed in contradistinction to the 
legitimate Grand Lodge and its adherents, who were then called the 
" Modern Masons," and whose code of Laws was contained in the 
Book of Constitutions known as Anderson's work. 

Ahiman Rezon is said by Mackey to be derived from three Hebrew 
words, ahitn^ " brothers " ; tnanah^ ** to appoint " or " select " \ and 
raizoHy " the will " or '* pleasure " ; and hence the combination of the 
three words signify *' the will of the selected brethren." That is, the 
law of a class or society of men who are chosen or solected from the 
world as brethren. This is Mackey's derivation of the word. 

Dr. Dalcho derives it from <ihi^ " brother " ; manah^ " to prepare " ; 
and rezon^ " secret " ; so that it literally means " the secrets of a pre- 
pared brother." This is considered as as untenable by Mackey. 

W. S. Rockwell thinks the derivation may be found in the Hebrew 
words, amun, " builder " or *^ architect " ; and rezon, " a prince," in the 
adjective sense ; hence^ according to this etymology^ the words will 
mean the ^' the royal builder," or in its symbolic sense, ^ Freemason." 
This is not considered even as good a derivation as that of Dr. Dalcho. 

The work has been reprinted many times, and it contains much to 
interest the craft as to the usages and landmarks of the ancient insti- 
tution. It is found in nearly all masonic libraries, and many Lodges. 

Philopena. From whence comes this word which was formerly in 
vogue in connection with presents ? Orlando. 

The word really is used in the sense of farced. The Greek word 

philippetein is probably an equivalent. In ancient history relating to 

oracles the word was used in the sense of forced or dictated. Bribes 

were accepted by the person who gave the responses. It is recorded 

that Nero dared the vengeance of the spirits of the sacred cavern by 

openly polluting it with blood of men slain at the cavern's mouth ; 

but when barbarism gave way to civilization, these Oracles suddenly 

begain to fail ; and at the appearance of the Christian's Messiah, it is 

claimed, began to show mankind their fallacy, and wholly became 

silent. The word is not derived from Phillip, but probably from the 

root-word philo, " I love." Philip means " lover of horses." 

. ( 252 ) 

Macroprosopus and Microprosopus. (Vol. XI, p. 224.) Mac- 
roprosopus is a Kabbalistic term, made of a compound Greek word, 
meaning the vast or Great Countenance ; it is the title of Kether, the 
Crown, the highest Sephira. It is the name of the Universe, in its 
entirety, and called Arik-Aphin^ the long-face ; the antithesis of this 
is the Microposopus, or Zoir-Aphin^ the short-face, or Lesser Counte- 
nance. In the highest or abstract metaphysical sense, the Macropo- ' 
sopus is the Adam-Kadmon, the vehicle of Ain-Soph, and the Crown 
of the Tree (Sephiroth), There are other interpretations^ however. 

William B. Greene of Boston, Mass., in 1872, published a work en- 
titled "The Blazing Star,'' with an appendix treating of the Jewish 
Kabbala, and the Sephiroth. He gives a cut of the Macroprosopus 
and the Microprosopus (p. 79), which illustrates how one is the reflec- 
tion of the other. The same picture may be found in " Dogme et Rituel 
de la Haute Magie," of Eliphaz Levi, and also in the published Rituals 
of some of the high Masonic degrees. It is written in " The Zohar " : 

"The parts of the Microprosopus (the shorter-face) are distributed 
and clothed according to the foriiis of the Most Ancient of Days^ 
hidden in all things. — Greater Assembly^ § 508. 

" These forms of the Microprosopus are', therefore, disposed accord- 
ing to the forms of the Macroprosopus (the longer-face) ; and the 
forms of the Microprosopus are extended here and there in human 
figure and similitude, in order that the spirit hidden in all parts of it 
may be drawn forth. — Ibid^ § 510. 

''The Elder of elders is called Macroprosopus (the longer-face) , 
in contradistinction from the Silent Holy Elder, the Holiest of the 
Holy (who has no face). And when the Microprosopus looks back 
upon the Macroprosopus, all things in it are reduced to order, and its 
face is lengthened while it is looking ; but its face is not always long 
like that of the Elder of eiders. — Ibid^ §§ 54 ,55. 

" There is no left-hand side to the occult elder ; for, with him, all 
things are on the right. — Ibid, § 81. 

" The Holy Elder (Macroprosopus) is non-manifest. The Micro- 
prosopus is manifest or non-manifest ; as manifest, it may be written 
with letters. — Book of Occupations^ chap, iv, §§ i, 2, 

" There are twenty-two occult letters, and twenty-two manifest let- 
ters ; and the occult and manifest are weighed over against each 
other in the Balance. — Ibid^ chap, iv, §§ 10, 11. 

'* (That which is above is male -, that below, female) ; as it is 

( 263 ) 

written : * The sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were 
fair.'-y^MT, § i6. 

" Rabbi Simon said : All things I have spoken of the Holiest Elder, 
and all that I have spoken of the Microprosopus, all are same, all are 
one ; and there is no place here for separation. Blessed be He^ and 
Blessed be His Name, for ever and ever. — Greater Assembly^ § 240. 

" He and His Name are onQ.—Ibidy § 354. 

" This is the sum of the doctrine : The Elder of elders is the 
Macroprosopus. All was ; all is ; all shall be. Mutation is not, was 
not, and never shall be."— T^/d?, § 920. 

The Macroprosopus corresponds almost exactly with the " Ancient 
of Days," spoken of three times by that Occultist Daniel (vii, 9, 13, 
and 22), who undoubtedly was well versed in the knowledge of the 
Sephiroth. This appears to be but little understood by some of the 
modem clergy. 

" Variety is the very spice of life." Please inform a literary 
society, of which I am a member, from whence comes this quotation 
so often heard. Noel. 

' " Noel " has only to turn to " Cowper's Task, Book 11, " The Time- 
piece," line 330,, where he will fine the line. 

New Words — Pianofacturer and Pianographer. Some friends 
and myself had quite a dispute regarding the proper word to use 
to designate a mechanic who make pianos, f claim " Pianofacturer" 
is at once clear and euphonious ; and so with a piano-player^ I use 
** Pianographer." Neither of these can 1 find in any dictionary^ still 
I can see no objection, but an advantage in using them. J. N. B. 

Enigma De Nomine Virginis. " My name qontains five and fifty, 
and yet hath only eight letters ; the 3d is the 3d part of the sth ; 
which 3d added to the 6th Will produce a number whose square root 
shall exceed the 3d of itself by just the ist, and the root is half the 
4th ; now the 5th and the 7th are equal ; the ist and the Sth are also 
equal and make the 2d as much as the 6th hath, which contained 4 
more than the 3d tripled." 

A note attached to this enigma says it can be solved, and the an- 
swer is a name which is rendered probable by the contest, but one 
letter of it is not what might be expected : verbum sapimti satis est. 

Will some of our readers solve this enigma? It will pass for intel- 
lectual recreation and assist the powers of thought. 

( 254 ) 

Deed of Mount Chocorua. 

ded in Carroll County {N, H.) Begristry of Deeds^) 

Book 49, page 167.) 

Know all mm. Lords, esquires^ and peasants, 

And know all women by these presents,— 

In short, let all creation know. 

That I, Bill Fox of Wolfboro, 

State of New Hampshire, County Carroll, 

A yeoman bald unused to hair oil, 

In duplicate consideration 

Of good-will towards my blood relation, 

And two Bears' feet most oleaginous 

(Ungrateful let no man imagine us,) 

To me in hand before enditing, 

Or ever thought of, wks this writing 

And which I, bound for land o' Canaan, 

Will daily rub upon my cranium). 

Delivered by one De Witt Carter^ 

A true desendant son of Sparta, 

And ward €ui litem of old Nimrod 

The tutelar saint of gun and ramrod,— 

Of Ossipee in State aforesaid, 

And county ditto (be no more said 

Of that venue for tattlers gossipy, 

Enough will tell of "righteous " Ossipee I)— 

Do thus remise, release, and quitclaim^ 

Not to myself henceforth one whit claim. 

So long as I am reckoned vital. 

To said De Witt all right and title 

Which I or my male tail descendant. 

In gross in common and appendant. 

Can claim or hope to claim or covet. 

While glitters gold and misers love it. 

In and unto a certain parcel * 

Or piece of land (don*t deem it farce all) 

In Sam^s dominions situated^ 

Containing, as 'twas estimated 

By actual measurement and survey 

Of engineers (now dead with scurvy), 

Five million acres nine square perches. 

Besides the Intervale of Birches, 

Including mountains, hills, and hollows, 

And bounded and described as follows, 

( 265 ) 

To tuit : Begin at Whiteface Schoolhouse, 
And running tow'rds McGaffey's tool house, 
Thence where two highways fork and spangle, 
Jog off upon the sinister angle 
To Dave Rowe's cabin hospitable, 

Thence where tha d 1 you are able, . 

Keeping in close perambulation, 
Within the metes of Yankee nation,-. 
Remembering, when at last youVe done it, 
To leave off at the bounds begun at ; 
Hereby both meaning and intending 
(That litigation it mayn't end in) 
Tne said grantee shall be invested 
With all Chocorua granite crested, 
Whereon grim Bruin growls in glory^ 
From verdant base to summit hoary,— 
To have and hold the same forever, 
Provided he be longest liver. 
To him, his heirs, assigns, successors,— 
A chain of undisturbed possessors,— 
With each appurtenance and privilege, 
Thereto belonging— in a civil age. 
And I do covenant with said Carter^ 
While earth is land, and two-thirds water, 
And I am spared by rueful Nemesis 
To warrant and define the premises. 
To him and his from parchment blunder. 
And scamps unborn me claiming under ; 
And not to warrant and defend 'em 
When Ursa Majors seek to rend 'em, 
But rightful lords and lawless squatters 
For title then to trust their trotters. 
In witness whereof, super Vellum^ 
I set my manutn et sigilium. 
Year eighteen hundred six and sixty, 
September third, O Deed, I fixed ve,— 
May Sirius ne'er in wrath o'erwhelm us : 


Acknowledged et ceierarum \ 
yustiiiiE etpacisque quarum. ) 

Received Sept. 22d, 1866, examined by Loammi Hardy, Recorder. 
A true Copy of Record, Attest, James O. Gerry, Register of Deeds. 

--New England Magazine. 

( 256 ) 


Monosyllabic Languages. (Vol. XI, p. 178.) It is supposed that 
every archaic language consisted of monosyllables only. This seems 
to be true of the groups called Turanian, to which the Chinese be- 
longs. The Akkadian, which was akin to the Chinese, the. Etrurian 
and Skythic, were chiefly monosyllabic. I doubt the theory^ however, 
for the Sanskrit, Avestic, Semitic, and Egyptian are abundantly 
monosyllabic. A. Wilder, M. D. 

Dragon's Head and Tail. (Vol. XI, p. 202.) The nodes of the 
moon where the two opposite points of the moon's, orbit intersect the 
ecliptic. That where the moon ascends from, the south' to the north 
side is the ascending node and called the Dragon's Hecul in the Moon^ 
and marked thus Q ; and the opposite point where the moon descends 
from the north to the south side of the ecliptic is the descending node 
and called the Daagon's Tail in the Moon and marked thus Q - But 
why these nodes are so called is not clearly slated in the works on 

" Universal Inequality, the Law of All Creation " is the 
title of a remarkable pamphlet advertised on our cover. It sets forth 
the claims of its author, Edward J. Goodwin, M. D., Solitude, Ind., 
in the solution of some of the great mooted physical and metaphysical 
questions of this age. He says he can furnish ample proof that his 
personal experiences are those of no other man, living or dead. He 
says he has been chosen to reveal the laws he publishes to the world. 
If it be the purpose of the Creator to reveal His fiats through one of 
His humblest creatures and thus confound the heretofore deemed 
wisdom, what is to be done but to wait and see what the outcome of 
his claims will be ? The pamphlet can be read, and it claims should 
be investigated and substantiated or refuted like all other revelations, 
or discoveries. He will in due time publish a full history of his expe- 
riences accompanied by a symbolic chart which he says his work will 
require to clearly elucidate them. The pamphlet opens with the fol- 

'' AKX change depends on the adjuatment of force with resistance^ wOhout 
which no force can ad, he manifested^ and correlated ; whereby partieles 
and agregaies compress to and repel from centera, whUe acting in Unm 
least resisting" 

( 267 ; 

Masouraneo — Mazzaroth — The Zodiac. 

» * * 

Astronomy and geometry are included among those most noble 
liberal arts and sciences which all Masons are taught to make their 
study. It therefore comes within our province to inquire into the 
purport, symbolism, traditions, history, and astronomical signifinance 
of some of the celestial emblems that adorn our canopies, and read 
the stars both masonically and astronomically. 

The triad, the pentad^ aud the heptad are prominently recognized 
in all well-regulated lodges^ ceremonially, ritualistically, symbolically. 

There is a peculiar word in the vocabulary of Freemasonry that is 
a problem to masonic writers and those who have been instructed fhe 
word fo search. That word is MESOURANEO. Some have endeav- 
ored to derive Masonry from it, but this has been considered fanciful 
and untenable. Several of the leading masonic writers agree, however, 
that it is a Greek word and signifies " lam in the center of the heavens ^ 

Hutchinson and Oliver refer to Job xxxviii, 32, where is found 
the significant Hebrew word MAZZAROTH. This is translated in 
the margin of the authorized version by "The Twelve Signs," that 
great belt which encircles the heavens, wherein revolves the sun with 
his retinue of planets with their satellites. 

Oliver says, " th6 Point within the Circle became a universal emblem 
to denote the Temple of the Deity, and was referred to the Planetary 
Circle/ in the center of which the Sun, as the universal God and Father 
of Nature^ for the whole circle of heaven, was call God. Pythagoras 
esteemed the central fire the supernal mansion of Jove, and he called 
it Mesouraneo^ because the most excellent body ought to have the 
most excellent place, that is the center, *' 

This significant symbol was also early used by the ancient Scandi- 
navians, which had an undoubted reference to the Hall of Odin^ 
or the Zodiac, which^ the Edda informs us, contained twelve seats 
disposed in the form of a circle, for the principal gods, besides an 
elevated throne in the center for Odin, as the representative of the 
Great Father. 

Among all the symbols of Universal Masony there is none more 
important than the Sun. As the source of material Light, it reminds 

( 258 ) 

the Mason of that intellectual Light of which he is in constant search. 
The sun is especially the ruler of the day, as the symbol in Masony ; 
but as a symbol of Masony, it is Universal Light Gwillim says that 
" the Sun is the symbol of sovereignty, the hieroglyphic of royalty ; 
and it doth signify absolute authority." Therefore, how eminently 
appropriate does it represent the Master of the Lodge. The triple 
division of the government of the Lodge is familiar to every Mason, 
representing the sun in its three manifestations in the east, south, 
and west, rising, meridian^ and setting. In the Orphic mysteries, it was 
taught that the sun generated itself from an egg, burst forth with 
power to triplicate himself by his own unassisted energy. 

Zoroaster says : '^ The mind of the Father decreed that all things 
should be divided into Three." There are many sources of develop- 
ment to indicate that evolutionary power tends to three-fold divisions, 
or inequality. Virgil even tells us that *' the gods love uneven num- 
bers " {Bucolicay Eel. viii, 75). For we have the three-forked light- 
ning of Jove, the trident of Neptune^ and the three-headed Cerberus 
of Pluto. Plato enlarges on the beauties and harmonies of the five 
geometrical forms that perpetuate his name. Pythagoras has especially 
endeavored to s}^tematize the series by evolotion ; while all nations, 
have venerated the number seven. 

The nomenclature of the degrees, grades, and divisions also par- 
take of numeric order, as well as legendary, traditional, and celestial 
word lore^ thus associating them with the impress of immemorial time. 

The last twelve degrees, or tenth series, of the Metropolitan Chap- 
ter of France, received the names of the Signs of the Zodiac respec- 
tively. The signs usually encircle the chapiter placed on the northern 
pillar, Boaz, which stood at the entrance to the Temple. 

The 41st degree of the Rite of Mizraim is the Knight of the Seven 
Stars, being closely allied with the Knight of the East and West, or 
17th of the Ancient and Accepted Rite ; while the Knight of the Sun 
is the 51st degree of the former and 28th of the latter. 

Capitular and criptic masons are well informed how the twelve 
tribes are interwoven into several of the degrees, therefore, such will 
require no further exposition. The association of the four banner 
tribes with its Cherubim and its tetrads, and the twelve tribes with the 

( 259 ) 

Urim and Thummim, and other duodenal assi^ments are amply given 
in the tables appended. 

As noted in previous pages, the mysterious word Mesouraneo is 
one in which there is some doubt as to its etymology and meaning, and 
the same doubt seems to have existed with the translators of the He- 
brew text of the Scriptures with reference to Mazzaroth^ as it has been 
transferred from the Hebrew to the Septuagint, and thence to the au- 
thorized version. 

The word zodicu has been rendered " The Wheel of Life." Sacred 
and profane history point to a remote time when the names were given 
to the original Zodiac composed of living animals. The lost sign now 
occupied by Libra, according to Robert Brown, Jr., was thought to 
have been once occupied by the Altar. Other writers claim that Aquila, 
** the £agle," was originally the siyi now occupied by the Scales. 

The antiquity of the zodiac goes back to antediluvian times and it 
is generally agreed to be coeval with Seth. Sir William Drummond, 
Dupuis, Kircher, Rolleston, Vallancey, Westcott, and many others 
have made extensive researches on the Zodiac, and all have added to 
the lore on the subject. 

The XLixth tchapter of Genesis appears to give a picture of the 
Hebrew Zodiac. The dying patriarch Jacob, according to the record, 
addressed each of his sons separately by name, and then alluding to 
each chosen emblem, pointed out its signification. There seems to be 
a difference of opinion as to the allotment of the symbols in a few 
of the assignment, yet it is evident that the Zodiac was \}ci^\x famUiar 
astronomical symbols. '* Every man of the children of Israel shall 
pitch by his own standard, with the ensign of their father's house " 
(Numbers ii, 2). Oliver says, in " Landmarks," Vol. II, p. 401, that 
*' the camp of Israel was like one great body under the Sanhedrim, 
officered by Mose&, Aaron, and Joshua : while the twelve tribes were 
subordinate Grand Lodges under their respective princes ; and the 
captains of thousands, hundreds, and tens, fornied private Lodges for 
the purposes of order and regularity." The four leading divisions 
were designated by the component parts of the cherubim : a man, 
an ox, a lion, an eagle. The arrangement has given an opportunity 
for some Qurious conceits. 

( 260 ) 














Asia, ^ 










We must add here, however, that several writers give the allottments 
of the signs differently, ^nd refer to ancient authors for their authority. 
Samuel I. Curtiss, Jr., in his tract on "The Name Machabce," 1876, 
(p. 15), says the four camps were Reuben, Simeon, Judah, and Gad; 
and that the symbol of Gad was an " eagle." The above arrange- 
ments are from several writers, mostly masonic. Here follow refer- 
ences for the allotments, for fuller explanations. The several tables 
give the sign*names in the oldest languages for comparison, and sug- 
gest much thought to the student of this ancient scroll in the heavens. 

Egyptian Zodiac, "CEdipus Judaicus," Plate i. 

Gen. Valencey, " Collectanea," Vol. IV, Part 11, p. 334. 

William Drummond, "CEdipus Judaicus," pp. 5-32. 

Athanasius Kircher, "Treasury of Light," p. 155. 

Adam Clarke, '* Treasury of Light/* pp. 152-153. 

Robert Taylor, ** AstronomicoTheological Lectures," pp. 303-308. 

Frances Rolleston, " Mazzaroth," Part 11, p. 37. 

Twelve Masonic Points, Mackey's " Encyclopaedia," p. 839. 

Wm, Jones, Le Gentil, Martini, *' Mazzaroth," p. 26. 

Pahlavi text, ** Law of Cosmic Order." by Robert Brown, Jr., p. 30. 

Varaha-Mihira, " Law of Cosmic Order," Robert Brown, Jr., p. 30. 

1 « i'b 1 « J -a 1 aJ — g 1 -a 1 V r V i "-a 

V :, ll 

H a 

















I ffi 

^ .^ 

















































- < 






















.£ i c 






>? 1 





















! II 





1 1 
o (3 







































r« bb 





w o 

























o .s 





































^ ^ "^ O 





Id ^ 

o S 











•^ I -5^ 

9 ! O 

cd Jb£ 

r- I < 

















































Id iJ 
















































H ri 

< H 


6 ,2 
^ o 

V I o 

S it; 


























































. 9 










































































































































































































































• » 


























































. • 




























N ; < 











^.^ 1 
















< i 

























































> 1 

























:5 1 











4> 1 



























hJ 1 

9 ' 



CO ; 



































>— 1 



















1 ' 

i E>i 





































1 »«s 











I— I 





















































1 .22 

! g 


















1— 1 








o . 





























.S3 1 













i , 








1 00 1 o> 



( 265 ) 

The Magic Triple Diamonds. The following magic arrangement 
of the numbers i to 48, in three diamonds, symmetrically placed in a 
triangle, is original and new so far as we know. It was accomplished 
by Mr. Justus Webster, Boston, Mass., at odd times, for recreation. 

1. The sum of each row of four enclosures, in each diamond, is 98. 

2. The sum of each row of eight enclosures in the triangle is 196. 

3. The sum of the diagonals of each diamond is 196. 

4. The average sum of the two diagonals of each diamond is 98. 

5. The sgm of any four adjacent enclosures in each diamond is 96. 

6. Tlie sum of half of each horizontal row of four enlosures in the 
two lower diamonds, and half of each row from the left upward in the 
upper diamond, is 49. 

7. The sum of any four adjacent enclosures in one diamond added 
to the same adjacent four in either of the other diamonds is 196. ice 

( 266 ) 

Perry's Victory. (Vol. XI, p. 224.) I send you the song wished 
for, also the music in which I used to sing it. Years ago^ before or- 
gans became so plentiful, at our social gatherings we used to sing 
songs, and this was one of the many I used to sing, and play the base 
on the violoncello. I think I committed to memory nearly fifty of 
these old songs founded on the Revolutionary War, and that of 1813 ; 
among them were " Taxation of America," " Paul Jones/' " Constitu- 
tion and Guerrier, Hornet and Peacock " ; " Bold Dighton," " Major 
Andre," " Brave Wolfe," " Truxton's Victory," and numerous others, 
love songs, etc. When we gathered together, comprising a dozen 
male and female singers, we would spend several hours in singing those 
old songs, the most of which went out of existence when those that 
sung them passed away. You will pardon me for the rough sketch of 
music which I enclose Perhaps it may be familiar to " H. E. R.,'' 
who 'wishes for the song ; if so, it will do no harm. But to me^ 
* Perry's Victory " would seem fiat if sung to any other music than 
that in which I used to hear it. This copy of the song I write down 
entirely from memory. Calchas, Bryants's Pond, Maine. 

Perry's Victory. 

Ye tan of Columbia, give ear to my Btory, 

Who foagbt with brave Perry, where cannone did roar ; 
You valor has gained you an immortal glory, 

A tkme that will last until time be no more ; 
Columbian tare are the true sona of Han, 

They rake fore and aft aa they plow on the deep ; 
On the bed of Lake Erie commanded by Perry, 

They caused many a Briton to take hia laat aleep. . 

On the tenth of September let ua all remember, 

So long aa the globe on its axta rolla round ; 
The tan and marinen on Lake Erie were seen, 

To make the proud flag of Great Britain come down ; 
The van of our fleet the firitiah to meet, 

Commanded by Perry the Lawrence bore down, 
Her guna they did roar with auch terrific power, 

That ravages trembled at the dreadfhl sound. 

The Lawrence auetained a moat dreadful fin. 

She fought three to one for two glaaaea or more ; 
While Perry undaunted did firmly stand by her. 

While on her the foe heavy broadaidea did pour ; 
Her maata beinff nbattered, her rlgeing ail tattered, 

Her boom and ber yarda being aU shot away ; 
And few left on deck to manage the wreck, 

Our hero on board her no longer oould atay. 

In this situaUon, the pride of our nation. 
Sure heaven had guarded unhurt all the while ; 

While many a hero maintaining his atation, 
Fell dead by hia aide and waa thrown on the pile ; 

( 267 ) 

But mark ye this wonder, while the elements thunder, 
When death and destruction are stalking all round, 

His flag he did carry on board the Niagara, 
Such valor on record was never yet found. 

His pennant still flying, the fuemen defying, 

Brave Perry unyielding, he knew no defeat ; 
His vessel so shaken, must now be forsaken, 

To bT\nfi into action the rest of his fleet : 
In the midst of the battid, when cannons did rattle, 

The Lawrence a wreck and her men most all slain ; 
Away he did steer and brought up the rear. 

And by this manoduvre the victory did gain. 

This one gallant act in our noble commander, 

While writing my song I must notice with pride; 
When lauMched in the boat that carried his standard, 

A ball whistled through it, 't was close by his side. 
Bays Perry, " those villians intend lor to drown us, 

Push on my brave boys, you have nothing to fear " ; 
He ofl' with his coat ana plugged up the boat, 

And through fire and sulphur away he did steer. 

The famous Niagara now proud of her Perry, 
Displayed all her banners in gallant array ; 

With twenty-five guns on her deck she did carry, 
• She soon put an end in this bloody af&ay. 

The rear of our fleet was brought up complete. 
And signalii were given to break tnrough their line ; 

From starboard to mrboard, and from every quarter, 
The sons of Columbia did gloiiously shine. 

The bold British lion roared out his last thunder. 

As Perry attacked him close in the rear ; 
E Pluribus Unum soon made him crouch under. 

And roar out for quarters, we quick !y did hear. 
The fight being ended, the firing suspended. 

The carnage so fearfkil, the conflict was o*er ; 
Six red bloody flags which no longer could wag. 

Were all laid at the teet of our brave Commodore. 

Great Britain may boast of her conquering heroes, 

Her Rodneys, her Nelsons, and all the whole crew ; 
But Rome in her glory, ne'er told such a story, 

Nor boasted such feats as Columbians do : 
The whole British fleet was captured complete. 

Not one single vessel from us got away ; 
And prisoners some hundredn, Columbians wondered. 

To see them all anchored and moored in the bay. 

O I had you but seen those two noble commanders. 

Embracing each other when the battle was o'er ; 
And viewing those invincible standardft, 

That never had yielded to any before ; 
Says Perry, " brave Elliott, come give me your hand, 

This day you have gained an immortal renown " ; 
So long as Columbians, Lake Erie, command, 

Let brave Captain Elliott with laurels be crowned. 

May Heaven still smile on the shades of the heroes, 
Who fought in this conflict, their country to save ; 

And to check the proud spirit of those British bravoes. 
Who wished to deride us and make us all slaves. 

Columbians sing, and make the words ring, 
And toast tbose proud heroes, by sea and by land ; 

WhilA Britons drink cberry, Columbians quafl* Perry*, 
We'll toast them about with fhll glasses in hand. 

" Perry," cider made IVom pears. 


( 268 ) 

Perry's Victory. (Vol. XI, p. 224.) Oliver Hazard Perry, a 
distinguished American officer, died at Trinidad of yellow fever, on 
August 23, 1819, the anniversary of his birthday (N. and Q., VoL X^ 
p. 9), at the age of 34 years. His victory on Lake Erie over a 
British force superior in men and guns to his own^ has given his name 
a permanent place in the history of his country. 

Perry 's Victory. 

O'er the bosom of Erie, in Iknciftil pride, 

Did the fleet of Old England exnltiDgly rfde, 

Till the flag of ColambTa her Perry unfarled, 

The boast of the We«t and the pride of the world. 

And Btill ehoald the foe dare the fight to frnatain. 
Gallant Perry shall lead on to conquest again. 

The spirit of Lawrence his influence shedp. 
To the van of the fight, while the Lawrence he leads ; 
There death dealt around, though such numbers oppose. 
And levelled the gun at fkir Liberty's foes. 
And still should the toe, etc. 


When covered with slain, from his deck he withdrew, 
And left the Niagara the flght to renew : 
Where, undaunted in danger, our sea-beaten tars 
O'er the cross of St. George waved the stripes and the stars. 
And still should ue foe, etc. 

Six ships, while uor banners triumphantly flew, 
Submitted to tan who were bom to subdue ; 
When they rushed to the battle, resolved to maintain 
The freedom of trade and our rights to the n^dn, 
And still should the foe, etc. 


With the glory of conquest our heroes are-crowned ; 
Let their brows with the bright naval chi^tlet be bound I * 
For still should the toe dai-e the tight to sustain, 
Gallant Perrv shall lead them to conquest again. 
And still should the foe, etc. 

This song entitled ** Perry's Victory " is taken from a volume en- 
titled " Songs for the People," comprising national, patriotic, senti- 
mental, comic and naval songs, edited by Albret G. Emerick, pub- 
lished in Philadelphia, 1848. Vol. I, p. 104. 

The first song, according to Roarback's Bibliography of American 
Literature, is found in some " Forget-Me-Not Songster." There are 
at least four songsters under that title. Ours, published by Nafis an 
Cornish, New York, does not contain it. 

( 269 ) 

The Star of Betklshem. 

The following question had been received and submitted to Dr^ 
S. M. Blake, Bellows Falls, Vt, for information, previous to the short 
article in N. and Q., Vo1.*XI, p. 249. ** Is there any literature on 
the subject of the Star of Bethlehem, and what is the general trend 
of it as to the appearance of the star in this century ? 

We have received the following letter on the subject from Dr. S. M, 
Blake, which will be of interest to all interested in the subject : 

Yours of 2 2d is before me^ inquiring if there is any literature on the 
subject of the Bethlehem Star so called. In reply, I will say, there is ; 
but it is scattered along the centuries, and has generally cropped out 
in theological controversies. One of those occasions^ the most promi- 
nent in my mind at the present time, happened in the seventeenth 
century, when John Kepler the eminent astronomer was drawn into 
the debate, or controversy, then raging among theologians as to the 
time of the nativity, or birth of Christ. It seems that that question 
had never been settled by the early fathers, and recourse was had to 
the astronomers, John Kepler and Sir Isaac Newton. I will trans- 
scribe from a work I have what Kepler had to say in connection with 
the " Bethlehem Star." It seems there was a division among the 
contestants as to the nature of the star : some contending that the 
appearance of the star was a miracle, while others believed it to have 
been by natural causes, or the conjuntion of two or 'more planets. 

" kepler's calculations as to the star of the nativity. 

The credit of being the first to employ the data derived from astro- 
nomical and chronological calculations, respecting this star, as the 
basis of his investigations, concerning the year of our Lord's birth, is 
due to the celebrated astronomer John Kepler. Kepler, Well aware 
that the astrologers of all times, and certainly also the Magi, men- 
tioned by Matthew (11, 1,7, 16), attached great importance to the 
conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, which recurs about every twenty 
years ; and knowing for that very reason they had divided the zodiac, 
which it traverses in about 800 years, into four trigons, he calculated 
whether such a conjunction had taken place shortly before the com- 
mencement of the era at which according to historical data, the birth 
of our Lord must be placed. He arrived at the remarkable result that 
this conjunction had happened three times ; in the year of Rome 747 
(B. C), and that in the last half of Pisces, near the first point of 
Aries ; while in the Spring of the following year the planet Mars also 
came to the same spot He therefore argued that the star seen by 

( 270 ) 

the Magi from the East, at the birth of Christ, was identical with the 
conjunction of those three superior planets, and probably an extraordi- 
nary star^ like that which had blazed forth in the foot of Serpentarius, in 
his own time, was added to the group. Accordingly, he placed the birth 
of Jesus in the year of Rome 748 (B. C. 6)." 

This position of Kelper was severely criticized, as well it might be, 
for no conjunction of the planets could answer to the words of* Mat- 
thew : " Lo, the star, which they saw in the East, went before them, 
till it came and stood over where the young child was (Matt, i, 9).'' 
I will add here, that it has been my constant opinion that the star 
which the Magi, or astrologers, saw, was the "reappearance of a tem- 
porary star ; that its period fwas 315 years, and that it was well Icnown 
to the wise men, and they expected it to herald the coming Messiah. 
It is evident that the Christian world has always believed in the reality 
of the phenomenon as related in Matthew, and when Tycho Brahe 
the Danish astronomer discovered the star in Cassiopeia, in Novem- 
ber, 1572, many supposed it to be the Bethlehem Star, for it was the 
time for it to appear according to past records. Tycho Brahe dis- 
claimed the idea of its being the Bethlehem Star, and the consequence 
is that doubt and uncertainty has hung over the Christian world to 
this day. When I made the discovery, I had calculated that the star 
would appear in 1884 ; but inasmuch as it had not been announced, 
I commenced searching for it in June, and more in the mouths of July 
and August, and why 1 got ahead of the world, was this : I was look- 
ing for it and making myself familiar with star-fields in the region 
where I expected the star to appear. On the evening of the 27th of 
August, 1885, unconciously my telescope had wandered away a short 
distance, and to my surprise I detected a star in the center of the 
well-known and familiar nebulae of Andromeda, about ten degrees 
from wt\ere I expected the star to appear. Of course, I could then 
but think that I had discovered the reappearance of the Bethlehem 
Star. I informed my friends of what I had seen, and soon the news- 
papers were publishing my letters. Up to this time I have given noth- 
ing to the press on the subject, save an item to our local paper of half 
dozen lines. I have written a good many letters in answer to in- 
quiries all over the country, and have given all the history I could 
find that gave any light on the subject. My first announcement, on 
September 4, 1885, gave all the history on the subject that astrono- 
mers had been able to dig up from the mold of ages. 

Some of the reasons why I regarded it as the " Star of Bethlehem " 
were : First, it camt to the zenith of Bethlehem, in Judea, about 
December, when Christians celebrate the birth of our Lord. Second, 
it was in the fall season when the shepherds were watching their flocks 
by night. Third, it was the first time it had appeared since the tele- 
scepe was invented, and in consequence of that fact its reappearance 

( 271 ; 

was not always detected. The record is that the star ** appeared in 
the years 945, 1264, an 1572." The accounts of the positions of 
these objects are obscure and, uncertain, but the intervals between the 
epochs of their appearances being nearly equal, it has been conjec- 
tured that they were successive returns of the same periodic star. 

I send you my " scheme of the star." It may not amount to much, 
but it will do to go along wjth a very great stock of doubtful specula- 
tions that have their effect on the human mind. This, scheme was 
calculated several years ago, the results corresponding with the reap- 
pearances. My calculations made the period 314 years, on the aver- 
age, beginning with A. D. 1. 


314 Alexander declared Universal Monarch of the Eastern World. 

628 Josiah gives orders for reparing the Temple at Jerusalem. 

942 David with all Israel marched to Jerusalem. 

1258 Gideon destroys Baal's altar and slaughters the Midianites. 

1572 Birth of Moses. 

1884 Birth of Isaac. 
2198 A Savior promised. 

2512 The Flood passed, and the second age of the world begins. 


314 Conversion of Constantine ; he collects the secred books. 

628 Flight of Mahomet from Mecca. 

942 Reign of Constantine X. 

1258 Papal dominion at-it^ utmost height. 

1572 Sixty thousand Protestants slaughtered in France. 

1885 The Peace of Europe threatened. The Turk now in the scale. 

Stephen Burroughs. (Vol. XI, p. 224.) Stephen Burroughs was 
born in Hanover, N. H., about 1765 ; enlisted in the army at the age 
of fourteen years ; was discharged soon after ; entered Dartmouth in 
1 78 1 . he did not graduate ; he left to escape being expelled. 

He was a good scholar and of brilliant talents. He was a school 

teacher, clergyman, footpad, rake, villain, counterfeiter, hypocrite, and 

embodyed every evil with but little good. He was indicted several 

times for his deviltry, and committed to jail in this country and in 

Canada. I have his life written by himself, published by Nafis & 

Cornish, New York. The last that I heard of him, he was at Three^ 

Rivers, Canada, engaged in scnool-teaching, in 181 1. 

*' He left a villain^ a name to other timeSf 
Linked to no virtue^ hut a thousand crimeB," 
Bryant's Pond, Maine. Calchas. 

( 272 ) 

Precession of the Equinoxes. The slow backward motion of the 
equinoctial points along the ecliptic, at the rate of 50.1^' annually, 
caused by the action of the sun, moon, and planets upon the protu- 
berant matter about the earth's equator, in connection with its diur- 
nal rotation ; it is so called because either equinox, owing to its wes* 
terly motion, comes to the meridian sooner each day than the point it 
would have occupied without the motion of precession, and thus pn- 
cedes that point continually. — Webster's Dictionary^ 1892. 

Our contemporary, the Daily Union^ of September 7, 1893, ^" *** 
article, on '* When the Days and Night are Equal," makes a mistake 
in stating that ** the equinoxes move westward, the movement amount- 
ing to nearly 1° a year." If so the complete circuit of the the heavens 
would be accomplished in less then 360 year ; whereas the great revo- 
lution takes place in something less than 26.000. 

The Categories. What are the categories, in the logical sense? 

Waldo E. Lewis. 

The following is the statement of the categories given in Flem- 
ing's "Vocabulary of Philosophy," second edition, p.. 73 : 

The categories are the highest classes to which all the objects of 
knowledge can be reduced, and in which they can be arranged in sub- 
ordination and system. Philosophy seek to know all things. But it 
is impossible to know all things individually. They are, therefore, ar- 
ranged in classes, according to properties which are common to them. 
And when we know the definition of a class, we attain to a formal 
knowledge of all the individual objects of knowledge contained in 
that class. Every individual man we cannot know ; but if we know 
the definition of man, we know the nature of man, of which every in- 
dividual of the species participates ; and in this sense we may be 
said to know all men. The attempt to render knowledge in some 
sense universal, has been made in all ages of philosophy, and has 
given rise to the categories which have appeared in various forms. 
They are to be found in the philosophy of Eastern nations, as a clas- 
sification of things and ideas. The categories of the followers of 
Pythagoras have been preserved by Aristotle in the first book of his 
'* Metaphysics." Those, ascribed to Archytas are now regarded as 
apocryphal, and as having been fabricated about the beginning of the 
Christian era, to lower the reputation of Aristotle, whose categories are 
well known. They are ten in numbers, namely : substance, quantity, 
quality, relation, place, time, situation, possession, action, and suffer 
ing. The mnemonic lines which contain them, are these : 

Arbor sex servos ardore refrigerat ustos 
Cras rure stabo^ sed tunicatus ero. 

v-vVr'**— ' 'v-J 

( 273 ) 




m. c c^oui.]^. 


** I/you wovXd have your Light shine^ set it in a dark place" 

Vol. XL 

DECEMBER. 1893. 

No. 12. 

A Sabbath Day's Journey. What is the 
distance of a Sabbath Day's Journey as men- 
tioned in the Scriptures ? Elwyn. 

Sabbath-day's journey is a phrase for pre- 
scribed distance which may lawfully be trav- 
ersed on a Sabbath, and beyond which no 
Jew can go without violating the sanctity of 
the day, except he adopts the means that is 
appointed for exceeding the canonical boundary. From the injunction 
(Elxodus^ XVI, 29) that "every man is to abide in his place," on the 
Sabbath, the ancient Hebrew legislators deduced that an Israelite 
must not go 2^000 yards, or 12,000 hand-breadth = five Greek stadia, 
for a Greek stadium measures 2^00 hand-breaths, beyond the tempo- 
rary or permanent place of abode. These 2,000 yards are not to be 
measured from any and every spot, but according to definite and cer- 
tain minute rules, the city being reduced to a square. Thus, if the 
Sabbath-day's journey is to be fixed from a circular city, an imaginary 
square must be circumscribed about it, and the measurement is not 
to be taknn from the corner 0, in a diagonal direction, that is from a 
to t, because the distance from a to /will be less than 2,000 yards ; 
but the distance is to be taken from a to/, whereby the allowable dis- 
tance is increased in the direction of a to t, as will be seen from the^ 
annexed diagram. The permitted distance seems to have been ground- 
ed on the space to be kept between the ark and the people (Joshua 
III, 4), in the^wilderness, which tradition said was that between the 
ark and the tents. 


Theodotion. (Vol. XI, p. 221.) I will add one name to such as 
terminate with " tion ** : that is, Theodotion, who was one of the trans- 
lators of the Old Testament^ after the time of the Septuagint version. 
According to Epiphanius he was a native of Sinope, in Pontus, and for 
a time sided with the Marcionites, but left them afterwards and be- 
came a Jew. Iraeneus calls him Ephesitus^ that is, a native of Ephesus. 
Jerome and Eusebius call him an Ebionite, or semi-Christian. 

Harpocration. (Vol. XI, p. 221.) Valerius Harpocration was a 
grammarian of Alexandria, supposed by some to be the same with the 
one who instructed L. Verus in Greek ; while others take him to he 
identical with the Harpocration of whom mention is made in a letter of 
Libanius to Aristaenetus. He was the author of a Lexicon and an 

Amphictvon and Amphitryon. (Vol. XI, p. 221.) There was no 
" Amphictryon." Amphictyon was a son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, 
and reigned at Athens after Cranaus. He was one who first attempt- 
ing to give a satisfactory interpretation to dreams and to draw omens. 
Some say the deluge happened in his time. 

Amphitryon was a Theban prince, son of Alcsus and Hipponome. 
His sister Anaxo married EUctryon, king of Mycenae. 

Sambatyon. (Vol. XI, p. 221.) Sambatyon (or Sambation, as 
also spelled ) is a river mentioned in the Talmud as flowing during the 
first six days of the week, and drying up on the Sabbath. The Rab- 
bins are not agreed as to the situation of the river, some placing it on 
the borders of Ethiopia, while others locate it in India. Its name is 
derived from the same root-word as Sabbath, meaning " rest." It 
is therefore called the ** Sabbatic River.** Reland, in his " Pales- 
tine/' page 261, speaks of it as being a stream of Palestine. Jose- 
phus locates it between Arce and Raphanaca (Wars^ vn, 24). Dr. M. 
Edrehi places it in upper India, beyond the Ganges. Thomson, in 
his " Land and Book " (i, 496), locates it near Tripoli. 

Marcion flourished near the middle of the second century, and 
founded the sect called after him Marcionites. He also was a native 
of Sinope, where Theodotion was born. He was first a Stoic, and 
long inquired into the tenets of Christianity before he became a con- 
vert to it. He was excommunicated by his own father. 


Metempsychosis, Regeneration, Reincarnation, Transmigration 
(Vol. XI, p. 221.) Metempsychosis is the progress of the soul from one 
stage of existence to another. It is symbolized as, and commonly 
believed to be, re-births in animal bodies. The word is generally mis- 
understood by nearly every class of European and American society, 
including many scientists. Metempsychosis should apply to animals 
alone. The kabbalistic axiom reads thus : " A stone becomes a 
plant, a plant an animal^ an animal a man^ a man a spirit, and a spirit 
a god.'* This is explained in Manu's " Minava-Dharma-Shistra,/ 
and other Brahmincal books. 

Reincarnation is the doctrine of re-birth, believed by Jesus and the 
Apostles, as by nearly all sects in those days, with the exception of 
the Sadducees (Matt, xxii, 2^), but denied now by the Christians 
generally. The Egyptian converts to Christianity, the Church Fathers, 
and many others in those days belived just what Jesus said, " Ye must 
be born again (John in, 7) ; and " Ye, which have followed me in the 
regjeneration " (Matt, xix, 28), re-birth. Resurrection, with the Egyp- 
tians, and others, never meant the coming up of the mutilated body, 
but the Soul that informed it, that is, the Ego in a new body. The 
belief in a new body was well nigh universal. 

Transmigration means " a passing over," in the theological accepta. 
tion of the term, and intimates the supposed translation of the soul 
after death into another, substance or body than that which it occu- 
pied before. The basis of this belief being the assumption that the soul 
does not perish together with the body, it can belong only to those 
nations which believe in the immortality of the soul. But in propor- 
tion as such an idea is crude or developed, as it is founded on a 
vague idea fear of death, and a craving for material life, or on ethical 
grounds, and a supposed casual connection between this and a future 
life, the belief in transmigration assumes various forms. The notion, 
dating back to a remote antiquity, and being spread all over the 
world, seems to be anthropologically innate, and to be the first foijn 
in which the idea of immortality occurred to man. The dogma reads : 
'* One lamp is kindled at another ; the light of the former is not iden- 
tal with that of the latter, but, nevertheless, without this the other 
light could not have originated." 

Regeneration means *• a being born again." The theological inter- 

( 276 ) 

terpretation of the word by many is the recovery of the image of God 
upon the heart, that is, so as to love him supremely^ and serve him 
ultimately as the highest aim of life. In other words, as it is stated 
in modern creeds, conversion^ or change of heart. But that is not the 
meaning of the word. The word means rebirth^ or rebodified ; and is 
a synonym of reincarnation. All these four words have been pervert- 
ed by theology, more or less ignorantly. Dr. Campbell translates the 
Greek ^ord paiingmsia^ (Matt, xix, 28), into English by " renovatioD,'i 
instead of *' regeneration," as in the authorized version. He is fol- 
lowed by Benj. Wilson in " The Emphatic Diaglott." Dr. Campbell 
says it refers to the future state, where all things will become new. 

Massabesic, (Vol. XI, p. 178.) The correspondent " Rrsident" 
asks^ *' where is the original Massabesic in New England, and how the 
name came to be applied to the lake in the limits of Manchester, N H. ? 

The first mention of the name Massabeseck that we have knowledge 

of, is in the ** Massachusetts Archives." The item referred to reads : 

" Dec. 2, 1777. To John Smith, Massabeseck Miliage to Saratoga, 
£^(i. 1 6s." 

This item was copied from the '* Archives " and published with sev- 
eral others in the Maine Historical and Genealogical Recorder^ Vol. Ill, 
No 2, 1886, page 75. It is claimed to be the original name of Water- 
borough, Maine. The name does not appear in connection with the 
town of Waterborough nor Alfred on the south of Waterborough as 
described by John Hayward, in his "Gazetteer of Maine," 1843, on 
pages 58 and 80. When the name was applied to the lake in this 
city, we have not yet ascertained, but shall endeavor to do so. 

Sacred Oaths. (Vol. V, p. 211 ; VI, p. 310, 314.) The sacred 

oath of Mexicans, as given in E. G. Squier's '* Serpent Symbol," 1861, 

p. 55, is as follows : 

'* I swear by the Life of the Sun, and by Our Sovereign Mother 
THE Earth, that nothing which I affirm is false : and in confirmation 
of my oath, I eat this earth." 

After taking the oath the person immediately touches the earth 

with his hand, and raised it to his mouth, aud in that manner ate the 

earth. According to Kingsborough's " Collections (History of North 

( 277 ) 

em Spain)^ Vol, II, p. 107, appendix, the most ancient oath of the 

Greeks was as follows : 


" By our Father Jupiter, the all-seeing Sun, the all-bearing Earth 
(Gaia), the Rivers, and infernal powers." 

The ancient Scandinavians had a similar oath : " By Fria (earth), 
Thor (Jupiter), and Odin (the Almighty)." (See the Bdda:) 

The Hebrew for Genesis. What is the Hebrew word for Genesis ? 


The Hebrew word translated Genesis is Brashith, The books of 
the Pentateuch are so called from the first wotds of the books. For 
instance we give the first verse of Genesis in four languages : 
Hebrew. Brashith barak Elohim eth hashamaim ve-eth haaretz. 
Greek, 'En archee 'epoieesen 'o Theos ton 'ouranon kai teen gee. 
Latin. In principle . creavit Deus caelum et terraro. 
English. In the beginning created Gods the heavens and the earth. 

Therefore, i. Brashith is ^ the beginning (Genesis)." 2. Ve-lleo 
Shemoth is *' the going out " (Exodus). 3. Leviticus is the book on 
the Levitical service chiefly ; the first word is Vikhra^ " He called,'* 

4. Numbers, from the numberings, chapters i to vi, and xxvi ; some 
times called Be Midbac (** in the desert)," a word in the first verse. 

5. The first Hebrew words mean * these are the words.*' Deuter- 
onomy (^Deuteronomion in Greek), ** the second law." 

Magnanimity and Equanimity. Magnqpimity is described as lift 
ing us above the good and evil of this life, so that while the former is 
not necessary to our happiness, the latter could not make us miserable. 
The favorite example of magnanimity, among the Romans was Fabius 
Maximus, who, amidst the provocation of the enemy and the impa- 
tience of his countrymen, delayed to give battle till he saw how he 
could do so successfully. 

Equanimity supposes a change of state or fortune, and means the 
preservation of an even mind in the midst of vicissitude, neither elat 
ed unduly by prosperity, nor depressed unduly hy adversity. Equa- 
nimity springs from magnanimity. Indeed, both these words denote 
frames or states of mind from which special acts of virtue spri ng 
rather then any particular virtue. They correspond to the active and 
^^L'&sive fortitude of modern moralists. 

( 278 ; 

Irony. In reply to " Criticus " we will say that irony is not an 
untruth or falsehood, but a feigned ignorance, whereby a person mis- 
leads his hearers or antagonist fo the time being. Fleming defines it : 

Dissimulation, or an ignorance purposely effected to provoke or 
confound an antagonist. It was much employed by Socrates against 
the Sophists. In modern times it was adopted by Burke in his work, 
" The Defence of Natural Society," in which, assuming the person of 
Boiingbroke, he proves, according to the principles of that author, 
that the arguments he brought against ecclesiastical, would equally 
avail against civil institutions. 

Sir William Drummond, in his '* (Edipus Judaicus," maintains that 
the history of the twelve patriarchs is a symbolical representation of 
the Zodiac. Rev. George Townsend, in his "(Edipus Romanus," at- 
temps to show upon the same principles the twelve patriarchs were 
prophesies of the twelve Csesars. Richard Whalely, in a pamphlet 
entitled " Historic Doubts," attempts to show that objections similar 
to thdse against the Scriptures, and some of them more plausible, 
might be urged against all the accounts of Napoleon Bonaparte. 

Ruth Rathburn. (Vol. XI, p. 224.) " Ruth Rathburn " was the 
pseudonym of a lady, a Miss Greenwood, of Manchester, employed in 
a prominent clothing-house. She was possessed with remarkable 
large-hearted, theosophic traits, and of a literary turn of mind ; many 
of the daily events which came under her observation were woven at 
once into poetic compositions and were published in the Daily Union 
and Union Democrat during the *6o's Among them we note these ; 
'* The Girl in the Water-proof Cloak " ; " Longings for Freedom " ; 
"Above the Cloud " ; " Have Faith " ; "Thanksgiving " ; "Christmas.' 
Some of her poem have been selected by pupils of our public schools 
and recited in the elecutionary exercises. 

The Tenth Muse. Who was the tenth muse > A. A. Irvine. 

Sappho, a celebrated poetess, a native of Mytilene in the island of 
Lesbos, was called the *• Tenth Muse '' by the Grecians to fully testify 
their high sense or her powers. Anthon says the whole voice of an- 
tiquity has declared that the poetry of Sappho was unrivalled in grace 
and sweetness. This decision has been confirmed by posterity not- 
withstanding we have only a few verses extant of her effusions, and 
these are of a high character and stamped with the true impress of 
genius. Her history is involved in great obscurity. Solon, on hear- 
ing one of her poems reched by his nephew, remarked that he himself 
could not willingly die till he had committed it by heart. 

( 279 ) 


Some Old Sayings 

There are some old sayings familiar to all persons, and it may in- 
terest your readers to read some clever collections of many of them 
in verse : 

As poor as a church mouse, 

As thin as a rail ; 
As fat as s porpoise, 

As rough as a gale ; 
As brave as a lion, 

As spry as a cat ; 
As bright as a sixpence. 

As weak as a rat. 

As proud as a peacock^ 

As sly as a fox ; 
As mad as a March hare^ 

As strone as an ox ; 
As fair as a lily. 

As empty as air ; 
As rich as a Croesus, 

As cross as a bear. 

As pure as an angel, 

As neat as a pin ; 
As smart as a steel trap. 

As ugly as sin ; 
As dead as a door-nail. 

As white as a sheet ; 
As flat as a pancake, 

As red as a beet. 

As round as an apple, 

As black as your hat ; 
As brown as a berry, 

As blind as a bat ; 
As mean as a miser. 

As full as a tick. 
As plump as a partridge. 

As sharp as a stick. 

As clean as a penny, 

As dark as a pall ; 
As hard as a millstone, 

As bitter as gall. 
As fine as a fiddle, 

As clear as a bell. 
As dry as a herring, 

As deep as a well. 

As light as a feather^ 

As hard as a rock ; 
As stiff as a poker, 

As calm as a clock ; 
As green as a gosling, 

As brisk as a bee ; 
And now let me stop. 

Lest you weary me. 

Wild as hawk, meek as a lamb, 
Gentle as a dove, happy as a clam; 
firave as a lion, stonge as an ox. 
Fierce as a tiger, cunning as a fox; 
Nimble as a squirrel, spry as a cat. 
Proud as a peacock, gray as a rat; 
Dumb as a oyster, ripe as a cherry. 
Red as a lobster, brown as a berry; 
Wise as an owl, black as a crow, 
firight &s a button, dull as a hoe : 
Rich as a Jew dirty as a pig, 
Dizzy as a coot, merry as a gig; 

Fine as a fiddle, cold as a frog. 
Fresh as a daisy, tired as a^dbg ; 
Still as a mouse,bright as a spoon. 
Deaf as a post, crazy as a loon; 
Sound as a nut, cross as a bear, 
Mad as a hatter, or a March hare; 
Grave as a judge, wise as a seer. 
Gay as a lark, swift as a deer; 
Sweet as a rose, as clear as horn. 
Quick as a flash, fair as a dawn ; 
Keen as a razor, dull as the times, 
Old as the hill, or as these rhymes. 

( 280 ) 

Childhold Folk-Lore. Here are some rhymes that will remind 
manhood of .early life, taken from a little work entitled " Chenodia," 
or Classical Mother Goose. " Argutos inter strepere anser olores." 
Cambridge; printed (not published). 1871. 


Jack and Jill 
Went up the hill, 
To draw a pail of water ; 
Jack fell down 
And broke his crown, 


Jackus cum Jilli 
Formosa ancilli, 
Aquam hauri turns collem ascendebat; 
Prolabitur Jackus, 
Caput miser^ fractus, 

And Jill came tumbling after. £t Jilli desperata in factum ruebat. 

Dickory dickory dock, 
The mose ran up the clock. 
The clock struck one. 
The mouse ran down, 
Dickory dickory dock. 

Diccora diccora dogium, 
Ascendit mus horologium, 

Insonuit hore, 

Fugif mus sine mor4, 
Diccora diccora dogium. 

Three wise men of Gotham 
Went to sea in a bowl. 
If the bowl had been stronger, 
My song had been longer. 

Tres magi Gothamenses 
In scypho mare tranant. 
Si cymba secura, 
Canenda sint plura. 

Fee I faw! fum !* 
I smell the blood of an Englishman. 
Dead or alive, 
I will have some. 

Fe ! fau I fum ! 
Sanguinem odoror Angelicum. 

Seu vivum seu mortuum^ 
Bibendum est mihi aliquantum. 

Heigh diddle diddle, 
The cat and the fiddle, 
The cow jumped over the moon. 
The little dog laughed 
To see such a craft. 

In fidibus felis, 
Super lunan vacca saltvit. 
Tum risit canicula, 
Visi re tam ridiculd, 

And the dish ran away with the spoon. Et lanx cochleare raptavit. 

The man in the moon 
Came down at noon, 

Inquiring the way to Norwich. 

The man of the South 
Has burnt his mouth. 

Eating cold milk porridge. 

Lunicola, meridie, 
Ad terram descendebat, 
Et viam ad Norvicum assidue 
Australis vir inpetus 
Est et OS excoriavit, 
Dum lacteuro perfrigidum incon- 
tinens voravit. 

( 281 ) 

The Riddle of Riddles, 


{From The Occtdt Word,) 

A young man sat in gloomy meditation over the misfortunes and 
miseries of human life. He was poor and friendless and obliged to 
toil early and late to keep soul and body together. He was one of a 
numerous family and had received as his sole inheritance three rings 
which he hed regarded as of little value, though on receiving them he 
had been charged never to separate them nor part from them while he 
lived, there being a tradition in his family that the possessor of these 
rings might one day fall heir to a priceless inheritance. This tradi- 
tion had been related to him by his old nurse, and it had passed from 
his memory with other incidents of his happy childhood. 

The young man had no recollection of his father, through whom two 
of the three rings had been inherited, but he often thought of the 
dear, tender mother through whom the third ring had been inherited, 
and in times of trouble he longed to rest again within her sheltering 
arms and forget his cares upon her peaceful bosom. He remembered 
hearing an old physician once say, that if the rings could be united 
in a certain way, so that they could not again be separated, they would 
make the fortune of their possessor. 

As the young man sat down in the twilight, the recollection of ear- 
lier years came welling up from the long ago. To strangers his moth- 
er seemed to be of a cold and joyless nature, but the son had discov- 
ered a wealth of affection and tenderness in the mother's nature, easily 
called out by caresses, and when he had performed his allotted tasks 
the mother would smile upon him in a way that made his heart glad. 
As he thought of all these tender memories, all at once he remem- 
bered the rings. They had been forgotten and neglected for years, 
though the casket which contained them, the same in which they had 
been received, was close at hand. This casket was of a very singu- 
lar workmanship, such as no man now-a-days could produce ; he had 
grown so accustomed to seeing it that he had never examined it with 
sufficient care to discover its great beauty and singular workmanship. 
Now when he cleaned it from accumulated impurities, and examined 
its delicate carving and exquisite color, he wondered how he could 
have ever neglected it. The key was in the lock ; but even thus, it 
required a master hand to open the casket and gain a view of its con- 
tents. The lock might be broken, the key lost, or the casket removed 
bodily.; but neither by violeiice nor ignorance could its contents be 

( 282 ) 

brought to view. Our young friend now carefully turned the key three 
times around, stopping the last revolution at a certain number on the 
dial over the key hole, when the lid flew open revealing the rings. 
The tradition was that there were three rings, but what was now his 
surprise to find but one. However, upon closer inspection he found 
that the rings had been placed one within the other, though apparentiy 
of equal size, and that, during all these years in which they had been 
forgotten, they had coalesced, so that they could not now be separa- 
ted without injury to each other, or perhaps destruction to all. The 
outline of each ring could be fairly discovered, and while they were 
thus, to all appearances united, it was certainly not that peculiar 
union to which the old physician referred. 

Our young friend was greatly perplexed as he endeavored to dis- 
cover the material out of which the rings had been made. At length he 
remembered that the same old physician already referred to had given 
him an old book, which, after some trouble, he found on an upper 
shelf, covered with dust, where it had long laid* neglected like the 
casket. He had never before observed the title of the book, which 
now seemed very strange to him. The title was as follows : 


As already stated, our hero, for such he will prove to be, belonged 
to a numerous family. There were older brothers, some of whom had 
died, even before he was born. Like himself, they had each received 
as an inheritance three rings, the parents providing impartially for 
all their children, but as most of his brothers had died in poverty it 
was quite evident that they had not properly valued their inheritance, 
or discovered the secret of the rings. 

The author of the book had evidently known one of the brothers 
who had discovered the secret, for only this one family had shared in 
this singular inheritance. Opening the book our hero found it as 
much of a riddle as the rings, for it was written in strange characters, 
though apparently with method and great care. In turning over the 
leaves he came to a diagram of the casket ; to his delight he found 
diagrams also of the rings, both separated and united. Remembering 
now the peculiar form of the key to the casket and the number on the 
dial already referred to, he soon made the discovery that the casket 
and its precious contents were really the key to the book, in short, 
that they belonged to each other, and had he not already, from care- 
ful examination and deep study, aided also by natural gifts, learned 
something of the casket and its contents, he would never have been 
able to decipher the contents of the mysterious book. He now found 
out that the rings were made, originally, one of salt, one uf sulphur, 
and one of mercury, and though in their present condition^ they bore 
not the least resemblance to either of these substances, he knew that 

( 283 ) 

appearances are often deqsitful, and that both names and things have 
to be studied very carefully to discover their real meaning and nature. 
Reading further in the old book, our young friend discoverd that 
by some process, only yet hinted at, these three rings of base metal 
may be annealed, amalgamated, precipitated, clarified, and purified so 
that every semblance of base metal will disappear, and in place of the 
salt, sulphur, and mercury, only pure gold remain, a single ring in- 
stead of three, and possessing wonderful beauty and some strange 
power. There were references to a wonderful bright light, boundless 
wealth, and the purest happiness, which he could not fully decipher. 

Our young friend studied long and deeply the problems thus pre- 
sented. He did not rush blindly into experiments with his rings, 
knowing that he might thus destroy all his future prospects. A change 
had taken place in his life. He was as poor and toiled as hard as be- 
fore, yet his burdens seemed lighter, for his heart was set on discover- 
ing the great secret, and )iappiness and contentment, such as he had 
never known before, came from the fact that he possessed the rings 
and at least a clue to their wonderful mystery. Not only was this 
change manifest in his waking hours, but in the dreams that visited 
him at night there seemed more method, and he learned to distin- 
guish between those which were readily explained by connection with 
some well-remembered experience, and those that were only phantasy, 
and on rare occasions, when both mind and body were clear, and 
pure, and when from poverty he had gone supperless to bed, visions 
of a higher order came to him, and his understanding was enlightened, 
and his soul strengthened. 

Acting on the few hints he had been enabled to gather from the 
old book, he from time to time subjected the rings to a gentle heat, 
and found that they readily changed color. Imagine now his discom- 
fiiture, )vhen having once subjected the rings to a more intense heat 
than usual, he found that they had wholly disappeared and in their 
place there lay in the casket only a blackened lustreless mass. 

Our hero had by this time, however, learned both patience and 
courage, and in this dilemma he consulted the old volume of hiero- 
glyphics with greater zeal and determination, and soon made out this : 

" Take the matter which you know and purify it : You must be cer 
tain that it is perfectly clean, for nothing impure must enter into it 
Wash away the blackness, not with water, but with a gentle and con 
suming fire ; use no violence, watch constantly. The old body dieth 
and rots, and when it is once purged, and made clean and pure, then 
.are the elements joined in one perfect and indissoluble perpetual unity, 
. " Remember, then, this alchemical maxim, namely, ' A sad, cloudy 
.morning begins a fair day and a cheerful noontide/ 

" After long contemplation of the subject, and living with it, a light 


is kindled on a sudden, as if from a leaping fire, and being engen- 
dered in the sonX^ feeds itself upon itself At last by the will of God 
a light shall be sent upon thy matter, which thou canst not imagine.'' 

While he had been thus engaged in deciphering the symbols, a 
gentle flame had been glowing beneath the rings, and now, as he fin- 
ished his reading and glanced at the rings, his book fell from his 
hands, and he sank on his knees before the casket. The former 
blackness -had disappeared, a transformation scene was taking place, 
his eyes were full of tears, and a strange tremor shook his frame, un- 
mixed with fear or sorrow. A luminous vapor had for a moment con- 
cealed the contents of the casket, which immediately disappeared, 
and there before his astonished gaze lay a circlet of pure gold, woven 
within and without with precious gem's, in the form and color of a 
damask violet, the milk white lily^ and the immortal amaranthus, while 
in the center of all was set a /Air/, so large and clear that it shone 
like a Blazing Star, lighting up all the room^ a sweet incense, as from 
unseen censers filled the room, and low, sweet music, such as he had 
never before heard, seem wafted to his enraptured ear as by the very 
breath of angels. 

Presently our hero recovered from his entranced condition, and dis- 
covering the book he had dropped in the first moment of surprise, he 
picked it up, and as he opened it again, even here the veil was also 
lifted^ and he read with ease the next sentence. 

'* The possessor of this treasure has no occasion to run to kings, 
princes, lords^ nobles, or great men, and they who do so have none of 
the secrets, but desire to try conclusions at other men's charges. The 
true possessor seeks not after such friendships, nor earthly glories ; 
he is content with his modicum, and has enough, even the whole 
world in his ring, which he can carry about with him wherever he 
goes. Whatsoever he desires, that also shall he obtain ; at whatso- 
ever door he knocks, it shall be opened unto him ; and whatsoever 
shall come near him, shall feel the influence of the jewel he carries, 
concealed from all profane eyes, and grows better and purer, though 
they know not why." 

It was midnight as our hero extinguished his lamp, and sought his 
pillow, forgetting that he had taken no food since the evening before, 
and as he placed this jewel near his heart, and noticed the pale yet 
constant glow amid the surrounding darkness, he realized that he had 
discovered the secret and solved the riddle, and even in his yet wak- 
ing state, he realized that the land of dream and vision into which lie 
was about to enter could no longer beWilder him. 

The pale lustre of his pearl, when viewd by ordinary vision, was 
akin to the star-beam, and opened up a highway to realnis elysiao, 
along which his entranced soul would presently pass from the worM 

( 285 ) 

of changing shadows, to the real world of essential forms and endur- 
ing substance. Attracted there by the same law which holds the 
needle to the pole, and the planets in their course , his soul would 
meet and mingle with the pure in hearty whose thoughts are anthems, 
and whose only impulse, Love. 

Love lieih at the foundation ; 

Over allf Divine Love reigneth, * 

The Creation Legend. 

(Vol, XI, p. 95.) A correspondent inquires where the quotation 
given, as from the " Creation Legend," by Robert Brown, Jr., may be 
found : " He arranged the year according to the bounds that he de- 
find. For each of the twelve months three constellations He fixed.'' 

•' The Chaldean Account of Genesis," by George Smith giv6s wha 
is called the " Creation Legend." « 

Augustus R. Grote, A. M., in his work, " Genesis, I-II,'' p. 44, has 

the following translation of the Fifth Tablet : 

" It was delightful, all that was fixed by the Great Gods. Sta r s 
their appearance in the figures of animals, He arranged. To fix the 
year through the observation of their constellations, twelve mon ths 
(signs) of stars in three rows, He arranged, from the day when the 
year commences until its close. He marked the position of the wan- 
dering stars (planets) to shine in their courses that they may not do 
injury and may not trouble any one. And He opened the great ga tes 
in darkness shrouded ; the fastenings were strong on the left a nd 
right. In its mass (the lower chaos) he made a boiling, the God U ru 
(the Moon, Yareach in Hebrew), He caused to rise out ; the night H e 
overshadowed, to fix it also for the light of the night until the shining 
of the day, that the month might not be broken, and in its amount be 
regular. At the begining of die month, at the rising of the night, his 
horns are breaking through to shine on the Heaven. On the seventh 
day to a circle He begins to swell and stretches farther towards the 
dawn. When the God Shamah (the Sun, Shemesh in Joshua xv, i o) 
in the horizon of Heaven, in the East, He formed beautifully to shine 
upon the orbit. Shamah was perfected and at the coming of the 
dawn, Shamah should change." 

There is one verse in Deuteronomy (xxxii, 8), evidently referri ng 

to a more ancient book than the Pentateuch according to verse 7 : 

" When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when 
. he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people accor d- 
ing to the number of the children of Israel (angels of God — Sfpi,y* 

( 286 ) 

The Thirty - Two Paths of Wisdom. 

{From Sepher l^etzirah^ or Book of Formation^ 

The First Path is called the Admirabie or the Concealed Intelli- 
gence (The Highest Crown) ; for it is the Light giving the power of 
comprehension of that First Principle which has no beginning, and it 
is the Primal Glory^ for no created being can attain to its essence. 

The Second Path is called the Illuminating Intelligence ; it is the 
Crown of Creation, the Splendor of the Unity equalling it, and it is 
exalted above every head, and named by the cabbalists the Second 

The Third Path is the Sanctifying Intelligence, and is the basis of 
foundation of Primordial Wisdom, which is called the Former of 
F^ith, and its Roots, Amen \ and it is the parent of Faith, from whose 
virtues doth Faith emanate. 

The Fourth Path is named Measurirg, Cohesive, or Receptacular ; 
and is so called because it contains all the holy powers, and from it 
emanate all the spiritual virtues with the most exalted essences \ they 
emanate one from the hther by the power of the primordial emana- 
tion (The Highest Crown), blessed by it. 

The Fifth Path is called the Radical Intelligence, because it is it- 
self the essence equal to the Unity, uniting itself to the Binah or In* 
telligence which emanates from the primordial depths of Wisdom or 

The Sixth Path is called the Intelligence of *the Mediating Influ- 
ence, because in it are multiplied the influxes of the emanations ; for 
it causes that affluence to flow into all the reservoirs of the Blessings^ 
with which these themselves are united. 

The Seventh Path is the Occult Intelligence, because it is the Re- 
fulgent Splendor of all the Intellectual drtues which are perceived by 
the eyes of the intellect^ and by the contemplation of faith. 

The Eighth Path is called Absolute or Perfect, because it is the 
means of the primordial ^ which has no root by which it can cleave, 
nor rest, except in the hidden places of Gedulah, Magnificence, 
which emanates from its own proper essence. 

The Ninth Path is the Pure Intelligence, so called because it puri- 
fies the Numerations \ it proves and corrects the designing of their 
representation, and disposes their unity with which they are combined 
without diminution or division. 

( 287 ; 

The Tenth Path is the Resplendent Intelligence, because it is ex- 
alted above every head, and sits on the throng of ^nah (the Intelli- 
gence spoken of in the Third Path). It illuminates the splendor of 
all Lights, and causes a supply of influence to emanate from the 
Prince of Countenances. 

The Eleventh Path is the Scintillating Intelligence, because it is 
the essence of that curtain which is placed close to the order of the 
disposition, and this is a special dignity given to it that it may be able 
to stand before the face of the Cause of Causes. 

The Twelfth Path is the Intelligence of Transparency, because it is 
that species of Magnificence called Chazchazit, which is the name of 
the place whence issues the vision of those seeing in apparitions ; that 
is, the prophecies by seers in a vision. 

The Thirteenth Path is named the Uniting Intelligence, and is so 
called because it is itself the essence of Glory. It is the Consumma- 
tion of the Truth of individual spiritual things. 

The Fourteenth Path is the Illnminating Intelligence^ and is so 
called because it is itself that Chashmal which is the founder of the 
concealed and fundamental ideas of holiness and of their stages of 

The Fifteenth Path is the Constituting Intelligence, so called be- 
cause it constitutes the substance of creation in pure darkness, and 
men have spoken of these contemplations ; it is that darkness spoken 
of in the Scriptures (Job 38, 9) : " And thick darkness a swaddling 
band for it." 

The Sixteenth Path is the Triumphal or Eternal Intelligence, ao 
called because it is the pleasure of the Glory, beyond which is no 
other Glory like to it, and it is called also the Paradise prepared for 
the Righteous. 

The Seventeenth Path is the Disposing Intelligence, which pro- 
vides Faith to the Righteous, and they are clothed with the Holy 
Spirit by it, and it is called the Foundation of Excellence in the state 
of higher things. 

The Eighteenth Path is called the House of Influence, by the great- 
ness of whose abundance the influx of good things upon created be- 
ings is increased, and from the midst of the investigation the arcana 
and hidden senses are drawn forth, which dwell in its shade and 
which cling to it, from the Cause of all Causes. 

The Nineteenth Path is the Intelligence of all the activities of the 
spiritual beings, and is so called because of the affluence diffused by 
it from the most high blessing and most exalted sublime glory. 

( 288 ) 

The Twentieth Path is the Intelligence of Will, and is so called be- 
cause it is the means of preparation of all and each created being, 
and by this Intelligence the existence of the Primordial Wisdom be- 
comes known. 

The Twentieth-First Path is the Intelligence of Conciliation, and is 
so called because it receives the divine influence which flows into it 
from its benediction upon all and each existence. 

The Twenty-Second Path is the Faithful Intelligence, and is so 
called because by it spiritual virtues are increased, and all dwellers 
on earth are nearly under its shadow. 

The Twenty-Third Path is the Stable Intelligence, and it is so 
called because it has the virtue of consistency among all numerations. 

The Twenty-Fourth Path is the Imaginative Intelligence, and it is 
so called because it gives a likeness to all the similitudes, which are 
created in like manner to its harmonious elegancies. 

The Twenty-Fifth Path is the Intelligence of Probation, or is Ten- 
tative, and is so called because it is the primary temptation, by which 
the Creator, blessed be He, trieth all righteous persons. 

The Twenty-Sixth Path is called the Renovating Ibtelligence, be- 
cause the Holy God, blessed be He, renews by it all the changing 
things which are renewed by the creation of the world. 

The Twenty-Seventh Path is the Exciting Intelligence, and it is so 
called because by it is the created Intellect of all created beings under 
the highest heavens, and the excitement or emotion of them. 

The Twenty-Eighth Path is the Natural Intelligence, and is so 
called because through it is consumated and perfected the nature of 
every existent being under the orb of the sun, in perfection. 

The Twenty-Ninth Path is the Corporeal Intelligence, and is so 
called because it forms every body which is formed beneath the whole 
set of worlds and the increment of them. 

The Thirtieth Path is the Collecting Intelligence, and is so called 
because Astrologers deduce from it the judgment of the Stars, and of 
the celestial signs, and the perfection of their science, according to the 
rules of their revolutions. 

The Thirty-First Path is the Perpetual Intelligence ; and why is it 
so called ? Because it regulates the motions of the Sun and Moon 
in their proper order, each in an orbit convenient for it. 

The Thirty-Second Path is the Administrative Intelligence, and it 
is so called because it directs and associates, in all their operations, 
the planets, even all of them in their own due courses. 

( 289 ) 

Literature Pertaining to "The Lost." 




Atlantis; the Antediluvian World. By Ignatius Donnelly, author 
of Ragnarok (''Twilight of the gods"), the Age of Fire and Gravel. 
Illustrated ; pp. 490. New York, 1882. 

The Lost Continent, Atlantis; and the Civilization of the Pre-His- 
toric World. By W. J. Colville. An inspirational lecture ; pp. 24 
London. Delivered in England. 

(i) Atlantis, the Antediluvian World. (2) Fragments of Forgotten 
History ; Atlantis *' Reconstructed." By W. J. Colville. Two inspi- 
rational lectures delivered in San Francisco, Cal., Sept. 5 and 13, 1886. 
Boston, 1886. Pp. 60. 

The Lost Atlantis. By Moncure D. Conway. " Lessons for the 
Day." Lecture, April 15, 1883. pp. 12. London. 

Atalantis. A story of the Sea. In three parts. By Wm. Gilmore 
Sims. A dramatic poem. New York, 1832. Pp. 80. Second edi- 
tion. Philadelphia, 1848. 


The Lost Arts. By Wendell Phillips. A lecture delivered origi- 
nally in the winter of 1838-1839. 

This has been delivered nearly two thousand times, says the preface 
to this edition. Boston, 1884. Pp. 24^ Published in the New York 
Tribune " Lecture and Letter Sheet," extra, January, 1873. 


The Book of Jasher, with testimonies and notes. A preliminary 
dissertation. Translated from the Hebrew by Flaccus Albinus Alcui- 
nus, of Britain, Abbot of Canterbury. Bristol, 1829. 4^^* PP* 7^* 

The Book of Jasher, Referred to in Joshua (x, 13), and II Samuel 
(1,18). Translated from the original Hebrew. Published by W. 
Reid Gould. Second edition. New York, 1840, Pp. 267. 

The Book of Jashar, the Lost Book of the Bible, mentioned in 
Joshua (x, 13), and II Samuel (i, 18). Translated from the original 
Hebrew. By Rev. Edward B. M. Browne. New York, 1876. Pp.414. 

The Book of Enoch the Prophet ; an apocryphal work, supposed 
for ages to have been lost ; but discovered at the close of the las 

( 290 ) 

century in Abyssinia ; first translated from an Ethiopic MS. in ^e 
Bodleian Library. By Richard Laurence, LL. D. Third edition. 
Oxford, 1838. Pp. 250. 

Three editions of Dr. Laurence's translation were published by 
himself. There been also two reprints : one in Glasgt)w, 1878 ; and 
one in London, 1893. Two other translations have been made of this 
lost book ; one by Edward V. Kenealy, in two volumes, London, 1872 ; 
and the other by George H. Schodde, Andover, Mass., i88a. Three 
other Books of Enoch have been published, being more an arrange- 
ment of the prophecies of Enoch : i. By J. M. Butt, London, 1827 : 
2. By Rev. Edward Murray, London, 1836 ; 3. By Rev. W. Aidis, 
Edinburgh, 1839. 

The Ascension of Isaiah the Prophet. Translated by Richard Lau- 
rence, LL.D. Oxford, 1819. Pp. 180. 

This translation of Laurence has been reprinted, in Cyclostyle, by 
John Thomson, Glasgow, 1889. Pp. gi. 

There are other recently recovered lost books and portions of the 
Bible : The Assumption of Moses ; The Little Genesis j The Moab- 
ite Stone ; The Shapira Manuscript (N. and Q., Vol. Ill, p. 14) ; 
The 151st Psalm (N. and Q., Vol. X, 326^; An Appendix to Job 
(N. AND Q., Vol. XI, p. 236) ; some chapters appended to Daniel ; 
Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs. 

The Apocrypha to the Old Testament contains once lost books. 

The Lost and Hostile Gospels. An essay on the Toledoth Jeschu, 
and the Petrine and Pauline Gospels of the first three centuries of 
which fragments remain. J^ev. By S. Baring-Gould. M. A. Lon- 
don, 1874. Pp. 306. 

There are many lost books of the New Testament that have come 
to light during the last century : Teachings of the Twelve Apostles ; 
The Gospel and Revelation of Peter ; The Revelation of Paul (Ameri- 
can Oriental Society, Vol. VIII) ; Conflict of the Apostles (S. C. Ma- 
lan's translation) ; and many others. 

The Apocryphal New Testament contains many gospels, etc. Also, 
The Apocryphal Gospels, translated, with notes, by B. Harris Cow- 
pef. London, 1881. Fifth edition. Pp. 456. 


The Lost Cause. By E. A. Pollard. A History of the Civil War 
in the sixties. This was followed by a second book, The Lost Cause 
Regained. By E. A. Pollard. New York, 1868. Pp. 214. 


Mazzaroth. By Miss Francis Rolleston. London, 1882. On page 

f 291 ) 

28, she states that the recent discoveries of Herschel, Peters, Argelan- 
der. Strove, and Maedler, that Alcyone in the Pleiades is the center of 
gravity of the universe, or the Grand Central Sun, is the re-discovery 
of lost knowledge. 


A Lost Chord. By Adelaide A. Proctor. Poem. It is found in 
the volume of her poems, Ticknor & Fields' edition, p. 201. 1868. 
(Reprint, N. and Q., Vol. II, p. 525.) 

Some Ix)st Chords of Esoteric Christianity. By H. W. Cragin, 
F. T. S. Article in The Path, Vol. VIII, p. 145, August, 1893. 


The Lost City Norombega, and the New Found Forts on Charles 
River.' By J. W. C. Waltham, Mass., 1886. Pp. ii. 

Ancient Norombega, or the Voyages of Simon Ferdinando and John 
Walker to the Penobscot River. 15791580. By B. F. DeCosta. 
Albany, 1890. Pp. 12. (Revised from the N. E. Historical and Gen- 
ealogical Register, April, 1890.) 

Norembega. By John G. Whittier. Poem. See Atlantic Monthly, 
June, 1869. (Reprint, N. and Q., Vol. II, p. 587. 1885.) 

Norombega, the Lost City of New England. By Sancho Pedro. 
Poem. See Travelers' Record, December, 1877. (Reprint, N. and Q., 
Vol. II, p. 586. 1885.) 

Prof. E. N, Hosford has als.o published two elaborate works locat- 
ing Norombega on the Charles River, in Waltham, Mass. 


The Lost Chapter of Genesis is given by the Targumist expositor, 
Hippolytus. (Reprint, see N. andQ., Vol. VIII, p. 234. 1891.) 


The Lost Greenland. By Uncle Philip, Conversations about the 
Lost Colonies of Greenland. New York, 1864. Pp. 

THE earth's lost HISTORY. 

Restoration of the Earth's Lost History. The Past, Present, and 
Coming State of the Globe ; the Revolutions through which it passes 
from its Birth to its Death or Dissolution \ shown from Nature^ Reason, 
and the Writings of Antiquity, both Sacred and Profane. By [John 
Howard CareyJ. San Francisco, Cal., 1868. Pp. 134. 


Researches into the Lost Histories of America ; or the 2k)diac 

( 292 ) 

shown to be an old Terrestrial Map in which the Atlantic Isle is de- 
lineated, so that Light can be Thrown upon the Obscure Histories of 
the Earthworks and Ruined Cities of America. Illustrated by 77 en- 
gravings. By W. S. Blacket. London, 1883. Pp. 336. 


The Lost Island is applied to Cephalonia, one of the Ionian 
Islands, anciently called Samos {Odyssey iv, 671). Thucydides calls it 
Tetrapolis from its having for cities, Cranii, Pale, Proni, Same. It is 
also called ** The Hidden Island," because it was only by chance that 
even those who once visited it^ could find it again. 


The Missing Link is often called the lost link. Charles R. Darwin 
has written much on this subject : Origin of Species ; Descent of 
Man ; and other works. 


The Lost Manuscript. A Novel. Translated from the i6th Ger- 
man edition by Dr. Paul Cams. Two Vols .pp. 953. Chicago, 1892. 


Lost Nation is the name of a township in Iowa, which has its His- 
tory written by Rev. S. W , of that town. 


The Number of Plato. By D. B. Munro. Article in English Jour- 
nal 0/ Philology^ VIII, pp. 275-289. 

He seems to coincide with Weber that;^the number in Plato's mind 
was 175,000. Dr. Gow discusses the subject further in the same jour- 
nal, XII, 91-102. 

The Nuptial Number of Plato ; Its Solution and Significance. By 
James Adam, M, A. London, 1891. Pp. 80. 

He quotes from Plato for his title-page, " Every divisor is a gift of 
God." The Nuptial Number is thought to be 12^960,000. 


Paradise Lost. By John Milton. Written between 1658 and 1665. 
Issued from the press in 1667, Milton received ;f 10 from his pub- 
lisher by a contract based on its sale ; his widow received ;^8, in 1680, 
for her entire interest in the copyright. Many theories have been ad- 
vanced why Milton chose Paradise Lost for the subject of his epic 
poem, " Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme." 

( 293 ) 


The Lost Pleiad was one of the stars in the Pleiades in the consteK 
lation Taurus. The Scholiast on the Phenomefia of Aratus says it was 
Electra ; and that it disappeared at the fall of Troy. Another ac- 
count says it was Merope, and that it seem to move away suddenly 
like a comet toward the north pole and beyond, and became the third 
star in the handle of the asterism known as *^ the great dipper," where 
it received the name Alopex, or the Fox. 

The Lost Pleiad is the title of a poem. 


The New Age^ Boston^ Mass., No. 74, contained the following para- 
graph, supposed to have been penned by Rev. J. M. L. Babcock : 

" The English language is much in want of a pronoun to designate 
an individual of either sex. To say, * The best evidence any one can 
have that a word is inspired is, that it inspires M^m,' is ungrammatical. 
To say, ' If any one desires information^ let him or her seek it,' is 
cumbrous and inelegant. The most common method, of using " him '' 
in the comprehensive sense, as including a person of either sex, is in- 
discriminate and indefinite, besides failing to do justice to the per- 
sonality of woman. We must have a term which designates either a 
man or a woman as definitely as either him or her designates one or 
the other when separately referred to." 

Julius Ferrette, after reading an article in Appletons^ journal, a few 
years previously, and then this paragraph, suggested the creation of a 
new pronoun^ namely, nominative ve^ genitive vis, and accusative vim. 
It is to be declined after the analogy of he, she, and //, each having a 
different radical consonant. The details of this was printed in a two- 
column article in The New Age, 

That philologist, Stephen Pearl Andrews, having an acute insight 
into languages, saw at one the dim lurking of the lost pronoun in our 
language, and immediately set about its discovery and reconstruction. 
He gives it in the following declension, the personal or common gen- 
der. Pronounce the (dhe), not as thee, but with the e short as in them. 
In thes (dhez), pronounces as in them, and s soft as in his, Thes will 
combine with\r^^into thesself, 

Nom. Old PoMen. Nom, Old* Potseett, 

Singular, Plural, 

1. I, me, my, mine. we, us, our, ours. 

2. thou, thee, they, thine, ye, you, your, yours. 

3. the^ the, thes, thes. they. them, their, theirs. 

( 294 ) 


The Lost Star is applied to a star which suddenly appeared in the 
constellation Cassiopeia on November 8, 1572. It was especially ob- 
served by Tycho firahe and Cornelius Gemina. It surpassed in bril- 
liancy the brightest planets, and could be seen at noonday. It shone 
until March 15, 1573, when il became extinct. (See Burritt's "Geog- 
raphy of the Heavens," p. 40. 1843.) 

There are severel persons that think this star is periodical, and its 
appearance in 1572 was one in regular order; that it was the " Star 
of Bethlehem " which appeared to announce to, the Magi the birth of 
Jesus. Dr. S. M. Blake, of Bellows Falls, Vt., makes -the period a 
little less than 314 years. The periodical return of the star has been 
constantly looked for since 1885. 


The Lost Sciences. An article in National Quarterly Review^ for 
December, 1870. Pp. 32-59. 


The Lost Senses. Deafness and Blindness. By John KittQ, D. P. 
New York, 1852. Pp. 379. 


The Lost Solar System of the Ancients Discovered. By John Wil 
son. Two volumes, pp. 486 and 476 respectively, appendix 26 ; total, 
988. London, 1856. 


The Sibylline Oracles consist of Books I to XVI. Of these Books 
I to X, and XIII and XVI have been preserved. Translations have 
been made and published by Sir John Floyer, London, 1713 ; pp. 320. 
By William Whiston, M. A., London, 1715 ; pp. 104. The latest is 

The Sibylline Oracles, translated from the Greek into English blank 
verse. By Milton S. Terry. Chicago, 111., 1890. Pp. 268. 

None of these contain the two lost Books XI and XII. 


The Law of Cosmic Order ; an Investigation of the Physical Aspect 
of Time. By Robert Brown, Jr. London, 1882. Pp. 29-35, 51-53. 

The Lost Sign of the Zodiac is now occupied by Libra, the Scales. 
Mr. Brown thinks the Altar once occupied the place of Libra ; while 
others believe it to have been Aquila, the Eagle, basing the assump- 
tion mostly on the cherubim, Taurus, Leo, Aquila, Aquarius, the ox, 
the lion, the eagle, the man, constellations primitively near the equi 
noxes and solstices. 


( 295 ) 


The lost Sheep of the House of Israel '' — MzXi, X, 6 ; xv, 24 ; 

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel (not including Judah and Benjamin 

heoretically), but by many they include all Israel. The literature is 

large. We give some of the more prominent. 

A Star in the West ; or a Humble Attempt to Discover the Long 
Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, preparatory to their return to their beloved 
city, Jerusalem. By Elias Boudinot. Trenton, N. J., 1816. Pp. 312, 

The Remnant Found ; or the Place of Israel's Hiding Discovered. 
A summary of proofs showing that the Jews of Daghistan on the Cas- 
pian Sea are the Remnant of the Ten Tribes. By Rev, Jacob Sam- 
uel. London^ 1841. Pp. 134. Appendix^ pp. 32 ; total, pp. 166. 

The Nestorians j or the Lost Tribes, containing evidences of their 
identity, manners, customs, ceremonies, etc. By Ashael Grant, M. D. 
New York, 1841. Pp. 385. Contains the Nestorian Tablet, Erect- 
ed A. D. 781. Supposed buried A. D. 845. Disinterred A. D. 1625. 

An Historical Account of the Ten Tribes, settled beyond the River 
Sambatyon, in the East. Translated from original manuscript. By 
Rev. Dr. M. Edrehi, a native of Morocco. London, 1835. ^P* 290. 

The Ten Lost Tribes, and 1882. By Rev. Joseph Wild, D.D. 
New York, 1879. Pp. 280. 

The Mystery of Prophecy Unlocked, and the Lost Tribes of Israel 
Identified. By Rev. W. A. Bowyer. An introduction by D. W. Gage. 
Cleveland, Ohio, 1888. Second edition. Pp. 112. 

Lost Israel ; Where are they to be found ? An inquiry. By H. L. 
^' This my son was dead, and is alive again ; he was lost, and is found." 
—Luke xv^ 24. Fifth edition. Edinburgh, 1876. Pp. 48. 

The Lost Tribes of Israel and the Great Pyramid. 25 Lectures. 
By J. G. Kendal, 1878. Pp. 64. 

Forty-Seven Identifications of the British Nation with the Lost Ten 
Tribes of Israel. Dedicated to the so-called British People by their 
Kinsman, Edward Hine. London, 1874. Pp, 54. 

Anglo-Israel ; or the British Nation, the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel* 
History, the True Key to Prophecy ; in which the Saxon Race is 
shown to be the Lost Tribes of Israel. Two lectures. By Rev. W. H. 
Poole. Toronto, 1879, PP- ^2 ; Brooklyn, 1870, pp. 56, respectively. 

The Ten Tribes ; Where and in what condition are the Ten Tribes 
at the present time ; and what will be their place in the Millennium ? 
By Alder Smith, M. B. London, 1887. Pp. 24. 

( 296 ) 


The Lost Tales of Miletus. By the Right Hon. Sir Edward Bul- 
wer Lytton, Bart, M. P. Poems. New York, 1886. Pp. 182. 


A Contribution to the History of the Lost Word. By Rev. J. F. 
Harrison, M. D. Pp. 28. Appendix A to The Early History and 
Antiquities of Freemasonry. By George F. Fort. Philadelphia, 1877. 

Recent Theories on the Origin and Nature of the Tetragrammaton. 
By S. R. Driver. Article I, pp. 20, in Studia Biblia : Essays in Bib- 
lical Archaeology and Criticisms, and kindred subjects. Oxford, 1885. 

The Divine Name Adonau The Character of the Tetragrammaton. 
By Rev. M. R. Miller. Letters I and H in The Luminous Unity ; 
pp. 37. Boston, 1S74. 

The Tetragrammaton \ on its Communication. By Alfred F. Chap- 
man, G. H. P' Boston, 1872. Pp. 22. 

A Dissertation on the True Pronuncintion of the Divine Name. 
By Russell Martineau, M. A. London, 1869. Pp. 16. 

Published also as an appendix to Ewald's first two volumes, '' His- 
tory of Israel." 

The Lost Name. By Mrs. Eveleen L. Mason, author of " Hiero- 
salem, the Vision of Peace." Washington, D. C, 1883. Pp. 24. 

On the Use of Jehovah and Elohim in the Pentateuch. By H. T. 
London, 1869. Pp. 64. 

The Staff of Adam, and the Shem-hammephorash. By S. C. Gould. 
Sociatas Rosicruciana. A paper before the Massachusetts College,* 
Boston, Mass., June 2, 1887. Manchester, N. H., 1887. Pp. 40. 


Ten Philological Dissertations on the True Pronunciation of the 
Name Jehovah. By Reland. Utrecht, 1707. (Containing five trea- 
tises in favor of Jehovah : one each by N. Fuller and T. Gataker, and 
three by J. Leusden ; and five treatises against Jehovah : one each by 
J. Drusius, S. Amama, L. Capellus, J. Buxtorf, and J. Alting.) 

Shem-hammephorash. McClintock & Strong's Cyclopaedia, Vol. 
IX, p. 652. (N. AND Q., Vol. Ill, p. 5.) 

Voice of Elijah. (Yahveh.) By Joseph T. Curry. 1868. Pp. 170. 

The Kabbalah : Its Doctrines, Development, and Literature. By 
Christian D. Ginsburg, LL. D. London, 1865. Pp. 164. 

( 297 ) 

Astrology and Astronoviy* 

I can demonstrate that all ancient literature, sacred and profane^ 
bibles and mythologies, are founded in parables and allegories which 
have their bases in science as anciently understood, the sciences being 
cuiefly Astrology and Astroftpmy, with an occasional touch of Agricul- 
ture. Freemasonry, that is, the *' work " in the Lodge, is founded en- 
tirely on the astral sciences and the higher branches of mathematics. 
Originally the Lodge was nothing but a school of science, the initia- 
ted being the " esoteric." Their explanations were mythical, under- 
stood by themselves, but entirely misinterpreted by the " exoteric," 
who put a literal interpretation upon the allegories. For instance : 

A great fish swollowed Jonah and vomited him up three days later.- 
If this were literally true, I ruined my believing apparatus when a boy 
trying to swallow the story, and could not keep it down any more than 
the fish could Jonah. I will give here the meaning of the " fish story." 
Remember that in an allegory the meaning of the names of the char- 
acters furnish a key to the occult signification and that the descrip- 
tions and comparisons must be construed metaphorically. In the He- 
brew Jonah is the name of a dove and not of a man. In all past ages 
the dove has been distinguished on account of its rapid flight. Like a 
dove the sun rises in the east and makes its flight to the far west. 
Hence, by rules for constructing an allegory it is good metonymy to 
call the sun a dove. We will now dismiss the idea that Jonah is a 
man and follow his history as that of the sun in its ^^^r^;z/ movement 
through the heavens each year. June 22, the sun reaches its greatest 
northern declination and is the " Most High God," and the day is the 
longest. There Joshua commands it to halt, and it does till June 24, 
at the summer solstice. Solstice, Latin, Wj/^a-^, which means " to 
cause to stand.'" There the sun stands still, June 23, but increases its 
declination a mere fraction on June 22, and decreases it the same on 
June 24, but June 23 is the *^ long day," although ancient scientists 
generally spoke of the period as ** three days," and the biblical read- 
ing is equivocal as to one day — ** about the space of a whole day." 
Th^ sun hasted not to "go down." This has no reference to the sun 
setting in the west, but going down from the summer solstice to the 
autumnal equinox. All the fighting at the time was the contest be- 
tween the powers of Light and Darkness ; that is, the Light contend- 

( 298 ) 

ed that the days should continue to lengthen and Darkness fought for 
their shortening. After a battle of three days it was realized that 
Darkness had won. Now the " Lord of Day," or the June sun, com- 
mands Jonah, the July sun, to go down to Ninev«*h and preach its 
destruction. Jonah obeys and reaches the winter solstice (called hell, 
the grave, and a variety of other names), December 22. The sun now 
enters Capricornus and is " swallowed," metaphorically. Here also 
the sun halts for three days, described by Jonah lying in the belly of 
the great fish ; but December 25, the sun has risen from its lowest 
southern declination (risen from the dead), and is returning to the 
northern hemisphere. Here the allegory ends. 

The story of Jonah entering into the city and preaching ** three " 
days is a different allegory describing the same event ; but the un- 
learned compilers and translators of the Bible, ignorant of the Accad- 
ian and Chaldean style of literature, from which they derived their 
divine inspiration, took the stories literally and never imagined that 
described the same event. 

Jesus Christ is the /igAf, the Aeaf, and the rays of the sun. Hence, 
the sun, the '* God of Day," is his legitimate father, and the Essenes 
were justified in putting into his mouth : " Who hath seen me hath 
seen the Father " ; "I and my Father are one." The existence of 
the son began with the existence of the Father. They are co-equal* 
Without Jesus Christ (light and heat) there could be neither plant nor 
animal life. He is ^' The Word '* by which all things were made, and 
was in the " beginning." He is " the light that lighteth every man." 
** In him was life, and the life was the light of men." 

^oAn means " the grace of God," or " gift of God,"and is used in 
the sense of the the Dawn — morning dawn — the forerunner of the 
rising sun, when, as dawn appears, it is seen that all the earth is bap. 
tized, or sprinkled, with dew. Therefore, John " was not that Light 
(he was first cousin to it, for the dawn is a light from the sun), but 
was sent to bear witness of that Light.'' 

See Matthew xii, 38-40. What " sign " ? The zodiacal sign Cap- 
ricornus, the same for both Jonah and Jesus, only a different meta- 
phor — "heart of the heart," instead of " belly of the fish," or " belly 
of hell," for all three are used metaphorically to signify the winter sol- 
stice. King David is made to call it a ** horrible pit," being the same 
pit into which Joseph, or Sagittarius, was cast by precession. The 

( 299 ) 

author of the Apocalypse says it is ** bottomless," and so indeed it is, 
being an imaginary pit in space, and space is boundless. 

I did not intend to prolong this article into an essay, but the sub- 
ject is so vast, the events interlacing into '* one stupendous whole," 
that when I attempt a description of one event it ramifies in so many 
directions^ that I hardly know where to stop. W. H. Chaney. 

" Where did Col. Stark Drive his Stake ? A correspondent 
of your magazine asks this question. Major-General John Stark is, I 
presume, the person alluded to in the question. At the time of the 
battle of Bunker Hill, though a New Hampshire officer with a regi- 
ment from his own state, he was commissioned provisionally by Mass- 
achusetts authorities, until his own state could act. In the battle, 
Col. Stark was very active in placing his troops in the most effective 
position, and in giving specific instruction to them. He emphasized 
the importance of holding back the fire of the line until the assaulting 
column was near, and then directing that the discharge to be made at 
the same moment. To secure this, it is recorded that he drove stakes 
along the line of his troops, at a distance that show the point of ad- 
vance of the Fuseliers, when firing should begin from his own line. 
In view of the difficulty of securing a simultaneous discharge of arms, 
by command of his stafiF, the stakes served the purpose admirably, 
showing the coolness, originality and fertility of resource in the 
commander. H. W. H. 

Indian Names, What is the whole name of which " Squog " is the 
short form ? West. 

" Squog " is the short name for Piscataquog^ a river in Hillsborough 
County, N. H , flowing into the Merrimack at Manchester. This riv- 
^r gave the name formerly to the village at its mouth, now known as 
West Manchester. 

" Skeag " is the short name for Amoskeag^ the falls in the Merri- 
mack at Manchester. The village at the falls is called by the same 
name on the west side of the Merrimack. 

" Gonic " is the short name for Squamanagonic^ formerly the village 
near Rochester which is now a city. 

( 300 ) 


1. Why is. the eminence near Baltimore, Md., known as Druid HiU 
so called ? Orlando. 

2. Why is decline of* an institution, society, and the like, spoken of 
2^ petering ouil Orlando. 

3. What procession marched to St. Michael's churchyard ? 

A. A. Irvine. 

4. Who was the author of the series of articles published in the 
Manchester^ (N. H.) Weekly Mirror, in the *5o's, entitled '* Grapes 
from the Vines of Piscataquog " ? Were they afterwards reprinted 
in pamphlet form ? Resident. 

5. What is the distinction as to authority between Chaldean 
Genesis, Akaddian Genesis, and Hebrew Genesis ? Lansing. 

6. The Kabbalists says there are four worlds namely : (i) The 
' Atzi/afic VJoTld. (2). The Briat/c World. (3). The yetziraiic 

World. (4). The Assiaiic World. Does the author of the Epistle to 
the Hebrew allude to these, " He made the worlds** (i, 2)? J. J. 

7. The interpreters of Islamism say the human body is like a book 
in which may be read the name Allah, How is it explained ? 


8. Edward W. King, in his monograph on " The Names of God,' 
Part I, p. 34, says : 

"It is undoubtedly true that his name [Jehovah] is found in the 
1 8th line of king Mesh's inscription [on the Moabite stone] but a 
little consideration will lead us to suspect that it there stands for the 
name of a man and not for the name of God at all." 

Is there an instance in the Bible where the name Jehovah was the 
name of a man ? A Mason. 

9. What was the origin of Halloween and the customs and sports 
that are practised on that day, October 31 ? Ariel. 

10. What was the origin of the Hibbert Lectures^ a series delivered 
annually in England, 1 878-1893 ? A. B. C. 

1 1. Apocope is the cutting off, or omissiom, of the last letter, sylla- 
ble, or part of a word. Syncope is an elision, or dropping, of one 
more letters or syllables from the middle of a word. What is 
proper similar word for the cutting off, or omission of the first let 
syllable, or part of a word ? X 

•<■ lO*. 

' '. ■ .